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EFNS guidelines on management of neurological problems in liver transplantation

M. Guarino
Neurological impairment after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is common and represents a major source of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis and management of neurological problems occurring after OLT are difficult and evidence-based guidelines for this task are currently lacking. A Task Force was set up under the auspices of the European Federation of Neurological Societies to devise guidelines to prevent and manage neurological problems in OLT. We selected six major neurological problems and approached them combining an evidence-based scientific literature analysis with a search of consensus by means of a Delphi process. Search results were translated into a series of recommendations constituting a basis for better care of patients with neurological complications after OLT. [source] a user-friendly viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolate and sequence database

S P Jonstrup
Abstract A database has been created,, with the aim of providing a single repository for collating important information on significant pathogens of aquaculture, relevant to their control and management. This database will be developed, maintained and managed as part of the European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases function. This concept has been initially developed for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and will be extended in future to include information on other significant aquaculture pathogens. Information included for each isolate comprises sequence, geographical origin, host origin and useful key literature. Various search mechanisms make it easy to find specific groups of isolates. Search results can be presented in several different ways including table-based, map-based and graph-based outputs. When retrieving sequences, the user is given freedom to obtain data from any selected part of the genome of interest. The output of the sequence search can be readily retrieved as a FASTA file ready to be imported into a sequence alignment tool of choice, facilitating further molecular epidemiological study. [source]

Preoperative chemoradiation versus radiation alone for stage II and III resectable rectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Wim Ceelen
Abstract Combining chemotherapy with preoperative radiotherapy (RT) has a sound radiobiological rationale. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing preoperative RT with preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) in rectal cancer patients. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Embase and Medline (Pubmed) were searched from 1975 until June 2007. Dichotomous parameters were summarized using the odds ratio while time to event data were analyzed using the pooled hazard ratio for death. From the primary search result of 324 trials, 4 relevant randomized trials were identified. The addition of chemotherapy significantly increased grade III and IV acute toxicity (p = 0.002) while no differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or mortality. Preoperative CRT significantly increased the rate of pathological complete response (p < 0.001) although this did not translate into a higher sphincter preservation rate (p = 0.29). The local recurrence rate was significantly lower in the CRT group (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in disease free survival (p = 0.89) or overall survival (p = 0.79). Compared to preoperative RT alone, preoperative CRT improves local control in rectal cancer but is associated with a more pronounced treatment related toxicity. The addition of chemotherapy does not benefit sphincter preservation rate or long-term survival. Future trials should address improvements in the rate of distant metastasis and overall survival by incorporating more active chemotherapy. 2008 UICC [source]

A new strategy to filter out false positive identifications of peptides in SEQUEST database search results

Jiyang Zhang
Abstract Based on the randomized database method and a linear discriminant function (LDF) model, a new strategy to filter out false positive matches in SEQUEST database search results is proposed. Given an experiment MS/MS dataset and a protein sequence database, a randomized database is constructed and merged with the original database. Then, all MS/MS spectra are searched against the combined database. For each expected false positive rate (FPR), LDFs are constructed for different charge states and used to filter out the false positive matches from the normal database. In order to investigate the error of FPR estimation, the new strategy was applied to a reference dataset. As a result, the estimated FPR was very close to the actual FPR. While applied to a human K562 cell line dataset, which is a complicated dataset from real sample, more matches could be confirmed than the traditional cutoff-based methods at the same estimated FPR. Also, though most of the results confirmed by the LDF model were consistent with those of PeptideProphet, the LDF model could still provide complementary information. These results indicate that the new method can reliably control the FPR of peptide identifications and is more sensitive than traditional cutoff-based methods. [source]