Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Self-efficacy

  • abstinence self-efficacy
  • academic self-efficacy
  • breastfeeding self-efficacy
  • general self-efficacy
  • greater self-efficacy
  • parental self-efficacy
  • parenting self-efficacy
  • perceived self-efficacy
  • social self-efficacy

  • Terms modified by Self-efficacy

  • self-efficacy belief
  • self-efficacy expectation
  • self-efficacy perception
  • self-efficacy scale
  • self-efficacy theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    Helen W. Lach PhD
    First page of article [source]

    Impact of Provider Self-Management Education, Patient Self-Efficacy, and Health Status on Patient Adherence in Heart Failure in a Veterans Administration Population

    Usha Subramanian MD
    To address the need for more information on predictors of adherence to heart failure (HF) self-management regimens, this study analyzed surveys completed by 259 HF patients receiving care at 2 Veterans Affairs hospitals in 2003. Linear multivariable regression models were used to examine general health status, HF-specific health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire) self-management education, and self-efficacy as predictors of self-reported adherence to salt intake and exercise regimens. Self-management education was provided most often for salt restriction (87%) followed by exercise (78%). In multivariable regression analyses, education about salt restriction (P=.01), weight reduction (P=.0004), self-efficacy (P=.03), and health status (P=.003) were significantly associated with patient-reported adherence to salt restriction. In a similar model, self-efficacy (P=.006) and health status (P,.0001), but not exercise education, were significantly associated with patient-reported exercise adherence. Findings suggest that provider interventions may lead to improved adherence with HF self-management and thus improvements in patients' health. [source]

    Computer Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Learn in a Self-Directed Online Course

    Marcia J. Simmering
    ABSTRACT Despite the increased use of new learning technologies, there is still much to be learned about the role of learner characteristics in online learning. The purpose of this study was to examine how subjects' characteristics normally associated with effective training (i.e., initial motivation to learn and self-efficacy) related to learning in a self-directed online course. From an analysis of 190 respondents, computer and Internet usage prior to the start of class were positively related to individuals' computer self-efficacy and computer self-efficacy was positively related to learning. However, contrary to expectations, computer self-efficacy was not related to initial motivation to learn and motivation to learn was not related to learning in the class. Post hoc analysis of qualitative data enabled a rich explanation of the findings, including an evaluation of the unexpected relationships among the variables of interest and the nature of self-directed courses in virtual learning environments. [source]

    The Role of Effective Modeling in the Development of Self-Efficacy: The Case of the Transparent Engine,

    Kevin P. Scheibe
    ABSTRACT Computing technology augments learning in education in a number of ways. One particular method uses interactive programs to demonstrate complex concepts. The purpose of this article is to examine one type of interactive learning technology, the transparent engine. The transparent engine allows instructors and students to view and directly interact with educational concepts such as Web-enabled software development. The article first presents a framework describing transparent engines. The framework details four types of transparent engines: (1) enactive mastery/manipulatable, (2) enactive mastery/nonmanipulatable, (3) vicarious experience/manipulatable, and (4) vicarious experience/nonmanipulatable. Following this, we present the results of an experiment designed to examine this framework by testing its predictions for one quadrant, vicarious experience/nonmanipulatable. The results support the framework in that students taught concepts with the aid of the vicarious experience/nonmanipulatable transparent engine had significantly higher domain-specific self-efficacy compared to those taught the same concepts without this tool. [source]

    360 Degree Feedback and Developmental Outcomes: The Role of Feedback Characteristics, Self-Efficacy and Importance of Feedback Dimensions to Focal Managers' Current Role

    Caroline Bailey
    This longitudinal study investigates whether developmental changes following 360 degree feedback are predicted by the favourability of ratings received, and moderated by focal individuals' self-efficacy and perceived importance of feedback. Five developmental criteria are investigated longitudinally: (i) self-assessments, (ii) line managers' ratings, (iii) amount of developmental activity, (iv) global self-efficacy and (iv) self-efficacy for development. Feedback ratings from certain rater groups predicted changes in ratings, but not changes in self-efficacy or amount of developmental activity. Self-efficacy significantly moderated the feedback,performance association for certain rater groups, but feedback importance did not. Contrary to expectations, the focal individual's initial self-assessment predicted changes in self-efficacy, over the favourability of ratings received. The implications of these findings for organizations using 360 degree feedback for developmental purposes are discussed. [source]

    Developing a valid and reliable self-efficacy in clinical performance scale

    F. Cheraghi phd
    Aim:, This paper describes the development and testing of the Self-Efficacy in Clinical Performance (SECP) instrument for nursing students. Background:, Accurate measurement of self-efficacy can be used to predict nursing students' clinical performance. The literature review indicated there is no existing self-efficacy in clinical performance instrument for Iranian nursing students. Methods:, To clarify the concept of self-efficacy in clinical performance, 28 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups were conducted. A self-efficacy framework with well-developed theoretical constructs was formed. A review of literature and content analysis of the interview transcripts identified subscales and items to be included in the instrument. Then, a methodological design was used. The SECP was developed into 69 Likert-format items, which were evaluated by 20 nursing experts in the form of content validity index. The scale's validity and reliability were tested in a randomized sample of 207 final year nursing students. Findings:, The final scale consists of four dimensions with 37 items. The overall scale internal reliability had , = 0.96; the dimensions Cronbach's , ranged from 0.90 to 0.92. Test,retest reliability with a 2-week time interval was: r = 0.94. In addition, concurrent validity was obtained (r = 0.73, P = 0.01). Conclusions:, The SECP has demonstrated evidence of content validity, construct validity, concurrent validity, internal consistency reliability and stability. Statistical analysis provided an objective tool for assessing nursing students' self-efficacy in clinical performance. It may have been fruitful to further test the instrument with students from other years of their education. [source]

    Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E) tool: development and validation with mothers of hospitalized preterm neonates

    Christopher R. Barnes
    Abstract Title.,Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E) tool: development and validation with mothers of hospitalized preterm neonates Aim., This paper is a report of a study to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool. Background., Mothers' perceptions of their ability to parent (maternal parenting self-efficacy) is a critical mechanism guiding their interactions with their preterm newborns. A robust measure is needed which can measure mothers' perceptions of their ability to understand and care for their hospitalized preterm neonates as well as being sensitive to the various levels and tasks in parenting. Methods., Using a mixed sampling methodology (convenience or randomized cluster control trial) 165 relatively healthy and hospitalized mother-preterm infant dyads were recruited in 2003,2005 from two intensive care neonatal units in the United Kingdom (UK). Mothers were recruited within the first 28 days after giving birth to a preterm baby. The Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool, which is made up of 20 items representing four theorized subscales, was tested for reliability and validity. Results., Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool was 0·91, external/test-retest reliability was 0·96, P < 0·01. Divergent validity using the Maternal Self-Report Inventory was rs = 0·4, P < 0·05 and using the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale was rs = 0·31, P < 0·01. Conclusion., The Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool is a psychometrically robust, reliable and valid measure of parenting self-efficacy in mothers of relatively healthy hospitalized preterm neonates. Although application outside the UK will require further cross-cultural validation, the tool has the potential to provide healthcare professionals with a reliable method of identifying mothers of preterm hospitalized babies who are in need of further support. [source]

    Examining Implementation Intentions in an Exercise Intervention: The Effects on Adherence and Self-Efficacy in a Naturalistic Setting,

    Terra C. Murray
    Some studies have found positive associations between implementation intentions and exercise, independent of motivational factors. However, most research has not been conducted in actual exercise contexts. In a naturalistic setting, implementation intentions may be associated with self-efficacy (SE) beliefs. This study examined the effect of implementation intentions on adherence and SE over an 11-week exercise program. Women (N = 72) were randomly assigned to an experimental (i.e., implementation intention) or a control group, with 52 participants completing the study. Results showed that while adherence decreased over time in both groups, the experimental group had better adherence than did the control group. Scheduling SE was also higher in the experimental group. Implementation intentions may help to maintain adherence and scheduling SE. [source]

    The Role of Cognitive Ability in Self-Efficacy and Self-Assessed Test Performance,

    Donald M. Truxillo
    Research has shown that test takers are often unable to assess their own test performance accurately. However, the role of cognitive ability in assessing one's test performance has not been explored. We examined whether high cognitive ability participants were better than low cognitive ability participants in assessing their performance on a video-based situational judgment test (SJT) of customer-service skills. Results indicated a strong relationship between actual and perceived SJT performance for high cognitive ability participants, but no relationship for those low in cognitive ability. The discussion focuses on implications for metacognitive theory, test perceptions, and providing feedback to applicants. [source]

    Using Past Performance, Proxy Efficacy, and Academic Self-Efficacy to Predict College Performance

    Steven M. Elias
    This study examined the ability of prior academic performance, proxy efficacy, and academic self-efficacy to predict college academic performance. Participants (N = 202) completed a modified version of the Teacher Collective Efficacy scale (Goddard, 2001), the Academic Self-Efficacy scale (Elias & Loomis, 2000), and a demographic questionnaire. Prior performance was predictive of both academic self-efficacy beliefs and college performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicates that academic self-efficacy beliefs explain a significant amount of unique variance beyond past performance in predicting college performance. Proxy efficacy did serve as a predictor of student academic self-efficacy, but did not serve as a predictor of college performance. Implications for instructors, as well as for future research, are discussed. [source]

    Self-Efficacy and Causal Attributions: Direct and Reciprocal Links

    Alexander D. Stajkovic
    This study examines Bandura's (1986, 1997a) propositions that self-efficacy provides information from which causal attributions are made and that causal attributions, in turn, influence formation of subsequent self-efficacy expectations. We developed a conceptual rationale for and empirically tested 2 sets of hypotheses pertaining to direct and reciprocal links between self-efficacy and causal attributions. Effects of causal attributions and subsequently formed self-efficacy on subsequent task performance were also investigated. Results support the existence of direct and reciprocal links between self-efficacy and causal attributions. We found interactive effects between self-efficacy and performance feedback on causal attributions, and a mediating effect of causal attributions on the formation of subsequent self-efficacy beliefs. Causal attributions and subsequent self-efficacy also significantly predicted subsequent performance. [source]

    The impact of residential context on adolescents' Subjective Well being

    Elvira Cicognani
    Abstract The study investigates the impact of residential context on stressful events and Subjective Well being (Emotional and Psychological) in young people living in a deprived geographical area, and the mediating role of personal (Self-Efficacy) and social (Social Support, Sense of Community) variables. A questionnaire was submitted to 297 subjects (48.5% males): 203 adolescents (14,19 years old) and 94 young adults (20,27 years old), from different socio-economic (SES) levels. Results confirm the significant impact of the residential context on youngsters' perceived residential quality, Stress and Subjective Well being outcomes; such effect partly differs according to participants' gender and age. Adolescents are less satisfied of their living context and enjoy lower well being than young adults. Social resources (Friend and Family Support) significantly buffer the effect of a deprived residential context of youngsters' Well being, whereas personal resources (Self-Efficacy) directly increase Well being levels. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Karly S. Geller MEd
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:, Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale assessing children's self-efficacy and proxy efficacy for FVC at after-school programs and at home. METHODS:, Elementary-aged children (n = 184) attending 7 after-school programs completed a self-efficacy questionnaire relevant to FVC. Questionnaire validity was investigated with exploratory factor analysis and mixed-model analysis of covariance. Internal consistency reliability and readability were also assessed. RESULTS:, The questionnaire assessed 4 constructs: self-efficacy expectations for fruit consumption, self-efficacy expectations for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV available, and proxy efficacy to influence after-school staff to make FV available. Children perceiving FV opportunities in after-school had greater self-efficacy expectations for FVC and greater proxy efficacy to influence after-school staff compared to students who did not perceive FV opportunities. Children attending schools of higher socioeconomic status (SES) and less diversity were more confident they could influence their parents to make FV available than students attending lower SES and less diverse schools. Adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were established. CONCLUSIONS:, Self-efficacy is a multicomponent construct that can be assessed in children using the reliable and valid instrument evaluated by the current study. [source]

    Self-Efficacy: A Concept Analysis

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 2 2009
    Kristen Zulkosky MSN
    TOPIC.,Concept analysis and self-efficacy. PURPOSE.,This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the concept self-efficacy through the use of Rodger's model. SOURCES.,Published research. CONCLUSION.,Self-efficacy beliefs influence how people think, feel, motivate themselves, and act. Self-efficacy is concerned about the perception or judgment of being able to accomplish a specific goal and cannot be sensed globally. In order to gain a sense of self-efficacy, a person can complete a skill successfully, observe someone else doing a task successfully, acquire positive feedback about completing a task, or rely on physiological cues. [source]

    Long-Term Outcomes of a Telephone Intervention After an ICD

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of participating in a structured, 8-week educational telephone intervention delivered by expert cardiovascular nurses post-ICD. The intervention was aimed to (1) increase physical functioning, (2) increase psychological adjustment, (3) improve self-efficacy in managing the challenges of ICD recovery, and (4) lower levels of health care utilization over usual care in the first 12 months post-ICD. This article reports on the 6- and 12-month outcomes of the nursing intervention trial. Methods and Results: A two-group (N = 168) randomized control group design was used to evaluate intervention efficacy with persons receiving an ICD for the secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest. Measures were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months post hospitalization. Outcomes included (1) physical functioning (Patient Concerns Assessment [PCA], Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], ICD shocks), (2) psychological adjustment (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], Centers for Epidemiologic Studies,Depression [CES-D], fear of dying), (3) self-efficacy (Sudden Cardiac Arrest,Self-Efficacy [SCA-SE], Sudden Cardiac Arrest,Behavior [SCA-B], Sudden Cardiac Arrest,Knowledge [SCA-K]), and (4) health care utilization (emergency room [ER] visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations). Using repeated measures ANOVA, the 6- and 12-month benefits of the intervention over usual care were in reductions in physical concerns (P = 0.006), anxiety (P = 0.04), and fear of dying (P = 0.01), with enhanced self-confidence (P = 0.04) and knowledge (P = 0.001) to manage ICD recovery. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on total outpatient visits, hospitalizations, or ER visits over 12 months. Conclusion: A structured 8-week post-hospital telephone nursing intervention after an ICD had sustained 12-month improvements on patient concerns, anxiety, fear of dying, self-efficacy, and knowledge. Results may not apply to individuals with congestive heart failure who receive an ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest. [source]

    Self-Concealment, Social Self-Efficacy, Acculturative Stress, and Depression in African, Asian, and Latin American International College Students

    Madonna G. Constantine PhD
    The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in a sample of 320 African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. The authors found several differences by demography with regard to the study's variables. After controlling for regional group membership, sex, and English language fluency, they found that self-concealment and social self-efficacy did not serve as mediators in the relationship between African, Asian, and Latin American international students' acculturative stress experiences and depressive symptomatology. Implications of the findings are discussed. [source]

    Subjective assessments of the quality of life, well-being and self-efficacy in patients with schizophrenia

    Bun Chino md
    Aim:, The present study examined three kinds of subjective assessment scales in the same patient group with schizophrenia to analyze the correlations among scores obtained in relation to the background data. Method:, Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia were examined with the 26-item short form of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO-QOL 26), Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment: Short Japanese version (SWNS) and Self-Efficacy for Community Life scale (SECL) for subjective assessment scales, five kinds of neurocognitive tests, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for clinical symptom, Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale for social functioning. Result:, The scores for delusions (components of positive syndrome), anxiety and depression (components of general psychopathology) on the PANSS significantly correlated with QoL and subjective well-being scores. In contrast, the scores for components of negative syndrome were not correlated with the subjective assessment scores. Furthermore, none of the clinical symptom scores were correlated with the score in self-efficacy scale. The SFS and GAF scores were significantly correlated with the subjective assessment scores. There were significant correlations among the scores on the three subjective assessment scales. Conclusion:, Each scale has different features and should be utilized depending upon the expected effect of treatment or the purpose of assessment. The treatments provided to patients must be directed at improving both psychological and social impairments, in order to enhance the social functioning and QoL of patients. [source]

    Translation and Testing of the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy Scale for Use With Taiwanese Older Adults

    Su-Hui Chen
    ABSTRACT Objectives: The purposes of this investigation were to translate the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy (CDSE) scale from English to Mandarin Chinese and to test the validity, reliability, and feasibility of the translated scale in a sample of Taiwanese older adults. Design and Sample: This study used a methodological design to translate the CDSE based on the Brislin's model: (1) translation from source language (SL) of English to the target language (TL) of Chinese, (2) evaluation of Chinese version, (3) blind back translation from Chinese to English, (4) comparison of original and back-translated English versions, and (5) evaluation of the translated scale by a committee of bilingual Taiwanese experts. The translated CDSE scale was tested with 156 community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults, and any problems occurring during the administration of the scale were documented. Results and Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the Chinese version of CDSE scale were acceptable. However, the validity of items may have been impacted by differences in culture, language, and educational levels between English-speaking and Chinese-speaking populations. These findings suggest the need for further methodological study to evaluate and refine translation tools to resolve differences in culture, language, and educational levels between SL and TL. [source]

    Situated Learning for an Innovation Economy: E-Commerce and Technology as a Mediator for Rural High School Students' Sense of Mastery and Self-Efficacy

    Karen L. Michaelson
    Abstract Practitioners focusing on technology and workforce development reference the need to prepare individuals for an Innovation Economy. Yet innovation is socially constructed, as much social as it is technical. Observation of 160 high school students from very rural schools participating in a school-based e-commerce curriculum indicates that there are knowledge sets acquired through carefully constructed experiential learning that foster a context for innovation. This counters factors in the traditional education/workforce development system that impede the development of innovators, including a narrows skills-based focus and the demonization of failure. Situating innovation in historical context and in the lived experience of individual networks helps to understand the innovation process and provides a framework for the development of effective educational experiences. [source]

    Transformational Leadership and Employee Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Trust in the Leader and Self-Efficacy

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Jiayan Liu
    Although transformational leadership (TL) is considered a kind of positive leadership, which can elevate followers in the long term, the mechanism of how TL influences employee well-being remains a relatively untouched area. Based on survey data collected from 745 employees from the People's Republic of China (Beijing, n= 297; Hong Kong, n= 448), results revealed that employees' trust in the leader and self-efficacy partially mediated the influence of TL on job satisfaction, and fully mediated the influence of TL on perceived work stress and stress symptoms. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. Bien que le leadership transformationnnel (TL) soit considéré comme une sorte de leadership positif qui peut faire progresser les suiveurs sur le long terme, le mécanisme par lequel TL contribue à leur bien être reste relativement inexploré. Les résultats basés sur des données collectées auprès d'un échantillon de 745 employés de la République Populaire de Chine (Beijin, n = 297; Hong Kong, n = 448), montrent que la confiance des suiveurs dans le leader et l'auto-efficacité sont en partie dus à l'influence du TL sur la satisfaction au travail et sont entièrement dus à l'influence du TL sur le stress perçu au travail et les symptômes de stress. Les implications de ces résultats pour la recherche et la pratique sont discutées. [source]

    A Cross-National Examination of Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Autonomy/Job Strain Relationships

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Margaret M. Nauta
    This study evaluated the cross-national validity of cognitive appraisal theories (e.g. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) of stress by examining differences in the interaction of job autonomy and generalised self-efficacy in the prediction of psychological and physical strains among US and Chinese employees. As posited by cognitive appraisal theories, high self-efficacy served as a buffer against low job autonomy in the prediction of psychological and physical strains among US employees. However, the buffering effect of self-efficacy was unclear among Chinese employees. For Chinese employees with high self-efficacy, job autonomy was negatively related to job strains, but for Chinese employees with low self-efficacy, job autonomy was positively related to job strains. The results highlight the importance of attending to culture in examinations of stressor,strain relations. Cette étude porte sur la validité transnationale des théories de l'évaluation cognitive du stress (par exemple: Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) par l'analyse de différences dans l'interaction entre l'autonomie dans le travail et l'auto-efficience globale dans la prédiction des tensions physiques et psychologiques chez des salariés américains et chinois. Comme les théories de l'évaluation cognitive le prévoient, un niveau élevé d'auto-efficience compense le manque d'autonomie dans la prédiction de tensions physiques et psychologiques chez les salariés américains. Toutefois, l'effet compensatoire de l'auto-efficience n'apparaît pas clairement chez les salariés chinois. Pour les salariés chinois disposant d'une forte auto-efficience, l'autonomie dans le travail était négativement corrélée aux tensions professionnelles, mais chez ceux qui étaient dotés d'une auto-efficience faible, l'autonomie était positivement liée aux tensions professionnelles. Ces résultats mettent en évidence la nécessité de prendre la culture en considération dans l'étude de la relation entre les facteurs de stress et les tensions. [source]

    Cluster Subtypes within the Preparation Stage of Change for Sun Protection Behavior

    Marimer Santiago-Rivas
    Objective: Numerous effective tailored interventions for smoking cessation and other behaviors have been developed based on the Transtheoretical Model. Recent studies have identified clusters within each stage of change. The goal of this study is to determine if replicable clusters exist within the Preparation stage of change for sun protection. Method: Secondary data analysis of baseline data from a sample of participants in a home-based expert system intervention was performed. Two random samples of approximately 128 participants were selected from subjects in the Preparation stage (N = 258). Cluster analyses were performed using Ward's Method on the standardised scores from the three scales of Pros, Cons, and Self-Efficacy. Interpretability of the pattern, pseudo F test, and dendograms were used to determine the number of clusters. Results: A four-cluster solution replicated across subsamples. Differences between clusters on eight of the nine Processes of Change, and on behavioral measures, were found. Discussion: The cluster solutions were robust, easily interpretable, and demonstrated good initial external validity. They replicated patterns found for other behaviors that have demonstrated long-term predictability and can provide the basis for a tailored intervention. [source]

    The Specificity of Self-Efficacy over the Course of a Progressive Exercise Programme

    Wendy M. Rodgers
    Regular physical exercise is an important health-promoting behaviour. Self-efficacy has been demonstrated to be a robust predictor of health behaviour in general and physical activity in particular. Two studies are reported where the change in task self-efficacy, scheduling self-efficacy, and coping self-efficacy for two types of physical activity (walking or traditional fitness activity) was examined over time in a progressive exercise programme. A progressive programme increases in intensity and duration over the course of the study. A sample of 115 people completed a 6-month activity trial where they were assigned to a walking group, a traditional exercise group, or no activity control group. Repeated measures MANOVAs for each type of self-efficacy revealed quadratic patterns of change that were specific to the type of exercise engaged in. The results suggest that self-efficacy is behaviour specific and can be expected to be responsive to overt experiences with specific exercise modalities. Results also suggest that additional support might be necessary as late as 3 months into the programme to maintain levels of exercise consistent with public health guidelines. [source]

    Self-Efficacy Mediates Effects of Exposure, Loss of Resources, and Life Stress on Posttraumatic Distress among Trauma Survivors

    Aleksandra Luszczynska
    Trauma exposure, loss of resources, and stressful life events are usually listed among key predictors of posttraumatic adaptation. Our studies investigated if self-efficacy (i.e. beliefs about ability to deal with posttraumatic adversities) mediates the relationships between these peri- and post-traumatic risk factors and mental health. Study 1 investigated these relationships among 50 Hurricane Katrina survivors infected with HIV. Specifically, it was hypothesised that the effects of exposure and loss of resources (measured 1 year after the disaster) on posttraumatic symptoms and general distress (measured 2 years after disaster) would be mediated by self-efficacy (assessed 1 year after trauma). Study 2, enrolling 70 survivors of motor vehicle accidents, tested the mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between stressful life events (reported at approximately 7 days after the trauma) and PTSD symptom severity and number (measured 90 days later). Results of both studies confirmed the mediating effects of beliefs about the ability to deal with posttraumatic adversities, whereas the direct effects of trauma exposure, number of stressors, and losses on mental health were negligible. Our findings indicate that although self-efficacy beliefs are affected by trauma and stressful life events (in particular, balance of negative and positive events), they should facilitate posttraumatic adaptation. [source]

    Self-Efficacy and Planning Predict Dietary Behaviors in Costa Rican and South Korean Women: Two Moderated Mediation Analyses

    Benicio Gutiérrez-Doña
    Dietary planning is supposed to mediate between intentions and dietary behaviors. However, if a person lacks self-efficacy, this mediation might fail. A cross-sectional study in Costa Rica and a longitudinal study in South Korea were designed to examine the moderating role of self-efficacy in the intention,planning,behavior relationship. Intentions, planning, self-efficacy, dietary behaviors, and baseline diet were assessed. Study 1 included 245 women; Study 2 included 358 women. Moderated mediation models were specified in which planning served as a mediator between intentions and behavior. Self-efficacy was specified as a moderator of the intention,planning,behavior relationship. Intentions were translated into dietary behavior by planning. However, levels of self-efficacy moderated this mediation process: The strength of the mediated effect increased along with levels of self-efficacy, even when accounting for baseline dietary behaviors. For planning to mediate the intention,behavior relation, people must harbor sufficient levels of self-efficacy. If they lack self-efficacy, either intentions are not well translated into planning, or planning is not well translated into behavior. Further research needs to clarify under which circumstances the moderator effect of self-efficacy operates in the first phase or the second phase of the mediation process. [source]

    Self-efficacy, social support and service integration at medical cannabis facilities in the San Francisco Bay area of California

    Amanda E. Reiman PhD MSW
    Abstract In an effort to examine and possibly utilise the community-based, bottom-up service design of medical cannabis facilities in the San Francisco Bay area of California, 130 adults who had received medical cannabis recommendations from a physician were surveyed at seven facilities to describe the social service aspects of these unique, community-based programmes. This study used an unselected consecutive sample and cross-sectional survey design that included primary data collection at the medical cannabis facilities themselves. In this exploratory study, individual level data were collected on patient demographics and reported patient satisfaction as gathered by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire III. Surveys were filled out onsite. In the case of a refusal, the next person was asked. The refusal rate varied depending on the study site and ranged between 25% and 60%, depending on the facility and the day of sampling. Organisational-level data, such as operating characteristics and products offered, created a backdrop for further examination into the social services offered by these facilities and the attempts made by this largely unregulated healthcare system to create a community-based environment of social support for chronically ill people. Informal assessment suggests that chronic pain is the most common malady for which medical cannabis is used. Descriptive statistics were generated to examine sample- and site-related differences. Results show that medical cannabis patients have created a system of dispensing medical cannabis that also includes services such as counselling, entertainment and support groups , all important components of coping with chronic illness. Furthermore, patients tend to be male, over 35, identify with more than one ethnicity, and earn less than US$20 000 annually. Levels of satisfaction with facility care were fairly high, and higher than nationally reported satisfaction with health care in the USA. Facilities tended to follow a social model of cannabis care, including allowing patients to use medicine onsite and offering social services. This approach has implications for the creation and maintenance of a continuum of care among bottom-up social and health services agencies. [source]

    The trainee in context: Examining the relationship between self-efficacy and transfer climate for transfer of training

    Fiona Sookhai
    Trainee perceptions of transfer climate have been found to be an important predictor of transfer of training. Self-efficacy has also been identified as an important individual difference related to transfer. Few studies have examined how these variables work together to enhance or limit performance following training. In a field study of 37 trainees, supervisors were randomly selected for training in how to provide their subordinates with opportunities to use the learned skills on the job and reinforce attempts at application. It was found that trainees who had a supervisor who participated in the intervention perceived a better transfer climate than trainees whose supervisors did not participate in training. Transfer climate mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and transfer of training. [source]

    Predictors of medication compliance among older heart failure patients

    Krystyna Cholowski PhD
    Aim. To examine relationships between psycho-social and patho-physiological measures in explaining medication compliance in older heart failure (HF) patients. Background. Self-efficacy is a predictor not only of medication compliance, but also health recovery. How older HF patients conceptualize and manage this life-threatening event is central to ongoing rehabilitation. Regulating ongoing medical and lifestyle changes in the rehabilitation process requires that any underlying negative affect be productively managed by the use of appropriate coping strategies. Method. Using an exploratory correlational design, 51 older HF patients were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Beliefs about Medication and Diet Questionnaire, Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire and Self-regulation scale. A self-report measure of medication compliance was obtained as part of a semi-structured interview. The study was conducted in 2003,2004. Results. Using descriptive statistics, patho-physiological and psychosocial characteristics were given. Independent t -tests were used to assess the gender effects. Pairwise correlations were used to examine the relationships between presenting circumstances, psychosocial characteristics, medication compliance beliefs and self-reported medication compliance behaviours. All positive coping strategies and self-regulation were associated with positive intentions in medication compliance. Males were more inclined towards proactive coping and self-regulatory strategies than were females. Increased depressive symptoms were linked to carelessness in compliance. A belief in medication compliance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carelessness Conclusion. Bandura's three conditions for agency in rehabilitation, self-efficacy and goal-directed intention appeared to be important even in the early phase of the programme. Positive coping strategies and self-regulation suggests a positive basis for medication compliance and more successful ongoing rehabilitation for older HF patients. We identify a significantly enhanced educative role for nurses in this context. Relevance to clinical practice. We suggest that nurses dealing with compliance issues among older patients need to monitor behaviour through addressing both the quality of affect during the patient's response to HF (self-concept, -esteem and -efficacy) as well as the quality of health-related metacognitive knowledge underlying the self-regulatory decisions (such as the patients conceptions of ,wellness' and the strategic knowledge underpinning its achievement and maintenance). [source]

    360 Degree Feedback and Developmental Outcomes: The Role of Feedback Characteristics, Self-Efficacy and Importance of Feedback Dimensions to Focal Managers' Current Role

    Caroline Bailey
    This longitudinal study investigates whether developmental changes following 360 degree feedback are predicted by the favourability of ratings received, and moderated by focal individuals' self-efficacy and perceived importance of feedback. Five developmental criteria are investigated longitudinally: (i) self-assessments, (ii) line managers' ratings, (iii) amount of developmental activity, (iv) global self-efficacy and (iv) self-efficacy for development. Feedback ratings from certain rater groups predicted changes in ratings, but not changes in self-efficacy or amount of developmental activity. Self-efficacy significantly moderated the feedback,performance association for certain rater groups, but feedback importance did not. Contrary to expectations, the focal individual's initial self-assessment predicted changes in self-efficacy, over the favourability of ratings received. The implications of these findings for organizations using 360 degree feedback for developmental purposes are discussed. [source]

    The moderating effect of individual differences on the relationship between the framing of training and interest in training

    Cody B. Cox
    The moderating effect of individual differences on the relationship between framing training as ,basic' or ,advanced' and interest in training was examined for technical and nontechnical content areas. Participants were 109 working-age adults (mean age = 38.14 years, SD = 12.20 years). Self-efficacy and goal orientation were examined as moderators. Results showed a three-way interaction between performance orientation (a dimension of goal orientation reflecting the desire to demonstrate competence in an achievement setting), age, and frame for technical training and a three-way interaction between performance orientation, self-efficacy, and frame for nontechnical training. Implications for future research as well as framing training to enhance interest are discussed. [source]