Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Terms modified by Self-regulation

  • self-regulation literature
  • self-regulation process

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2005
    First page of article [source]


    Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of prompting self-regulation, an intervention designed to improve learning from technology-delivered instruction. In Study 1, trainees who were prompted to self-regulate gradually improved their declarative and procedural knowledge over time, relative to the other conditions, whereas test scores declined over time for trainees who were not prompted to self-regulate. In Study 2, basic performance remained stable over time and strategic performance improved over time for trainees who were prompted to self-regulate, relative to the other conditions, whereas performance declined over time for trainees who were not prompted to self-regulate. Trainees' cognitive ability moderated the effect of the prompts on basic performance and task-specific self-efficacy moderated the effect of the prompts on strategic performance. Prompting self-regulation resulted in stronger performance gains over time for trainees with higher ability or higher self-efficacy. These results demonstrate prompting self-regulation improved performance over time, relative to the other conditions, in both online, work-related training and laboratory settings. The results are consistent with theory suggesting self-regulation is a dynamic process that has a gradual effect on performance and highlight the importance of using a within-subjects design in self-regulation research. [source]


    The purpose of this multilevel study was to test whether regulatory focus mechanisms (promotion focus and prevention focus; Higgins, 1997, American Psychologist, 52, 1280,1300; Higgins, 2000, American Psychologist, 55, 1217,1230) can help explain how group safety climate and individual differences in Conscientiousness relate to individual productivity and safety performance. Results, based on a sample of 254 employees from 50 work groups, showed that safety climate and conscientiousness predicted promotion and prevention regulatory focus, which in turn mediated the relationships of safety climate and Conscientiousness with supervisor ratings of productivity and safety performance. Implications for theory and research on climate, motivation, and performance and avenues for future research are discussed. [source]

    Reproductive Freedom, Self-Regulation, and the Government of Impairment in Utero

    HYPATIA, Issue 1 2006
    Shelley Tremain
    This article critically examines the constitution of impairment in prenatal testing and screening practices and various discourses that surround these technologies. While technologies to test and screen (for impairment) prenatally are claimed to enhance women's capacity to be self-determining, make informed reproductive choices, and, in effect, wrest control of their bodies from a patriarchal medical establishment, I contend that this emerging relation between pregnant women and reproductive technologies is a new strategy of a form of power that began to emerge in the late eighteenth century. Indeed, my argument is that the constitution of prenatal impairment, by and through these practices and procedures, is a widening form of modem government that increasingly limits the field of possible conduct in response to pregnancy. Hence, the government of impairment in utero is inextricably intertwined with the government of the maternal body. [source]

    Self-Regulation in Goal Striving: Individual Differences and Situational Moderators of the Goal-Framing/Performance Link,

    Christopher J. R. Roney
    We propose that negative goal framing (i.e., defining a goal as a negative state to be avoided) can adversely affect performance. Study 1 (N = 133) revealed that negative goal framing predicted poorer future performance independent of goal level, expectancy, and earlier performance. Study 2 (N = 188) examined the relation between goal framing and performance at 2 times in the academic year, and with respect to individual differences in defensive pessimism. As predicted, the negative goal-framing/poorer-performance link was greater on a later exam (after receiving feedback) than an earlier one, and was greater for nondefensive pessimists than for defensive pessimists. The findings implicate self-regulatory processes in understanding how goal framing affects performance. [source]

    Personality and Self-Regulation: Trait and Information-Processing Perspectives

    Rick H. Hoyle
    ABSTRACT This article introduces the special issue of Journal of Personality on personality and self-regulation. The goal of the issue is to illustrate and inspire research that integrates personality and process-oriented accounts of self-regulation. The article begins by discussing the trait perspective on self-regulation,distinguishing between temperament and personality accounts,and the information-processing perspective. Three approaches to integrating these perspectives are then presented. These range from methodological approaches, in which constructs representing the two perspectives are examined in integrated statistical models, to conceptual approaches, in which the two perspectives are unified in a holistic theoretical model of self-regulation. The article concludes with an overview of the special issue contributions, which are organized in four sections: broad, integrative models of personality and self-regulation; models that examine the developmental origins of self-regulation and self-regulatory styles; focused programs of research that concern specific aspects or applications of self-regulation; and strategies for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of self-regulation. [source]

    Self-Regulation and the Problem of Human Autonomy: Does Psychology Need Choice, Self-Determination, and Will?

    Richard M. Ryan
    ABSTRACT The term autonomy literally refers to regulation by the self. Its opposite, heteronomy, refers to controlled regulation, or regulation that occurs without self-endorsement. At a time when philosophers and economists are increasingly detailing the nature of autonomy and recognizing its social and practical significance, many psychologists are questioning the reality and import of autonomy and closely related phenomena such as will, choice, and freedom. Using the framework of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), we review research concerning the benefits of autonomous versus controlled regulation for goal performance, persistence, affective experience, quality of relationships, and well-being across domains and cultures. We also address some of the controversies and terminological issues surrounding the construct of autonomy, including critiques of autonomy by biological reductionists, cultural relativists, and behaviorists. We conclude that there is a universal and cross-developmental value to autonomous regulation when the construct is understood in an exacting way. [source]

    Hypo-Egoic Self-Regulation: Exercising Self-Control by Diminishing the Influence of the Self

    Mark R. Leary
    ABSTRACT Theory and research dealing with self-regulation have focused primarily on instances of self-regulation that involve high levels of self-reflection and effortful self-control. However, intentionally trying to control one's behavior sometimes reduces the likelihood of achieving one's goals. This article examines the process of hypo-egoic self-regulation in which people relinquish deliberate, conscious control over their own behavior so that they will respond more naturally, spontaneously, or automatically. An examination of spontaneously occurring hypo-egoic states (such as flow, deindividuation, and transcendence) suggests that hypo-egoic states are characterized by lowered self-awareness and/or an increase in concrete and present-focused self-thoughts. In light of this, people may intentionally foster hypo-egoism via two pathways,(a) taking steps to reduce the proportion of time that they are self-aware (such as repeating a behavior until it is automatic or practicing meditation) or (b) increasing the concreteness of their self-thoughts (such as inducing a concrete mindset or practicing mindfulness). In this way, people may deliberately choose to regulate hypo-egoically when effortful control might be detrimental to their performance. [source]

    Self-Regulation and Its Relations to Adaptive Functioning in Low Income Youths

    John C. Buckner PhD
    Most studies of self-regulation involving children have linked it to specific outcomes within a single domain of adaptive functioning. The authors examined the association of self-regulation with a range of indices of adaptive functioning among 155 youth ages 8,18 years from families with very low income. Controlling for other explanatory variables, self-regulation was strongly associated with various outcome measures in the areas of mental health, behavior, academic achievement, and social competence. The authors also contrasted youths relatively high and low in self-regulation (the top and bottom quartiles). Youths with good self-regulation had much better indices of adaptive functioning across measures of social competence, academic achievement, grades, problem behaviors, and depression and anxiety than their counterparts with more diminished self-regulatory capacities. In addition, youths with better self-regulation skills stated more adaptive responses both in terms of how they coped with past stressful live events and how they would deal with hypothetical stressors. This study indicates that self-regulation is robustly associated with a range of important indices of adaptive functioning across many domains. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for theory and intervention for children of diverse economic backgrounds. [source]

    Behavioral and Emotional Self-Regulation in Children: Relations with the Nogo N2

    Article first published online: 5 AUG 2010
    First page of article [source]

    The Interplay between Conscious and Automatic Self-Regulation and Adolescents' Physical Activity: The Role of Planning, Intentions, and Lack of Awareness

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Stephan Dombrowski
    This study investigated the interplay between conscious and automatic self-regulatory variables and adolescents' physical activity. It was hypothesised that intention, planning, and lack of awareness would predict adolescents' behaviour. One hundred and fifty-five individuals (aged 13 to 17 years) completed questionnaires in two waves (with a time gap of 10 days). The results of cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that both past behaviour and planning predicted physical activity at follow-up, whereas physical activity predicted intention. Although lack of awareness, a facet of automatic processes, was negatively related to physical activity, the nested model comparison analysis indicated that the relation between lack of awareness and physical activity might be negligible. Among the self-regulatory processes, planning was found to be the most important predictor of adolescents' physical activity, although past behaviour remained the strongest predictor of future behaviour. Cette recherche porte sur l'interaction entre les variables autorégulatrices conscientes et automatiques et l'activité physique des adolescents. On a fait l'hypothèse que l'intention, la planification et l'absence de prise de conscience allaient prédire le comportement des adolescents. 155 individus âgés de 13 à 17 ans ont rempli des questionnaires en deux temps avec un intervalle de dix jours. Les résultats d'une analyse en panel retardé croisé montrent que la conduite antérieure et la planification prédisent l'activité physique qui s'ensuit alors que l'activité physique prédit l'intention. Bien que le manque de prise de conscience, une facette des processus automatiques, soit négativement corréléà l'activité physique, l'analyse de variance indique que la relation entre l'absence de prise de conscience et l'activité physique pourrait être négligeable. Des différents processus d'autorégulation, c'est la planification qui est apparue comme étant le prédicteur majeur de l'activité physique des adolescents, bien que la conduite passée reste le prédicteur le plus fiable du comportement à venir. [source]

    Self-Regulation: Reminders and Suggestions from Personality Science

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Daniel Cervone
    La littérature sur l'autorégulation est couramment accusée de faiblesse théorique. Il est possible que les avancées dans les recherches sur la personnalité puissent ouvrir des horizons dans ce secteur. Notre objectif est double. Nous rappelons d'abord des distinctions conceptuelles qui, bien que parfois négligées, sont essentielles dans les études contemporaines sur la personnalité et incontournables pour accéder au niveau théorique dans la littérature sur l'autorégulation. Nous disons ensuite que ceux qui font des études fondamentales et appliquées sur l'autorégulation auraient intérêt à assimiler les progrès récents concernant la dynamique et la structure de la personnalité intra-individuelle. Nous passons en revue la théorie de base et les recherches sur l'architecture des systèmes de la personnalité intra-individuelle, ainsi que les retombées de ce travail dans trois domaines d'application: la psychologie du travail/industrielle/organisationnelle, la psychologie clinique et la santé. The self-regulation literature commonly is said to lack theoretical order. This paper explores the possibility that advances in personality science may foster clarity in this literature. Our goals are two-fold. We remind readers of conceptual distinctions that are central to contemporary personality science, that are necessary to the attainment of theoretical order in the self-regulation literature, yet that sometimes are overlooked. Secondly, we suggest that basic and applied students of self-regulation would profit by capitalising on recent advances in personality science that explore intra-individual personality structure and dynamics. We review theory and research on the architecture of intra-individual personality systems and applications of this work to three domains: health, clinical, and work/industrial/organisation psychology. [source]

    Personality Science, Self-Regulation, and Health Behavior

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    José Bermúdez
    In their paper, Cervone, Shadel, Smith, and Fiori (2006) present a thorough analysis of self-regulatory behavior, understood as the most genuine expression of the agentic and purposive nature of human beings. Therefore, we can expect that research on personality could shed light on our understanding of self-regulatory processes and behavioral expressions. With this aim, Cervone et al. have carried out an updated analysis of personality psychology theory and research, resuming the debate between variable and person-centered approaches, and commenting on the contributions the Knowledge-and-Appraisal Personality Architecture (KAPA) can make to the design of idiosyncratic tools and strategies for personality assessment and to the understanding of the role of the personality system in different contexts of applied psychology, such as health, clinical and industrial/organisational psychology. Here, I would like to examine two topics, to which Cervone et al. pay substantial attention in their paper: self-regulation and personality dynamics, and the role of personality science in addressing central questions in health psychology. [source]

    Industrial and Organisation Research on Self-Regulation: From Constructs to Applications

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Jeffrey B. Vancouver
    L'autorégulation rencontre actuellement du succès en psychologie industrielle et organisationnelle. Les travaux théoriques et empiriques englobent des processus allant de l'entrée dans l'organisation à la sortie et à la réembauche. Les interventions et les concepts clés de l'autorégulation dans le monde du travail sont recensés en insistant sur la validité interne et de construction. Quelques concepts comme l'efficacité personnelle et l'implication ont bénéficié d'un grand intérêt de la part des psychométriciens et semblent constituer des cibles de premier ordre lors des interventions. Néanmoins, ces concepts restent entachés d'hypothèses dont la validité n'est pas garantie. D'autres concepts, en particulier la rétroaction et la divergence, souffrent de significations sensiblement différentes dans la littérature sur l'autorégulation, ce qui nuit à la compréhension et à la communication entre les universitaires et les praticiens. On a lancé des interventions relevant des principes de l'autorégulation; celles-ei ont ensuite étéévaluées avec sérieux: il est apparu qu'elles avaient un impact sur un ensemble de variables pertinentes du point de vue organisationnel comme l'amélioration des performances et la réduction de l'absentéisme. Malheureusement, les interventions sont rarement étudiées de façon détaúllée et systématique, ce qui ne permet pas de tirer des conclusions sur les aspects de l'intervention qui sont pertinents du point de vue de la causalité. La discussion insiste sur les lacunes dans la connaissance et l'appréhension des processus de l'autorégulation dans les contextes organisationnels, ainsi que sur la façon dont la discipline pourrait tenter de combler ces lacunes. The self-regulation perspective is currently well received in the industrial and organisational psychology literature. Theoretical and empirical work span processes ranging from organisation entry to exit and reentry. Key self-regulation constructs and interventions in work contexts are reviewed with a focus on construct and internal validity. Some constructs, such as self-efficacy and goal commitment, have received substantial psychometric attention and seem important targets for interventions. Nonetheless, potentially unwarranted assumptions remain regarding these constructs. Other constructs, particularly feedback and discrepancy, have acquired substantially different meanings within the self-regulation literature that inhibit understanding and communication among scholars and practitioners. Interventions based on self-regulatory principles have been developed, and rigorous tests of these interventions have been conducted. These interventions were found to influence a range of organisationally relevant outcomes such as increasing performance and reducing absenteeism. Unfortunately, studies of comprehensive interventions are rare and often lacked controls, making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding what aspects of the interventions are causally relevant. Discussion focuses on the gaps in the field's knowledge and understanding regarding self-regulatory processes in organisational settings and how the field might attempt to fill those gaps. [source]

    Self-Regulated Learning in a TELE at the Université de Technologie de Compiègne: an analysis from multiple perspectives

    Self-regulation has become a very important topic in the field of learning and instruction. At the same time, the introduction of new technologies in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has made it possible to create rich Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments (TELEs) with multiple affordances for supporting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study was conducted within the framework of the TELEPEERS project where we wanted to identify TELEs that seemed to have a potential for supporting SRL. For the last ten years, our University has been deeply involved in research, innovation, and exploration of digital technologies for training (initial and continuous). Local, regional, national, European and international projects were conceived and developed, so that a very significant knowledge base exists today. Our study focuses on a course called ,Introduction to Algorithms and Programming' (NF01) which our University is offering and on the perception of different stakeholders (experts and students) of its affordances for supporting SRL. [source]

    With a little help from my friends?: Self-regulation in groups of young children

    Lisa A. Mccabe
    This study examined self-regulation in preschool children (mean age=51 months; 47% boys) using three situational assessments tapping delay of gratification and motor control. Assessments represented a novel adaptation for use with both individual (N=116) and groups (N=44) of four familiar peers in ecologically valid settings. Results suggest that preschoolers demonstrate an increasing ability to self-regulate with age, as well as some evidence for girls performing better than boys on the Gift Wrap situational assessment. Children were less able to demonstrate self-regulation in the peer group context as compared to individual assessments. Differences between age groups and gender were not significant when children were assessed with their peers. The influence of peers on self-regulation behavior is a complex relationship with no clear patterns identified in this research. Implications for future research and assessment efforts are discussed. [source]

    Dental hygiene regulation: a global perspective

    PM Johnson
    Abstract:, Occupational regulation of health personnel is important to professional associations and their members, the public that relies on their services and the regulatory agencies responsible for their conduct. There is increasing interest in ensuring that dental hygiene regulation fosters the continuing evolution of the profession and its contribution to oral health. The keynote address for the 2007 Regulatory Forum on Dental Hygiene, this paper discusses the rationale for and issues pertaining to occupational regulation, outlines the evolvement of dental hygiene and identifies regulatory options for the profession. Professional regulation exists to ensure public safety, health and welfare. However, negative political-economic side effects coupled with environmental pressures have resulted in increased scrutiny for health professionals. One such profession is dental hygiene. Its evolution has been dramatic, in particular over the past few decades, as illustrated by its rapidly increasing numbers and broader distribution globally, gradual shift to the baccalaureate as the entry-level educational requirement and increase in postgraduate programs and expanding scope of practice and increased professional autonomy. Regulatory changes have been more gradual. Regulation is mandatory for the vast majority of dental hygienists. Of the options available, the practice act , the most rigorous type, is predominant. Globally, regulation tends to be administered directly by the government (n = 9 countries) more so than indirectly through a dental board (n = 4) or self-regulation (n = 3). Whether regulated directly or indirectly, dental hygienists increasingly are seeking a greater role in shaping their professional future. Self-regulation, its responsibilities, misperceptions and challenges, is examined as an option. [source]

    Self-regulation of food advertising: what it can, could and cannot do to discourage unhealthy eating habits among children

    NUTRITION BULLETIN, Issue 4 2005
    C. Hawkes

    Hormones as Mechanisms of Self-regulation: Steroid Effects on Motivated Attention and Behavior

    Article first published online: 11 SEP 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Self-regulation and autonomy are traditionally treated as distinctive elements of how professions are governed in contrast to other occupations. For medicine, these elements provide a collective medium of governance (through the institutions of professional self-regulation) and an individual medium (through the practice of 'clinical autonomy'). Both are reinforced by the intellectual dominance of the so-called 'biomedical model' of health and illness. Analysts generally agree that, in many countries, both self-regulation and clinical autonomy are under significant challenge. But it is less obvious that, in the UK at least, the biomedical model has effectively been co-opted for managerial purposes to support the commodification of medical care. Thus ideas that have traditionally been considered as supporting medical dominance have transpired to be a source of weakness for the profession. [source]

    The Relationships between Knowledge Structures and Appraisals of Economically Disadvantaged Adolescents

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Gülden Güvenç
    The study's objective was to test adolescents' self-regulation based upon Cervone, Shadel, Smith, and Fiori's (2006) knowledge and appraisal personality architecture model. Self-regulation was defined as the relationships between knowledge structures (enduring mental representations of the world) and appraisal processes (dynamic meanings constructed to evaluate various events). In our study, the knowledge variables were authoritarianism and locus of control while appraisal variables were categorized as personal orientation (coping, communication, self-esteem) and relational orientation (perspective taking, empathy, prosocial behavior tendency). The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between these variables and compare gender differences for each indicator. The participants were 246 adolescents (125 males and 121 females) whose ages ranged between 12 and 15 and who were the inhabitants of a poor urban neighborhood in Ankara, Turkey. The results showed that external locus of control and authoritarianism were not related, while the former was negatively related to both personal and relational orientations and authoritarianism was positively related to only relational orientation. Boys' external locus of control was higher than girls', whereas girls' scores exceeded boys' in self-reliant coping with stress, open communication, and interpersonal reactivity. No gender differences were observed for authoritarianism, prosocial behavior tendency, and self-esteem. Notre projet était d'estimer l'autorégulation des adolescents à partir du modèle structurale de connaissances et d'évaluation de la personnalité de Cervone, Shadel, Smith et Fiori (2006). L'autorégulation recouvre les relations entre les connaissances (les représentations stables du monde) et les processus d'évaluation (les significations dynamiques élaborées pour apprécier différents évènements). Dans notre recherche, les variables de connaissances étaient l'autoritarisme et le locus of control tandis que les variables d'évaluation étaient regroupées sous les rubriques « orientation personnelle » (faire-face, communication, estime de soi) et « orientation relationnelle » (changement de point de vue, empathie, tendance à adopter un comportement favorable aux autres). Ce travail cherchait à identifier les relations entre ces dimensions et à comparer les différences dues au genre pour chacun des indicateurs. Les sujets étaient 246 adolescents (125 garçons et 121 filles) entre douze et quinze ans qui habitent un quartier pauvre d'Ankara (Turquie). Les résultats montrent qu'un locus of control externe et l'autoritarisme ne sont pas en rapport, alors que le premier est corrélé négativement aux orientations personnelle et relationnelle ; l'autoritarisme n'est lié positivement qu'à l'orientation relationnelle. Le locus of control externe des garçons est supérieur à celui des filles alors que les scores des filles dépassent ceux des garçons dans le traitement autonome du stress, la communication libre et la sensibilité interpersonnelle. Les deux genres se rejoignent sur l'autoritarisme, la tendance à adopter un comportement favorable aux autres et l'estime de soi. [source]

    Alcohol use and negative affect in the offence cycle

    Andrew Day
    Introduction It is commonly acknowledged that, for many offenders, alcohol use is strongly associated with criminal behaviour. The belief held by many professionals that the two phenomena are associated, probably in a causal way, has led to the inclusion of alcohol use as a ,criminogenic need' in many settings where rehabilitation programmes are used to reduce recidivism. However, the mechanisms and pathways involved in the alcohol,crime link remain poorly understood. Argument and conclusion This paper reviews the literature relating to alcohol,offending links and draws some inferences about the role of alcohol use as a criminogenic need in offender rehabilitation. It is proposed that the bi-directional relationship between alcohol use and negative affective states is important in understanding the offence cycle, and that deficits in self-regulation not only characterize both alcohol misuse and negative affect but are also implicated in the offending behaviour itself. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Assessment of executive function in preschool-aged children

    Peter K. Isquith
    Abstract Assessment of the overarching self-regulatory mechanisms, or executive functions, in any age group is challenging, in part due to the complexity of this domain, in part due to their dynamic essence, and in part due to the inextricable links between these central processes and the associated domain-specific processes, such as language, motor function, and attention, over which they preside. While much progress has been made in clinical assessment approaches for measuring executive functions in adults and to some extent in adolescents and school-aged children, the toolkit for the preschool evaluator remains sparse. The past decade, however, has seen a substantial increase in attention to executive functions in very young children from a developmental neuropsychological perspective. With this has come a necessity for better, more specific, and more internally valid performance measures, many of which are now described in the experimental literature. Few such tasks, however, have adequately demonstrated psychometric properties for clinical application. We present two performance tasks designed to tap selective aspects of executive function in preschoolers that are emerging from the experimental laboratory and hold promise of appropriate reliability and validity for the clinical laboratory. Performance tests alone, however, are insufficient to develop a comprehensive picture of a child's executive functioning. Thus, we present a rating scale of preschoolers' executive function in the everyday context, and advocate a model of executive function assessment that incorporates both controlled performance tasks that target specific aspects of executive function and parent/teacher ratings that target more global aspects of self-regulation in the everyday context. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:209,215. [source]

    Psychobiological models of adolescent risk: Implications for prevention and intervention

    Julia Jackson-Newsom
    Abstract Psychobiological models of risk have much to contribute to the prevention of and intervention with risky behavior among adolescents. Emerging research is beginning to provide better information about mechanisms underlying individual differences in risky behavior (e.g., differences in self-regulation) and providing insight into unique vulnerabilities that occur during adolescence (e.g., increases in reward seeking). This work suggests ways in which prevention programming can be designed to be sensitive to both individual differences and developmental timing. Psychobiological models of risk also have practical implications for the manner and methods of conducting prevention and intervention work. Future work in both the etiology and prevention of risky behavior can benefit from ongoing dialogue and has the potential to result in a more sophisticated understanding of the mechanisms of change related to risky behavior. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 295,297, 2010 [source]

    Physiological and neuropsychological correlates of approach/withdrawal tendencies in preschool: Further examination of the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system scales for young children

    Clancy Blair
    Abstract This study examined a parent-report version of the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, a measure of approach,withdrawal motivation, in 170 children between the ages of 3 to 5 years attending Head Start programs. Physiological measures included assessments of baseline salivary cortisol and change in cortisol in response to the assessment session, and resting and suppression estimates of cardiac vagal tone. Cognitive self-regulation was assessed with a peg-tapping measure of inhibitory control and an item-selection measure of cognitive set-shifting ability. Results indicated that higher level of parent-reported withdrawal motivation was associated with cortisol increase and that parent-reported approach motivation tended to be associated with cortisol decrease across the assessment session. Higher level of parent-reported withdrawal also was positively related to cognitive self-regulation while parent-reported approach was negatively related to cognitive self-regulation. Person-oriented analysis indicated that children characterized by both high level of approach and high level of withdrawal tended to exhibit lower resting vagal tone, higher initial cortisol, and minimal cortisol and vagal change. Overall, findings suggest that the parent-report version of the BIS/BAS scales works well as an indicator of children's reactivity to appetitive and aversive motivational stimuli. Directions for future research and implications of findings for the longitudinal study of temperament and personality are discussed. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 45: 113-124, 2004. [source]

    The Internet, Economic Growth and Governance

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2000
    Gordon L. Brady
    The Internet developed largely as a ,spontaneous order' without central co-ordination. Further development will increase the mobility of capital and labour and make tax collection more difficult. Attempts at self-regulation and government regulation are now under way but meddling is likely to be ,wealth destructive and counter productive.' [source]

    Agriculture Under the Public Eye: Who Cares for What

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2004
    Cees Veerman
    Summary Agriculture Under the Public Eye: Who Cares for What? The new CAP is becoming geared towards a more sustainable agriculture that takes account of the needs of future generations. Achieving sustainability, however, means meeting three challenges-, (a) profit - strengthening the viability and competitiveness of the agricultural sector; (b) planet - the ecological challenge of promoting good environmental practices; and (c) people-the social challenge to improve the living conditions and economic opportunities in rural areas. In the food chain we see responses to consumer concerns about food safety, quality and welfare issues through the development and implementation of mandatory and voluntary quality control and assurance schemes. And the consolidation and internationalisation of the food retailing and the manufacturing industry is expected to continue. An important duality has emerged. On the one side, we find a state system of regulation, on the other a system of self-regulation, largely driven by the major forces in supply chain management, the food retailers in particular. A simple and effective regulatory environment for the agri-food complex is essential if we are to achieve our competitiveness goals. One of the priorities for discussion by politicians, therefore, should be whether current and expected policy and industry developments should lead to a review of the balance between markets and government, ,who cares for what?' l'agriculture aux yeux des politiques publiques qui doit faire quoi? La nouvelle PAC est maintenant bien orientée vers une agriculture plus durable, en mesure de tenir compte des besoins des générations futures. Une véritable durabilityé suppose cependant que soient relevés trois défis: a) le profit - renforcer la viabilityé et la compétitivité du secteur agricole; b) la planète - le défiécologique de promouvoir des pratiques favorables à l'environnement; c) les gens - le défi social d'améliorer les conditions de vie et les opportunités économiques dans les zones rurales. Du côté des filières alimentaires, la réponse à trouver aux inquiétudes des consommateurs vis à vis de la qualityé sanitaire et organoleptique des produits devrait pouvoir venir de l'élaboration de contrôles de qualityé et de systèmes d'assurances, à appliquer sur la base du volontariat ou à rendre obligatoires. En même temps, il faut s'attendre à la continuation du mouvement vers l'affermissement du rôle des industries alimentaires et du commerce de détail, ainsi qu'à leur internationalisation. Un système dual vient d'émerger: d'un côté, un système de réglementations étatiques, de l'autre, une autodiscipline, pilotée par les plus solides des maillons de la filière, en particulier les grandes surfaces. Un environnement réglementaire à la fois simple et efficace est essentiel pour atteindre l'objectif de compétitivité du complexe agroalimentaire, II en résulte que, pour les pouvoirs publics, une des grandes questions à discuter est de savoir dans quelle mesure l' évolution des conditions politiques et celle du développement industriel imposent une révision de l'équilibre actuel entre les marchés et les autorités gouvernementales; en d'autres termes, qui doit faire quoi ? Landwirtschaft in der öffentlichen Meinung; Wer ist wofür zuständig? Die neue GAP wird gerade auf eine nachhaltigere Landwirtschaft hin ausgerichtet, welche die Bedürfnisse der kommenden Generationen berücksichtigt. Nachhaltigkeit kann jedoch nur erzielt werden, wenn den folgenden drei Herausforderungen Rechnung getragen wird: (a) Ökonomie , Stärkung der Leistungs- und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Landwirtschaftssektors; (b) Ökologie , Förderung umweltgerechter Verfahrensweisen; und (c) Soziales - Verbesserung der Lebensbedingungen und der wirtschaftlichen Lage im ländlichen Raum. Im Bereich der Nahrungsmittelkette wird den Bedenken der Verbraucher hinsichtlich der Nahrun gsmittelsicherheit, der Qualität und der Wohlfahrt durch die Entwicklung und Implementierung von obligatorischen und freiwilligen Qualitätskontrollen und Sicherheitsprogrammen Rechnung getragen. Es ist davon auszugehen, dass sich die Konsolidierung und Lnternationalisierung im Bereich des Lebensmitteleinzel-handels und der weiterverarbeitenden Industrie fortsetzen wird. Es ist eine bedeutsame Dualität entstanden. Auf der einen Seite erfolgt eine Regulierung seitens des Staates, auf der anderen Seite erfolgt eine Selbstregulierung durch die Vermarktungskette, insbesondere durch den Lebensmitteleinzelhandel. Eine sowohl einfache als auch wirksame Regulierung der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft ist von grundlegender Bedeutung für das Erreichen unserer Wettbewerbsziele. Daher sollte in der Politik mit Priorität diskutiert werden, ob die gegenwärtige und zukünftige Politik und auch die industrielle Entwicklung zu einem neuen Gleichgewicht zwischen Markt und Staatseingriffen führen sollte: Wer ist wofür zuständig? [source]

    Anorexia nervosa: Towards an integrative neuroscience model

    A. Hatch
    Abstract We reviewed the evidence for emotion-related disturbances in anorexia nervosa (AN) from behavioural, cognitive, biological and genetic domains of study. These domains were brought together within the framework of an integrative neuroscience model that emphasizes the role of emotion and feeling and their regulation, in brain organization. PsychInfo and Medline searches were performed to identify published peer-reviewed papers on AN within each domain. This review revealed evidence for ,Emotion', ,Thinking and Feeling' and ,Self-regulation' disturbances in AN that span non-conscious to conscious processes. An integrative neuroscience framework was then applied to develop a model of AN, from which hypotheses for empirical investigation are generated. We propose that AN reflects a core disturbance in emotion at the earliest time stage of information processing with subsequent effects on the later stages of thinking, feeling and self-regulation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Improving clinical assessment: evaluating students' ability to identify and apply clinical criteria

    C. Redwood
    Abstract Aim:, There is ongoing concern by health educators over the inability of professionals to accurately self-assess their clinical behaviour and standards, resulting in doubts over a key expectation of effective self-regulation in the health professions. Participation by students in the assessment process has been shown to increase the understanding of assessment criteria in written assessment tasks. How this might transfer to the clinical setting is the focus of this study. This paper is part of an ongoing investigation of the impact on learning of a series of activities that provides students with opportunities to discuss and apply criteria and standards associated with self-assessment in clinical dentistry. Our aim was to evaluate whether participation in these assessment activities improved the ability of first-year dental students to recognise behaviours demonstrated by ,peers' in videos of clinical scenarios and to relate these to the assessment criteria. Materials and methods:, A series of three workshops in conjunction with weekly clinical assessment activities in Semesters 1 and 2 were use to support first-year students' learning of clinical assessment criteria. The design of the workshops was based on the principles of social constructivist theories of learning and the concept of tacit knowledge. Accordingly workshop activities were planned around videos that were specifically constructed to illustrate procedures and behaviours typical of those observed by staff and tutors in the first year of the dental course at The University of Adelaide, Australia. First-year students viewed the videos prior to and after the workshops and recorded observed behaviours that related to the assessment criteria that were used in their clinical practice course. Student learning outcomes were assessed 10,14 weeks after the initial workshop and again up to 42 weeks later. To check whether learning resulted from repeated viewing of the videos without formal discussion, a reference group of third-year students who did not attend the workshops also viewed the videos two times, separated by 12 weeks, and recorded observations in the same way. Results:, There was no consistent evidence that repeat viewing of the videos in isolation resulted in improved recognition of ,peer' behaviours by third-year dental students. Results for the first-year students indicated that the workshops and clinical assessment activities had a significantly positive effect on the ability of students to identify ,peer' behaviours related to the criteria used for clinical assessment. In particular, students' recognition in others of knowledge and professional behaviours improved significantly. This improvement was retained over the year and students were able to recognise these behaviours in other scenarios relevant to their year level. Conclusions:, This early exposure to the process of clinical assessment, coupled with ongoing self-assessment and tutor feedback throughout first year, improved the ability of first-year students to identify and apply some key assessment criteria to observed ,peer' behaviour, and this ability was retained over time. [source]

    REVIEW: Consilient research approaches in studying gene × environment interactions in alcohol research

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Kenneth J. Sher
    ABSTRACT This review article discusses the importance of identifying gene-environment interactions for understanding the etiology and course of alcohol use disorders and related conditions. A number of critical challenges are discussed, including the fact that there is no organizing typology for classifying different types of environmental exposures, many key human environmental risk factors for alcohol dependence have no clear equivalents in other species, much of the genetic variance of alcohol dependence in human is not ,alcohol specific', and the potential range of gene-environment interactions that could be considered is so vast that maintaining statistical control of Type 1 errors is a daunting task. Despite these and other challenges, there appears to be a number of promising approaches that could be taken in order to achieve consilience and ecologically valid translation between human alcohol dependence and animal models. Foremost among these is to distinguish environmental exposures that are thought to have enduring effects on alcohol use motivation (and self-regulation) from situational environmental exposures that facilitate the expression of such motivations but do not, by themselves, have enduring effects. In order to enhance consilience, various domains of human approach motivation should be considered so that relevant environmental exposures can be sampled, as well as the appropriate species to study them in (i.e. where such motivations are ecologically relevant). Foremost among these are social environments, which are central to the initiation and escalation of human alcohol consumption. The value of twin studies, human laboratory studies and pharmacogenetic studies is also highlighted. [source]