Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Available

  • agent available
  • approach available
  • area available
  • benefit available
  • care available
  • case available
  • cell available
  • choice available
  • controlled trials available
  • data available
  • data set available
  • drug available
  • energy available
  • equipment available
  • estimate available
  • evidence available
  • experimental data available
  • experimental result available
  • facility available
  • far available
  • food available
  • fund available
  • information available
  • instruments available
  • intervention available
  • knowledge available
  • limited data available
  • limited information available
  • literature available
  • little data available
  • little information available
  • made available
  • marker available
  • material available
  • measure available
  • medication available
  • method available
  • methodology available
  • methods available
  • modality available
  • models available
  • oil available
  • only available
  • opportunity available
  • option available
  • policy option available
  • pool available
  • procedure available
  • products available
  • record available
  • report available
  • resource available
  • result available
  • sample available
  • sequence available
  • services available
  • set available
  • site available
  • software available
  • solution available
  • source available
  • space available
  • species available
  • specimen available
  • strategy available
  • structure available
  • studies available
  • supplementary material available
  • support available
  • surface area available
  • system available
  • techniques available
  • technology available
  • test available
  • therapeutic option available
  • therapy available
  • time available
  • tissue available
  • tool available
  • treatment available
  • treatment option available
  • trials available
  • type available
  • vaccine available
  • value available
  • variable available
  • water available

  • Terms modified by Available

  • available ad libitum
  • available alternative
  • available analytical solution
  • available area
  • available clinical
  • available clinical data
  • available compound
  • available data
  • available data set
  • available data show
  • available databases
  • available device
  • available drug
  • available empirical evidence
  • available energy
  • available enzyme-linked immunosorbent
  • available evidence
  • available experiment
  • available experimental
  • available experimental data
  • available experimental data.
  • available experimental result
  • available follow-up
  • available form
  • available free
  • available guideline
  • available habitat
  • available immunoassay
  • available information
  • available instruments
  • available kit
  • available knowledge
  • available literature
  • available literature data
  • available material
  • available measure
  • available measurement
  • available method
  • available methods
  • available models
  • available n
  • available nitrogen
  • available nutrient
  • available observation
  • available on the web
  • available online
  • available only
  • available option
  • available p
  • available phosphorus
  • available poly
  • available potential energy
  • available preparation
  • available prey
  • available procedure
  • available product
  • available products
  • available program
  • available publication
  • available published data
  • available reagent
  • available report
  • available research
  • available resource
  • available result
  • available scientific evidence
  • available sequence
  • available serum
  • available services
  • available software
  • available soil water
  • available source
  • available space
  • available starting material
  • available structure
  • available studies
  • available substrate
  • available surface area
  • available system
  • available tablet
  • available techniques
  • available technology
  • available test
  • available theory
  • available therapeutic option
  • available therapy
  • available today
  • available tool
  • available treatment
  • available treatment option
  • available vaccine
  • available water

  • Selected Abstracts


    Empirical likelihood is appropriate to estimate moment condition models when a random sample from the target population is available. However, many economic surveys are subject to some form of stratification, in which case direct application of empirical likelihood will produce inconsistent estimators. In this paper we propose a two-step empirical likelihood estimator to deal with stratified samples in models defined by unconditional moment restrictions in the presence of some aggregate information such as the mean and the variance of the variable of interest. A Monte Carlo simulation study reveals promising results for many versions of the two-step empirical likelihood estimator. [source]

    Multifunctional Triphenylamine/Oxadiazole Hybrid as Host and Exciton-Blocking Material: High Efficiency Green Phosphorescent OLEDs Using Easily Available and Common Materials

    Youtian Tao
    Abstract A new triphenylamine/oxadiazole hybrid, namely m -TPA- o -OXD, formed by connecting the meta -position of a phenyl ring in triphenylamine with the ortho -position of 2,5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole, is designed and synthesized. The new bipolar compound is applicable in the phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) as both host and exciton-blocking material. By using the new material and the optimization of the device structures, very high efficiency green and yellow electrophosphorescence are achieved. For example, by introducing 1,3,5-tris(N -phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBI) to replace 2, 9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCP)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) as hole blocking/electron transporting layer, followed by tuning the thicknesses of hole-transport 1, 4-bis[(1-naphthylphenyl)amino]biphenyl (NPB) layer to manipulate the charge balance, a maximum external quantum efficiency (,EQE,max) of 23.0% and a maximum power efficiency (,p,max) of 94.3 lm W,1 are attained for (ppy)2Ir(acac) based green electrophosphorescence. Subsequently, by inserting a thin layer of m -TPA- o -OXD as self triplet exciton block layer between hole-transport and emissive layer to confine triplet excitons, a ,EQE,max of 23.7% and ,p,max of 105 lm W,1 are achieved. This is the highest efficiency ever reported for (ppy)2Ir(acac) based green PHOLEDs. Furthermore, the new host m -TPA- o -OXD is also applicable for other phosphorescent emitters, such as green-emissive Ir(ppy)3 and yellow-emissive (fbi)2Ir(acac). A yellow electrophosphorescent device with ,EQE,max of 20.6%, ,c,max of 62.1 cd A,1, and ,p,max of 61.7 lm W,1, is fabricated. To the author's knowledge, this is also the highest efficiency ever reported for yellow PHOLEDs. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Geopolitics of Climate Change

    Jon Barnett
    Author's Introduction Climate change is a security problem in as much as the kinds of environmental changes that may result pose risks to peace and development. However, responsibilities for the causes of climate change, vulnerability to its effects, and capacity to solve the problem, are not equally distributed between countries, classes and cultures. There is no uniformity in the geopolitics of climate change, and this impedes solutions. Author Recommends 1.,Adger, W. N., et al. (eds) (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A comprehensive collection of articles on the justice dimensions of adaptation to climate change. Chapters discuss potential points at which climate change becomes ,dangerous', the issue of adaptation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the unequal outcomes of adaptation within a society, the effects of violent conflict on adaptation, the costs of adaptation, and examples from Bangladesh, Tanzania, Botswana, and Hungary. 2.,Leichenko, R., and O'Brien, K. (2008). Environmental change and globalization: double exposures. New York: Oxford University Press. This book uses examples from around the world to show the way global economic and political processes interact with environmental changes to create unequal outcomes within and across societies. A very clear demonstration of the way vulnerability to environmental change is as much driven by social processes as environmental ones, and how solutions lie within the realm of decisions about ,development' and ,environment'. 3.,Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.06.003 An up-to-date, systematic and balanced review of research on the links between climate change and violent conflict. See also the other papers in this special issue of Political Geography. 4.,Parry, M., et al. (eds) (2007). Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The definitive review of all the peer-reviewed research on the way climate change may impact on places and sectors across the world. Includes chapters on ecosystems, health, human settlements, primary industries, water resources, and the major regions of the world. All chapters are available online at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg2.htm 5.,Salehyan, I. (2008). From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3), pp. 315,326. doi:10.1177/0022343308088812 A balanced review of research on the links between climate change and conflict, with attention to existing evidence. 6.,Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. Gives insight into how the US security policy community is framing the problem of climate change. This needs to be read critically. Available at http://www.gbn.com/ArticleDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231 7.,German Advisory Council on Global Change. (2007). World in transition: climate change as a security risk. Berlin, Germany: WBGU. A major report from the German Advisory Council on Global Change on the risks climate changes poses to peace and stability. Needs to be read with caution. Summary and background studies are available online at http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_jg2007_engl.html 8.,Yamin, F., and Depedge, J. (2004). The International climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. A clear and very detailed explanation of the UNFCCC's objectives, actors, history, and challenges. A must read for anyone seeking to understand the UNFCCC process, written by two scholars with practical experience in negotiations. Online Materials 1.,Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ecsp The major website for information about environmental security. From here, you can download many reports and studies, including the Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 2.,Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project http://www.gechs.org This website is a clearing house for work and events on environmental change and human security. 3.,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) http://www.ipcc.ch/ From this website, you can download all the chapters of all the IPCC's reports, including its comprehensive and highly influential assessment reports, the most recent of which was published in 2007. The IPCC were awarded of the Nobel Peace Prize ,for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made (sic) climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change'. 4.,Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research http://www.tyndall.ac.uk The website of a major centre for research on climate change, and probably the world's leading centre for social science based analysis of climate change. From this site, you can download many publications about mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and about various issues in the UNFCCC. 5.,United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change http://unfccc.int/ The website contains every major document relation to the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, including the text of the agreements, national communications, country submissions, negotiated outcomes, and background documents about most key issues. Sample Syllabus: The Geopolitics of Climate Change topics for lecture and discussion Week I: Introduction Barnett, J. (2007). The geopolitics of climate change. Geography Compass 1 (6), pp. 1361,1375. United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, address to the 12th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Nairobi, 15 November 2006. Available online at http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=495&ArticleID=5424&l=en Week II: The History and Geography of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Topic: The drivers of climate change in space and time Reading Baer, P. (2006). Adaptation: who pays whom? In: Adger, N., et al. (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 131,154. Boyden, S., and Dovers, S. (1992). Natural-resource consumption and its environmental impacts in the Western World: impacts of increasing per capita consumption. Ambio 21 (1), pp. 63,69. Week III: The Environmental Consequences of climate change Topic: The risks climate change poses to environmental systems Reading Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate change 2007: climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: summary for policymakers. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat. Watch: Al Gore. The Inconvenient Truth. Weeks IV and V: The Social Consequences of Climate Change Topic: The risks climate change poses to social systems Reading Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development 27, pp. 249,269. Comrie, A. (2007). Climate change and human health. Geography Compass 1 (3), pp. 325,339. Leary, N., et al. (2006). For whom the bell tolls: vulnerability in a changing climate. A Synthesis from the AIACC project, AIACC Working Paper No. 21, International START Secretariat, Florida. Stern, N. (2007). Economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Chapters 3,5). Week VI: Mitigation of Climate Change: The UNFCCC Topic: The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol Reading Najam, A., Huq, S., and Sokona, Y. (2003). Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests. Climate Policy 3 (3), pp. 221,231. UNFCCC Secretariat. (2005). Caring for climate: a guide to the climate change convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Bonn, Germany: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat. Weeks VII and VIII: Adaptation to Climate Change Topic: What can be done to allow societies to adapt to avoid climate impacts? Reading Adger, N., et al. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry, M., et al. (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 717,744. Burton, I., et al. (2002). From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Climate Policy 2 (2,3), pp. 145,159. Eakin, H., and Lemos, M. C. (2006). Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 16 (1), pp. 7,18. Ziervogel, G., Bharwani, S., and Downing, T. (2006). Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30, pp. 294,305. Weeks IX and X: Climate Change and Migration Topic: Will climate change force migration? Readings Gaim, K. (1997). Environmental causes and impact of refugee movements: a critique of the current debate. Disasters 21 (1), pp. 20,38. McLeman, R., and Smit, B. (2006). Migration as adaptation to climate change. Climatic Change 76 (1), pp. 31,53. Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357 (1420), pp. 609,613. Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M., and Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change (online first, forthcoming); doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y Weeks XI and XII: Climate Change and Violent Conflict Topic: Will Climate change cause violent conflict? Readings Barnett, J., and Adger, N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 639,655. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. (2007). The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: CSIS. Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. [online]. Retrieved on 8 April 2007 from http://www.gbn.com/ArticleDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231 Focus Questions 1Who is most responsible for climate change? 2Who is most vulnerable to climate change? 3Does everyone have equal power in the UNFCCC process? 4Will climate change force people to migrate? Who? 5What is the relationship between adaptation to climate change and violent conflict? [source]

    Option for Posting Supplementary Material Now Available

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2006
    Article first published online: 31 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Computational NMR Spectroscopy of Transition-Metal/Nitroimidazole Complexes: Theoretical Investigation of Potential Radiosensitizers

    The computed chemical shifts of transition-metal complexes with dimetridazole (=,1,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-1H -imidazole; 1), a prototypical nitro-imidazole-based radiosensitizer, are reported at the GIAO-BP86 and -B3LYP levels for BP86/ECP1-optimized geometries. These complexes comprise [MCl2(1)2] (M,=,Zn, Pd, Pt), [RuCl2(DMSO)2(1)2], and [Rh2(O2CMe)4(1)2]. Available ,(1H) and ,(15N) values, and ,,(1H) and ,,(15N) coordination shifts are well-reproduced theoretically, provided solvation and relativistic effects are taken into account by means of a polarizable continuum model and suitable methods including spin,orbit (SO) coupling, respectively. These effects are particularly important for the metal-coordinated N-atom, where the contributions from solvation and relativity can affect ,(15N) and ,,(15N) values up to 10,20,ppm. The 195Pt chemical shifts of cis - and trans -[PtCl2(1)2] are well-reproduced using the zero-order regular approximation including SO coupling (ZORA-SO). Predictions are reported for 99Ru and 103Rh chemical shifts, which suggest that these metal centers could be used as additional, sensitive NMR probes in their complexes with nitro-imidazoles. [source]

    Analysis of skin images using texture descriptor by a combined statistical and structural approach

    C. Umarani
    Abstract In this article, an attempt has been made to analyze various skin (textured) images. They are caused because of hot water, chemical, electrical, thermal, cigarette, etc. These images are analyzed using our texture representation scheme. Our approach uses a set of 92 texture primitives. They are tested for the presence of texture by a statistical design of experiments based approach [Ganesan and Bhattacharyya, Pattern Recogn 28 (1995), 99,105]. These texture primitives are concluded as the local descriptor and their distribution over the entire image is the global representation called texture primitive spectrum. The set of texture primitives and the texture primitive spectrums are successful for a number of Bench mark images (Brodatz, Texture,A photographic album for artists and designers, Reinbold, New York, 1968; Vistex, Available at http://www.white.media.mit.edu\vismod\imgery\Vision Texture, MIT Media Lab, 1995). Using the texture primitive spectrum, several texture images have been categorized as micro, macro, fine, and coarse and a trend is obtained. Similarly, a set of skin images affected by severe burn with many causes are analyzed. The severity has been quantified and concluded based on simple and weighted mean computed for the texture primitive spectrums. The extent of burn and hence the curing duration can be approximated from the results. The outcome of our experimentation with ground truth and the opinion from the experts are closely matching. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 17, 359,366, 2007 [source]

    Quinacrine and hydroxychloroquine, a forgotten combination for patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus in Australasia?

    Daniel W. T. Ching
    Abstract In 1994, A 39-year-old Female Patient With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Sle) Was Diagnosed As Having Lupus-induced Serositis. She Was Commenced On Hydroxychloroquine (Hcq) And Prednisone. Her Disease Kept Relapsing Whenever She Was Tailed Off Prednisone. In 1997, Quinacrine (Qn) Was Commenced, And Prednisone Was Gradually Stopped. Her Disease Has Remained In Remission On The Combination Of Hcq And Qn. In December 2000 She Ran Out Of Qn For A Week, And Within This Period She Started To Experience Fatigue And Polyarthralgia Again. Quinacrine Is Available From Compounding Pharmacies, And Is Relatively Cheap. The Combination Of Hcq And Qn In The Treatment Of Sle Should Be Considered More Often. [source]

    Publications Available for Review

    Article first published online: 5 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Publications Available for Review

    Article first published online: 5 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reputation When Threats and Transfers Are Available

    Ernesto Dal Bó
    We present a model where a long run player is allowed to use both money transfers and threats to influence the decisions of a sequence of short run players. We show that threats might be used credibly (even in arbitrarily short repeated games) by a long-lived player who gains by developing a reputation of carrying out punishments. Particular cases of the model are a long-lived pressure group offering rewards and punishments to a series of targets (public or corporate officials) in exchange for policy favors, or that of a long-lived extorter who demands money in order not to punish. We use the model to analyze the "convicted nonpayor" debate around judicial corruption. The model highlights formal similarities between lobbying and extortion. [source]

    Homocysteine, the MTHFR 677 C,T polymorphism and family history of premature cardiovascular disease

    A. Carey
    Background:, Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of premature death in the UK and accounts for 36% of all premature male deaths and 27% of female deaths every year (British Heart Foundation, 2006). Although many risk factors for CVD are known, family history has been identified as being of particular importance in premature CVD (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2004). Recently, it was suggested that an elevated homocysteine (tHcy) may be associated with premature CVD (Homocystiene Studies Collaboration, 2002). The main genetic determinant of tHcy is the common 677 C,T polymorphism, in the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which is prevalent in approximately 10% of the UK population. Relatively few studies have examined the association between tHcy and premature CVD and hardly any have considered the role of this polymorphism. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationships between the MTHFR 677 C,T polymorphism, tHcy and a family history of CVD in patients with established premature CVD. Methods:, An analysis was conducted on medical, lifestyle and family history data collected from patients and age-sex matched controls, recruited through the GENOVIT study in 2003. This case,control study involved n = 404 premature CVD patients and a similar number of age-sex matched controls, all of whom were screened for the TT genotype. A subset of patients (n = 196) and controls (n = 167) provided a blood sample, from which the tHcy concentration was established. Independent sample t -tests were used to determine differences between patients and controls and differences among genotype groups were examined using a one-way analysis of variance, followed by a Tukey's post hoc test. Results:, Plasma tHcy was significantly elevated in patients with a family history of CVD (compared to those without) (P = 0.013). A nonsignificant trend towards higher tHcy (compared to those without) was observed in patients with the TT genotype (P = 0.419). Furthermore, specifically in those with the TT genotype, those with a family history of CVD (compared to those without) showed significantly higher tHcy concentrations (P < 0.005). Those with the TT genotype who smoked had significantly higher tHcy (P < 0.05) than the CC and CT genotypes. Discussion:, The findings presented provide evidence to support an association between the MTHFR 677C,T polymorphism, elevated homocysteine and family history of premature CVD. Given that dietary levels of riboflavin have been shown to lower homocysteine specifically in individuals with the TT genotype (McNulty et al., 2006), these results have implications for the dietary management of premature CVD in those individuals with a genetic predisposition for elevated tHcy. In conclusion, further research in larger cohort numbers, regarding the correlation between family history, tHcy and the MTHFR polymorphism, would be beneficial for establishing their cause and effect relationship. References British Heart Foundation (2006) All Deaths and Deaths Under 75 by Cause and Sex, 2005, England, Wales, Scotland, N Ireland and United Kingdom. Available at http://www.bhf.org.uk/research_health_professionals/resources/heart_statistics.aspx. Homocystine Studies Collaboration (2002) Homocysteine and the risk of ishaemic heart disease and stroke. JAMA288, 2015,2022. Llyod-Jones, D.M., Nam, B.H., D'Agostino, R.B., Levy, D., Murabito, J.M., Wang, T.J., Wilson, P.W. & O'Donnell, C.J. (2004) Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults, a prospective study of parents and offspring. JAMA291, 2204,2211. McNulty, H., Dowey le, R.C., Strain, J.J., Dunne, A., Ward, M., Molloy, A.M., McAnena. L.B., Hughes, J.P., Hannon-Fletcher, M. & Scott, J.M. Riboflavin lowers homocysteine in individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism. Circulation113, 74,80. [source]

    A randomised, controlled trial of the effects of an energy-dense supplement on energy intake, appetite and blood lipids in malnourished community-based elderly patients

    G.P. Hubbard
    Background:, Disease-related malnutrition is common in the elderly and if left untreated may have severe consequences (Stratton & Elia, 2003). One of the strategies used to combat malnutrition is the use of high-energy, low-volume [18.8 kJ mL,1 (4.5 kcal ml,1)] nutritional supplements. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an energy dense supplement on energy intake, appetite and blood lipids in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods:, In this randomised, controlled, parallel study, 42 community-based patients (mean (SD) age: 84 (7.0) years, mean body mass index (BMI): 20.9 (3.5) kg m,2), identified as being at medium or high risk of malnutrition [Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) (Elia, 2003)] were randomised (using standard randomisation methods) to receive either; (i) 1674 kJ day,1 (400 kcal day,1) (in 3 × 30 mL doses) of an energy-dense supplement (Calogen, Nutricia®) (n = 19) or (ii) dietary advice in the form of a standardised dietary advice sheet (n = 23), for 4 weeks. Energy intake, appetite, blood lipids [i.e. total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (subset analysis only)], body weight, gastro-intestinal tolerance, product compliance and product acceptability were assessed during the 4 week study. Results are presented as mean (SD). Paired t -test and one way anova statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS v15. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the appropriate committee. Results:, Supplementation with the energy dense supplement significantly increased mean total daily energy intake by +1736 kJ (+415 kcal, P = 0.009) from 6456 (2330) kJ [1543 (557) kcal] to 8192 (1477) kJ [1958 (353) kcal], with no significant effect on voluntary food intake or appetite scores (for hunger, fullness and desire to eat). In the dietary advice group, although mean total daily energy intake was also significantly increased by +1105 kJ (+264 kcal, P = 0.026) from 5623 (2107) kJ [1344 (503) kcal] to 6728 (2029) kJ [1608 (485) kcal], it was significantly lower than in the energy dense group [-1464 kJ (-350 kcal), P = 0.012] at week 4. Both energy-dense and dietary advice groups maintained weight during the study. No significant adverse effects on blood lipid concentrations were observed in either group, with a significant decrease in total cholesterol concentrations [from 4.26 (1.0) mM to 3.96 (0.8) mM, P = 0.03] and LDL cholesterol concentrations [from 2.32 (0.6) mM to 2.06 (0.5) mM, P = 0.03] in the energy dense group (subset analysis, n = 9). Both supplementation with energy dense supplement and dietary advice were well tolerated with no gastro-intestinal side effects. The energy dense supplement was well accepted with >80% of patients rating it as pleasant and convenient, with an enjoyable taste. Compliance with the energy dense supplement was high, with 95% of patients consuming the recommended dose of 3 × 30 mL throughout the study. Discussion:, This study in elderly patients with or at risk of malnutrition suggests that the energy dense supplement is effective in significantly improving total intakes of energy with no suppression of appetite or voluntary dietary intake, enabling patients to maintain weight and that the energy dense supplement is well tolerated and accepted, with excellent compliance and no adverse effects on blood lipids. Conclusions:, This randomised controlled trial suggests that an energy-dense supplement is an effective, well tolerated and safe method of providing energy supplementation for the management of elderly patients with or at risk of malnutrition in clinical practice. References, Elia, M. (2003) The "MUST" report. Nutritional screening for adults: a multidisciplinary responsibility. Redditch, UK: BAPEN. Available at http://www.bapen.org.uk (accessed on 15 March 2008). Stratton, R.J., Green, C.J. & Elia, M. (2003) Disease-related malnutrition: an evidence-based approach. Oxford: CABI publishing. [source]

    Laboratory Models Available to Study Alcohol-Induced Organ Damage and Immune Variations: Choosing the Appropriate Model

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    Nympha B. D'Souza El-Guindy
    The morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol-related diseases globally impose a substantive cost to society. To minimize the financial burden on society and improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from the ill effects of alcohol abuse, substantial research in the alcohol field is focused on understanding the mechanisms by which alcohol-related diseases develop and progress. Since ethical concerns and inherent difficulties limit the amount of alcohol abuse research that can be performed in humans, most studies are performed in laboratory animals. This article summarizes the various laboratory models of alcohol abuse that are currently available and are used to study the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse induces organ damage and immune defects. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. Integrated into the review are the presentations that were made in the symposium "Methods of Ethanol Application in Alcohol Model,How Long is Long Enough" at the joint 2008 Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) and International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) meeting, Washington, DC, emphasizing the importance not only of selecting the most appropriate laboratory alcohol model to address the specific goals of a project but also of ensuring that the findings can be extrapolated to alcohol-induced diseases in humans. [source]

    The individual and "the general situation": The tension barometer and the race problem at the University of Chicago, 1947,1954

    Leah N. Gordon
    This article explains how social theories that posited white attitudes as the root of racial injustice gained traction in postwar social thought. Examining the production of a "tension barometer," an attitude survey that scholars from the University of Chicago's Committee on Education, Training, and Research in Race Relations created to predict interracial violence, I chart vigorous debate over the nature and causes of racial oppression in the critical postwar decades. Available,and unavailable,social scientific frameworks, activists" interests, and emerging anticommunism, the Committee's history shows, created an environment where individualistic conceptions of the race problem won out, despite critique. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Review article: the modern management of autoimmune hepatitis

    A. D. YEOMAN
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 771,787 Summary Background, The management of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) continues to be refined. However, several issues remain unresolved, primarily as a consequence of the low incidence of the disease. This factor has contributed both to a lack of understanding of and a paucity of large scale clinical trials involving therapeutic agents. Aim, To summarize the latest evidence regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and long-term management of AIH with a focus on clinical aspects of the disease. Method, We searched PUBMED for articles pertaining to AIH, its pathogenesis, treatment and clinical outcomes, combined with the authors' own knowledge of the literature. Results, Standard therapy (corticosteroids and azathioprine) is effective in more than 80% of patients which renders study of novel agents difficult. Budesonide appears to show equivalence to prednisolone. Available, but limited, data suggest that mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and ciclosporin are all variably effective second line agents. Patients with AIH and cirrhosis are at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and require screening. Patients with end stage liver disease represent excellent candidates for liver transplantation. Conclusions, Despite ongoing limitations in the understanding of pathogenesis and difficulties in evaluating novel therapies, the management of AIH continues to evolve slowly. Multi-centre collaboration is necessary to obtain sufficient patient numbers to undertake good quality therapeutic studies. [source]

    With No Shelf Exam Available, SAEM Online Clerkship Testing Tool Best Option

    Matt Emery MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Economic Stimulus Package: NIH Grants Available

    Jennifer P. Hellwig MS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Revised Core Curriculums Now Available

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Every Woman Now Available in Spanish

    Toda Mujer Features Culturally Relevant Translation of Leading Women's Health Guide
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Second Edition of "Sharps Safety and Needlestick Prevention" Available

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Web-Based Exhibit on Genetics Research Now Available

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    AWHONN Convention CE Now Available

    Capture the Knowledge, Credit at AWHONN's Virtual Library
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Limited Number of Every Woman Sites Available

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Pulsed Radiofrequency: Current Clinical and Biological Literature Available

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Alex Cahana MD, DAAPM
    ABSTRACT Objective., Pulsed radiofrequency, where short bursts of radiofrequency energy are applied to nervous tissue, has been used by pain practitioners as a non- or minimally neurodestructive technique, alternative to radiofrequency heat lesions. Clinical advantages and mechanisms of this treatment remain unclear. The objective of this study was to review current clinical and laboratory data. Design., We systematically searched the MEDLINE database (PubMed) and tables of contents of electronically available pain journals. Reference lists of relevant reports and international scientific pain congress abstract books were also hand searched. Only those reports on pulsed radiofrequency were withheld. Results., The final analysis yielded 58 reports on the clinical use of pulsed radiofrequency in different applications: 33 full publications and 25 abstracts. We also retrieved six basic science reports, five full publications, and one abstract. Conclusions., The accumulation of these data shows that the use of pulsed radiofrequency generates an increasing interest of pain physicians for the management of a variety of pain syndromes. Although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated, laboratory reports suggest a genuine neurobiological phenomenon altering the pain signaling, which some have described as neuromodulatory. No side effects related to the pulsed radiofrequency technique were reported to date. Further research in the clinical and biological effects is justified. [source]

    Occupational blood exposure among unlicensed home care workers and home care registered nurses: Are they protected?

    FAAN, J. Lipscomb PhD
    Abstract Background Little is known about the risk of blood exposure among personnel providing care to individual patients residing at home. The objective of this study was to document and compare blood exposure risks among unlicensed home care personal care assistants (PCAs) and home care registered nurses (RNs). Methods PCAs self-completed surveys regarding blood and body fluid (BBF) contact in group settings (n,=,980), while RNs completed mailed surveys (n,=,794). Results PCAs experience BBF contact in the course of providing care for home-based clients at a rate approximately 1/3 the rate experienced by RNs providing home care (8.1 and 26.7 per 100 full time equivalent (FTE), respectively), and the majority of PCA contact episodes did not involve direct sharps handling. However, for PCAs who performed work activities such as handling sharps and changing wound dressings, activities much more frequently performed by RNs, PCAs were at increased risk of injury when compared with RNs (OR,=,7.4 vs. 1.4) and (OR,=,6.3 vs. 2.5), respectively. Conclusion Both PCAs and RNs reported exposures to sharps, blood, and body fluids in the home setting at rates that warrant additional training, prevention, and protection. PCAs appear to be at increased risk of injury when performing nursing-related activities for which they are inexperienced and/or lack training. Further efforts are needed to protect home care workers from blood exposure, namely by assuring coverage and enforcement of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogen Standard [Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1993. Frequently Asked Questions Concerning the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Available at: http://www. osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS &p_id=21010#Scope. Accessed May 30, 2008]. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:563,570, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Testability and repair of hereditary hypergraph properties

    Tim Austin
    Abstract Recent works of Alon,Shapira (A characterization of the (natural) graph properties testable with one-sided error. Available at: http://www.math.tau.ac.il/,nogaa/PDFS/heredit2.pdf) and Rödl,Schacht (Generalizations of the removal lemma, Available at: http://www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/,schacht/pub/preprints/gen_removal.pdf) have demonstrated that every hereditary property of undirected graphs or hypergraphs is testable with one-sided error; informally, this means that if a graph or hypergraph satisfies that property "locally" with sufficiently high probability, then it can be perturbed (or "repaired") into a graph or hypergraph which satisfies that property "globally." In this paper we make some refinements to these results, some of which may be surprising. In the positive direction, we strengthen the results to cover hereditary properties of multiple directed polychromatic graphs and hypergraphs. In the case of undirected graphs, we extend the result to continuous graphs on probability spaces and show that the repair algorithm is "local" in the sense that it only depends on a bounded amount of data; in particular, the graph can be repaired in a time linear in the number of edges. We also show that local repairability also holds for monotone or partite hypergraph properties (this latter result is also implicitly in (Ishigamis work Removal lemma for infinitely-many forbidden hypergraphs and property testing. Available at: arXiv.org: math.CO/0612669)). In the negative direction, we show that local repairability breaks down for directed graphs or for undirected 3-uniform hypergraphs. The reason for this contrast in behavior stems from (the limitations of) Ramsey theory. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Random Struct. Alg., 2010 [source]

    Transnasal Esophagoscopy: A High-Yield Diagnostic Tool,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2005
    Jennifer G. Andrus MD
    Abstract Objectives: Transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) reveals a wide range of esophageal findings. TNE technique, indications, outcomes, advantages, limitations, and impact on patient care are described. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Charts of the first 30 patients to undergo TNE in an academic otolaryngology practice were reviewed. Technique details, patient demographics, and procedure indications and findings as well as the disposition of patients in this series are described. TNE limitations are discussed with areas for future development. Results: Thirty patients who underwent unsedated outpatient TNE by their otolaryngologist are described. TNE was directed toward select indications: dysphagia, screening esophagoscopy given long-standing gastroesophageal reflux (GER) or laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and esophageal surveillance with a new diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Positive findings included mucosal cobblestoning, Barrett's esophagus, esophagitis, gastritis, candidal esophagitis, esophageal diverticulum, postcricoid mass, patulous esophagus, and absence of secondary esophageal peristalsis. Outcomes included referral to a gastroenterologist for evaluation, with or without biopsy; direct laryngoscopy or esophagoscopy with biopsy by the otolaryngologist; planned cancer resection by the otolaryngologist; and medical management of GER/LPR by the otolaryngologist. Conclusions: With appropriate selection criteria, TNE yields a high percentage of positive findings and wide range of esophageal abnormalities, directly impacting patient management. Available to otolaryngologists in the outpatient setting, TNE expedites interventions by providing a safe, effective alternative to rigid esophagoscopy under general anesthesia and flexible upper endoscopy with sedation. Patients will benefit from the integration of TNE into otolaryngologists' outpatient diagnostic armamentarium. [source]

    Changes of the Swedish Bordetella pertussis population in incidence peaks during an acellular pertussis vaccine period between 1997 and 2004,

    APMIS, Issue 4 2007
    In a surveillance programme undertaken from 1997 through 2004, Bordetella pertussis isolates and clinical information were collected after introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) in 1996. Changes in the B. pertussis population were studied in three incidence peaks: 1999,2000, 2002 and 2004. Available isolates from 158 fully vaccinated children representing all of Sweden, plus 37 from the Gothenburg area 2003,2004, were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and sequencing of the virulence factor genes pertussis toxin subunits 1 and 3 (ptxA, ptxC), pertactin (prn), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA) and fimbria3 (fim3). Allele ptxA1 was found in all isolates. There was a statistically significant increasing trend in three out of five studied genes, ptxC, prn and tcfA, and for a fourth, Fim3, if Gothenburg strains were included. The PFGE profile BpSR11 appearing in the 1999,2000 peak dominated by ,23% during the entire period, bringing with it the allele combination 1/2/2/2/B (ptxA1/ptxC2/prn2/tcfA2/fim3B). Other BpSR11-related profiles with the same allele combination and more than 82% similarity,BpSR5 in the 2002 peak and BpSR12 in the 2004 peak,appeared with an increasing trend. Although vaccination with Pa has reduced disease, new variants have emerged representing clones surviving in the immunized population. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Application of a Readily Available and Air-Stable Monophosphine HBF4 Salt for the Suzuki Coupling Reaction of Aryl or 1-Alkenyl Chlorides.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 25 2010
    Bo Lue
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Highly Efficient Copper-Catalyzed O-Arylation Using Readily Available (S)-N-Methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide as the Ligand.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 22 2008
    Xianghao Liu
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]