Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Seizures

  • absence seizures
  • acute seizures
  • afebrile seizures
  • alcohol withdrawal seizures
  • alcohol-related seizures
  • audiogenic seizures
  • clinical seizures
  • clonic seizures
  • complex partial seizures
  • complex seizures
  • convulsive seizures
  • electrographic seizures
  • epileptic seizures
  • febrile seizures
  • focal motor seizures
  • focal seizures
  • generalized seizures
  • generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • induced seizures
  • intractable seizures
  • kindled seizures
  • lobe seizures
  • motor seizures
  • myoclonic seizures
  • neonatal seizures
  • non-epileptic seizures
  • ongoing seizures
  • onset seizures
  • partial seizures
  • partial-onset seizures
  • postoperative seizures
  • recurrent seizures
  • refractory seizures
  • severe seizures
  • spontaneous seizures
  • temporal lobe seizures
  • tonic seizures
  • tonic-clonic seizures
  • unprovoked seizures
  • withdrawal seizures

  • Terms modified by Seizures

  • seizures early

  • Selected Abstracts

    Seizures and paroxysmal events: symptoms pointing to the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency

    Aim, We report on seizures, paroxysmal events, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in four female infants with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) and in one female with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency (PNPO). Method, Videos and EEGs were analysed and compared with videos of seizures and paroxysmal events archived from 140 neonates. PDE and PNPO were proven by complete control of seizures once pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5,-phosphate was administered and by recurrence when withdrawn. Mutations in the antiquitin gene were found in three patients and in the PNPO gene in one child. Results, Seizures began within 48 hours after birth in four newborns and at age 3 weeks in one. Frequent multifocal and generalized myoclonic jerks, often intermixed with tonic symptoms, abnormal eye movement, grimacing, or irritability, were observed in all infants with PDE and PNPO, but rarely in the other archived videos of neonates. EEGs were inconstant and frequently no discernable ictal changes were recorded during the seizures and the paroxysmal events. In addition, interictal EEGs were inconclusive, with normal and abnormal recordings. In older children tonic,clonic seizures, abnormal behaviour, inconsolable crying, frightened facial expression, sleep disturbance, loss of consciousness, paraesthesia, or intermittent visual symptoms were described during controlled and uncontrolled withdrawal or insufficient dosage. Interpretation, PDE or PNPO should be considered in infants with prolonged episodes of mixed multifocal myoclonic tonic symptoms, notably when associated with grimacing and abnormal eye movements. [source]

    Baseline cognition, behavior, and motor skills in children with new-onset, idiopathic epilepsy

    Aim, Epilepsy is associated with difficulties in cognition and behavior in children. These problems have been attributed to genetics, ongoing seizures, psychosocial issues, underlying abnormality of the brain, and/or antiepileptic drugs. In a previous study, we found baseline cognitive differences between children with partial versus generalized and convulsive versus non-convulsive seizures. Measures in that study focused primarily on IQ scores. In the present study, we assessed baseline function with respect to new learning, attention, and memory, thus providing a more comprehensive profile than our previous study. Method, We examined 57 children (42 females, 15 males), aged 6 to 17 years (mean 10y 1mo, SD 2y 9mo), with new-onset, idiopathic epilepsy, using tests of cognitive function reflective of new learning, memory, and attention. Seizures were classified as generalized convulsive (n=5), generalized non-convulsive (n=18), or focal (n=34). Focal seizures were divided into unilateral versus bilateral independent foci, and presence versus absence of secondary generalization. Results, Attention was a particular area of weakness across all groups. The Vocabulary score of an intelligence screen was higher for the focal seizure groups (p=0.012), primarily because of a difference between the unilateral focal and the primary generalized groups (p<0.047). Children with generalized, non-convulsive seizures performed significantly worse than the focal group on a measure of short-term auditory memory (p=0.019). All groups performed poorly on a test of visual,motor speed. Interpretation, These findings suggest intrinsic abnormalities in children with new-onset, idiopathic epilepsy at baseline. [source]

    Intravenous lidocaine for status epilepticus during childhood

    Shin-ichiro Hamano MD;
    The clinical efficacy of lidocaine for convulsive status epilepticus in 53 convulsive episodes was examined in 37 children (17 males, 20 females). Mean age of patients receiving lidocaine was 3 years 7 months (SD 3y 5mo). Lidocaine administration achieved control of status epilepticus in 19 of 53 convulsive episodes (35.8%). Seizures ceased within 5 minutes of lidocaine administration in all 19 patients who were responsive to the drug. Regarding aetiology of status epilepticus and types of seizures, there was no statistical difference in effectiveness. Mild decrease of oxygen saturation, monitored by pulse oximetry, was observed in one patient, which improved by oxygenation using a mask. Lidocaine is a useful anticonvulsive agent; however, the response rate to lidocaine appears to be quite low, as less than half of the seizures were effectively controlled by lidocaine. Favourable properties of the drug include prompt responses, less alteration of consciousness, and fewer adverse effects, including less respiratory depression. [source]

    Epilepsy in fragile X syndrome

    Elizabeth Berry-Kravis MD PhD
    Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10 to 20% of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). A frequent seizure/EEG pattern in FXS appears to resemble that of benign focal epilepsy of childhood (BFEC, benign rolandic epilepsy). To evaluate seizure frequency and type in a Chicago FXS cohort, data regarding potential seizure history were reviewed for 136 individuals with FXS (age range 2 to 51 years: 113 males and 23 females). Seizures occurred in 15 males (13.3%) and one female (4.3%): of these, 12 had partial seizures. EEG findings were available for 35 individuals (13 of 16 with seizures and 22 of 120 without seizures) and showed an epileptiform abnormality in 10 (77%) individuals with seizures and five (23%) individuals without seizures - the most common epileptiform pattern being centrotemporal spikes. Seizures were easily controlled in 14 of the 16 individuals with seizures. Many individuals, including all with centrotemporal spikes, had remission of seizures in childhood. The most common seizure syndrome resembled BFEC and this pattern had the best prognosis for epilepsy remission. Deficiency of FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein) appears to lead to increased neuronal excitability and susceptibility to epilepsy, but particularly seems to facilitate mechanisms leading to the BFEC pattern. [source]

    Continuous local intrahippocampal delivery of adenosine reduces seizure frequency in rats with spontaneous seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2010
    Annelies Van Dycke
    Summary Purpose:, Despite different treatment options for patients with refractory epilepsy such as epilepsy surgery and neurostimulation, many patients still have seizures and/or drug-related cerebral and systemic side effects. Local intracerebral delivery of antiepileptic compounds may represent a novel strategy with specific advantages such as the option of higher local doses and reduced side effects. In this study we evaluate the antiepileptic effect of local delivery of adenosine in the kainic acid rat model, a validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods:, Fifteen rats, in which intraperitoneal kainic acid injection had induced spontaneous seizures, were implanted with a combination of depth electrodes and a cannula in both hippocampi. Cannulas were connected to osmotic minipumps to allow continuous hippocampal delivery. Rats were freely moving and permanently monitored by video-EEG (electroencephalography). Seizures were scored during 2 weeks of local hippocampal delivery of saline (baseline), followed by 2 weeks of local adenosine (6 mg/ml) (n = 10) or saline (n = 5) delivery (0.23 ,l/h) (treatment). In 7 of 10 adenosine-treated rats, saline was also delivered during a washout period. Results:, During the treatment period a mean daily seizure frequency reduction of 33% compared to the baseline rate was found in adenosine-treated rats (p < 0.01). Four rats had a seizure frequency reduction of at least 50%. Both nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures significantly decreased during the treatment period. In the saline-control group, mean daily seizure frequency increased with 35% during the treatment period. Conclusions:, This study demonstrates the antiseizure effect of continuous adenosine delivery in the hippocampi in rats with spontaneous seizures. [source]

    Ring chromosome 20 syndrome: A link between epilepsy onset and neuropsychological impairment in three children

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2009
    Aglaia Vignoli
    Summary Purpose:, Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is a well-defined chromosomal disorder characterized by epilepsy, mild-to-moderate mental retardation, and lack of recognizable dysmorphic features. Epilepsy is often the most important clinical manifestation of the syndrome, even if its appearance is not constantly precocious. Seizures are frequently drug resistant. Methods:, We describe three children with [r(20)] syndrome in whom the onset of epilepsy (age at onset range: 4 years and 6 months to 9 years and 4 months) determined a kind of epileptic status (age at onset range: 6 years and 10 months to 9 years and 8 months) with dramatic neuropsychological deterioration. This epileptic status lasted for several months because of refractoriness to most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but it was treated successfully with a combination of valproate and lamotrigine in two children. Results:, As soon as seizures stopped, the children showed prompt recovery with partial restoration of the neuropsychological impairment. Conclusion:, This clinical picture can be described as abrupt epileptic encephalopathy. [source]

    Seizures in multiple sclerosis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2008
    Marcus Koch
    Summary Seizures have long been recognized to be part of the disease spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). While they occur in only a minority of patients with MS, epileptic seizures can have serious consequences. The treatment of MS can be epileptogenic, and antiepileptic treatment can conversely worsen the symptoms of MS. In this article we present an overview of the current literature on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology, imaging, prognosis and treatment of epileptic seizures in MS. [source]

    Neonatal seizure detection using multichannel display of envelope trend

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2008
    Nicholas S. Abend
    Summary We aimed to determine whether analysis of EEG envelope trend aids bedside detection of neonatal seizures. Five neonatal EEGs with multiple seizures were used to determine optimal trend parameters for seizure detection. Using these parameters, envelope trends were generated on eight additional EEGs, evaluated by experienced and inexperienced users, and compared to traditional EEG interpretation. Seizures were best detected using envelope trend of 2,6 Hz activity over 20-s epochs. Experienced and inexperienced users identified 88% and 55% of prolonged seizures, respectively, 40% and 6% of brief seizures, and 20% and 0% of slowly evolving seizures. All users identified less than two false positives per hour. Thus, an experienced envelope trend user accurately identified longer seizures but did not identify brief or slowly evolving seizures. Less experienced users were less accurate. Trending may be a useful tool for seizure detection in some neonates. [source]

    Cognitive outcome of status epilepticus in adults

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2007
    Christoph Helmstaedter
    Summary There is no doubt that structural morphological brain lesions and malformations in epilepsy represent major etiological factors for the cognitive impairments seen in this disease. The role of epileptic activity and seizures for cognition and cognitive development, however, is less easily determined. Epileptic dysfunction ranges from interictal and periictal activity over self-terminating seizures to non-convulsive and convulsive status epilepticus, which appear the most severe conditions along this continuum. The decisive question in this regard is as to whether cognitive impairments observed in the acute epileptic condition are reversible or not. Impairments from interictal or postictal epileptic dysfunction are reversible and may interfere at most with brain maturation and cognitive development in the young patient. Seizures and ictal dysfunction in contrast, even when reversible, can leave a permanent trace which extends the phase of postictal recovery. As for status epilepticus and subsequent cognitive decline it often remains open whether the epileptic condition itself or the underlying clinical condition is causative for the aftermath. While there is evidence for both possibilities, group data from neuropsychological cross sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that more severe mental impairments, which in turn indicate more severe clinical conditions, appear to be a risk factor for sustaining status epilepticus, rather than that status epilepticus causes the cognitive decline. Reviewing the literature the cognitive condition in patients with status epilepticus varies with the type of epilepsy, the etiology of epilepsy, severity of the status, and the age of the patient. [source]

    Interobserver Reliability of Video Recording in the Diagnosis of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2007
    Luca Vignatelli
    Summary:,Background: Nocturnal frontal lobe seizures (NFLS) show one or all of the following semeiological patterns: (1) paroxysmal arousals (PA: brief and sudden recurrent motor paroxysmal behavior); (2) hyperkinetic seizures (HS: motor attacks with complex dyskinetic features); (3) asymmetric bilateral tonic seizures (ATS: motor attacks with dystonic features); (4) epileptic nocturnal wanderings (ENW: stereotyped, prolonged ambulatory behavior). Objective: To estimate the interobserver reliability (IR) of video-recording diagnosis in patients with suspected NFLS among sleep medicine experts, epileptologists, and trainees in sleep medicine. Methods: Sixty-six patients with suspected NFLS were included. All underwent nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording. Six doctors (three experts and three trainees) independently classified each case as "NFLS ascertained" (according to the above specified subtypes: PA, HS, ATS, ENW) or "NFLS excluded". IR was calculated by means of Kappa statistics, and interpreted according to the standard classification (0.0,0.20 = slight agreement; 0.21,0.40 = fair; 0.41,0.60 = moderate; 0.61,0.80 = substantial; 0.81,1.00 = almost perfect). Results: The observed raw agreement ranged from 63% to 79% between each pair of raters; the IR ranged from "moderate" (kappa = 0.50) to "substantial" (kappa = 0.72). A major source of variance was the disagreement in distinguishing between PA and nonepileptic arousals, without differences in the level of agreement between experts and trainees. Conclusions: Among sleep experts and trainees, IR of diagnosis of NFLS, based on videotaped observation of sleep phenomena, is not satisfactory. Explicit video-polysomnographic criteria for the classification of paroxysmal sleep motor phenomena are needed. [source]

    Typical versus Atypical Absence Seizures: Network Mechanisms of the Spread of Paroxysms

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2007
    Jose L. Perez Velazquez
    Summary: Purpose: Typical absence seizures differ from atypical absence seizures in terms of semiology, EEG morphology, network circuitry, and cognitive outcome, yet have the same pharmacological profile. We have compared typical to atypical absence seizures, in terms of the recruitment of different brain areas. Our initial question was whether brain areas that do not display apparent paroxysmal discharges during typical absence seizures, are affected during the ictal event in terms of synchronized activity, by other, distant areas where seizure activity is evident. Because the spike-and-wave paroxysms in atypical absence seizures invade limbic areas, we then asked whether an alteration in inhibitory processes in hippocampi may be related to the spread seizure activity beyond thalamocortical networks, in atypical seizures. Methods: We used two models of absence seizures in rats: one of typical and the other of atypical absence seizures. We estimated phase synchronization, and evaluated inhibitory transmission using a paired-pulse paradigm. Results: In typical absence seizures, we observed an increase in synchronization between hippocampal recordings when spike-and-wave discharges occurred in the cortex and thalamus. This indicates that seizure activity in the thalamocortical circuitry enhances the propensity of limbic areas to synchronize, but is not sufficient to drive hippocampal circuitry into a full paroxysmal discharge. Lower paired-pulse depression was then found in hippocampus of rats that displayed atypical absence seizures. Conclusions: These observations suggest that circuitries in brain areas that do not display apparent seizure activity become synchronized as seizures occur within thalamocortical circuitry, and that a weakened hippocampal inhibition may predispose to develop synchronization into full paroxysms during atypical absence seizures. [source]

    Treatment before Seizures: New Indications for Antiepileptic Therapy in Children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2007
    Sergiusz Józwiak
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Efficacy and Safety of Oral Lacosamide as Adjunctive Therapy in Adults with Partial-Onset Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2007
    Elinor Ben-Menachem
    Summary:,Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lacosamide when added to 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, and assess plasma concentrations of concomitant AEDs to determine any potential for drug interactions. Methods: During this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized to placebo or lacosamide 200, 400, or 600 mg/day after an 8-week baseline period. Lacosamide was titrated in weekly increments of 100 mg/day over 6 weeks and maintained for 12 weeks. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Four hundred eighteen patients were randomized and received trial medication; 312 completed the trial. The median percent reduction in seizure frequency per 28 days was 10%, 26%, 39%, and 40% in the placebo, lacosamide 200, 400, and 600 mg/day treatment groups, respectively. The median percent reduction in seizure frequency over placebo was significant for lacosamide 400 mg/day (p = 0.0023) and 600 mg/day (p = 0.0084). The 50% responder rates were 22%, 33%, 41%, and 38% for placebo, lacosamide 200, 400, and 600 mg/day, respectively. The 50% responder rate over placebo was significant for lacosamide 400 mg/day (p = 0.0038) and 600 mg/day (p = 0.0141). Adverse events that appeared dose-related included dizziness, nausea, fatigue, ataxia, vision abnormal, diplopia, and nystagmus. Lacosamide did not affect mean plasma concentrations of concomitantly administered AEDs. Conclusions: In this trial, adjunctive lacosamide significantly reduced seizure frequency in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. Along with favorable pharmacokinetic and tolerability profiles, these results support further development of lacosamide as an AED. [source]

    Seizures Lead to Elevation of Intracranial Pressure in Children Undergoing Invasive EEG Monitoring

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2007
    Aash K Shah
    Summary:,Purpose: To study the effects of intracranial subdural grid electrode placement and seizures on intracranial pressure (ICP) in children undergoing invasive EEG monitoring. Methods: Sixteen children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with subdural grid placement were included in the study. The ICP was recorded at baseline and with each seizure prospectively. A variety of seizure parameters including type of seizure, length of seizure, extent of seizure spread, and number of subdural grid electrodes inserted were analyzed retrospectively and correlated with the change in ICP. Results: A total of 48 seizures in 16 children were studied. The mean baseline ICP correlated positively with age of the child. Generalized tonic,clonic seizures were associated with the highest rise in ICP. Similarly, ICP rise was associated with seizures involving more electrodes indicating a larger area of brain participating in the seizure. Conclusion: Seizures in general and generalized tonic,clonic seizures, in particular, increase ICP temporarily in patients who are undergoing invasive EEG monitoring with subdural grids. [source]

    A Large-scale Mutagenesis Screen to Identify Seizure-resistant Zebrafish

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2007
    Scott C. Baraban
    Summary:,Methods: Seizures were induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Zebrafish were analyzed between 3 and 7 days postfertilization (dpf). Genome mutations were induced in founders by using N- ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU). Seizure behavior was monitored by using a high-speed camera and quantified by locomotion-tracking software. Electrographic activity was monitored by using a field-recording electrode placed in the optic tectum of agar-immobilized zebrafish. Results: Short-term PTZ exposure elicited a burst-suppression seizure pattern in 3-dpf zebrafish and more complex activity consisting of interictal- and ictal-like discharges at 7 dpf. Prolonged exposure to PTZ induced status epilepticus,like seizure activity and fatality in wild-type zebrafish larvae. With a PTZ survival assay at 6,7 dpf, we identified six zebrafish mutants in a forward-genetic screen covering nearly 2,000 F2 families. One mutant (s334) also was shown to exhibit reduced behavioral activity on short-term PTZ exposure and an inability to generate long-duration ictal-like discharge. Conclusions: Zebrafish offers a powerful tool for the identification and study of a genetic basis for seizure resistance. [source]

    Eslicarbazepine Acetate: A Double-blind, Add-on, Placebo-controlled Exploratory Trial in Adult Patients with Partial-onset Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2007
    Christian Elger
    Summary:,Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093), a new antiepileptic drug, as adjunctive therapy in adult patients with partial epilepsy. Methods: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 143 refractory patients aged 18,65 years with ,4 partial-onset seizures/month. The study consisted of a 12-week treatment period followed by a 1-week tapering off. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: treatment with eslicarbazepine acetate once daily (QD, n = 50), twice daily (BID, n = 46), or placebo (PL, n = 47). The daily dose was titrated from 400 mg to 800 mg and to 1,200 mg at 4-week intervals. The proportion of responders (patients with a ,50% seizure reduction) was the primary end point. Results: The percentage of responders versus baseline showed a statistically significant difference between QD and PL groups (54% vs. 28%; 90% CI =,,, ,14; p = 0.008). The difference between the BID (41%) and PL did not reach statistical significance (90% CI =,,, ,1; p = 0.12). A significantly higher proportion of responders in weeks 5,8 was found in the QD group than in the BID group (58% vs. 33%, respectively, p = 0.022). At the end of the 12-week treatment, the number of seizure-free patients in the QD and BID groups was 24%, which was significantly different from the PL group. The incidence of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Eslicarbazepine acetate was efficacious and well tolerated as an adjunctive therapy of refractory epileptic patients. [source]

    Intrinsic Ictal Dynamics at the Seizure Focus: Effects of Secondary Generalization Revealed by Complexity Measures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2007
    Christophe C. Jouny
    Summary:,Purpose: Partial seizures (PSs) may be self-limited regional events or propagate further and secondarily generalize. The mechanisms and dynamics of secondarily generalized tonic,clonic seizures (GTCSs) are not well understood. Methods with which to assess the dynamic of those events are also limited. Methods: Seizures were analyzed from patients with intractable partial seizures undergoing monitoring with intracranial electrodes. Inclusion in this study required patients to have at least one PS and one GTCS. From >120 patients, seven patients fulfilled these criteria, three with mesial temporal (MTLE) onset seizures and four with neocortical lesional (NCLE) onset seizures. In total, 50 seizures were analyzed by using the matching pursuit (MP) method and the Gabor atom density (GAD), a measure of signal complexity derived from the MP method. Results: The GAD complexity pattern at the seizure focus for the initial ictal period is remarkably consistent in a given patient, regardless of whether secondary generalization occurs. Secondary generalization produces greater modification of seizure activity at the focus in patients with NCLE than in patients with MTLE. In seizures from four patients with NCLE, secondary generalization resulted in an average increase of 115% in complexity at the focus compared to PSs. Conclusions: GAD shows that seizure dynamics of PSs are often very stereotyped from seizure to seizure in a given patient, particularly during early ictal evolution. Secondary generalization is more likely to produce changes in the duration and dynamics at the seizure focus in NCLE patients compared with MTLE patients. These observations suggest distinct mechanisms (e.g., feedback) that are operational during secondary generalization. [source]

    Localizing and Lateralizing Value of Behavioral Change in Childhood Partial Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2007
    András Fogarasi
    Summary:,Objective: To describe clinical characteristics as well as localizing and lateralizing value of behavioral change (BC) at the onset of childhood seizures. Methods: Five hundred forty-one videotaped seizures of 109 consecutive patients ,12 years with partial epilepsy and postoperatively seizure-free outcome were analyzed. Behavioral change (the first clinical feature of a certain seizure with a sudden change in the child's behavior) was evaluated by two independent investigators. Results: Thirty-three (30%) patients showed BC at least once during their seizures. Behavioral changes appeared in arrestive form in 19 and with affective activities in 18 children; four patients produced both kinds of BCs, separately. Arrest-type BC happened in 16 of 50 children with right- and 3 of 59 patients with left-sided seizure onset zone (p < 0.001). Affective-type BC was observed in 17 of 67 temporal lobe epilepsy patients while it happened in only 1 of 42 children with extratemporal lobe epilepsy (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Arrest-type BC lateralizes to the right hemisphere, while affective-type BC localizes to the temporal lobe in childhood partial seizures. Type of BCs can add important information to the presurgical evaluation of young children with refractory partial epilepsy. [source]

    Electrolytes Disturbances and Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2006
    Luis Castilla-Guerra
    First page of article [source]

    Postictal But Not Interictal Hemispatial Neglect in Patients with Seizures of Lateralized Onset

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2006
    Olga Prilipko
    Summary:,Purpose: Unilateral spatial neglect, defined as a failure to report, respond, or orient to stimuli that are presented contralaterally, has been widely documented after brain damage to right, and to a lesser degree, left frontotemporoparietal networks. Group studies involving patients with seizures with a lateralized focus have demonstrated transient dysfunctions in memory and language; however, so far, only two case reports have described transient neglect after an epileptic seizure. Methods: To assess the existence and consistency of this phenomenon, we evaluated 33 epilepsy patients on a line-bisection task in interictal and postictal states as compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Results: Spatial neglect, as determined by this test, was found in the postictal but not interictal examination in patients with right parietal epileptic foci and was maximal for the left-positioned lines, whereas no neglect was found in other groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that patients with right parietal foci can present a transient neglect phenomenon on the line-bisection task in the postictal period, even in the absence of overt clinical neglect signs. These findings might be useful in establishing the laterality and even localization of epileptic foci based on the postictal neuropsychological evaluation. [source]

    Memory, Emotional and Vocational Impairments before and after Anterior Temporal Lobectomy for Complex Partial Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2006
    Mario F. Dulay
    Summary:,Purpose: To assess the pre- and postsurgical frequency of memory, emotional, and vocational impairments in patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), and to assess the relationship between emotional disturbance and memory abilities after ATL. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data was performed on 90 patients with medically intractable complex partial seizures who underwent ATL between 1981 and 2003. Patients were evaluated an average of 5 months before surgery and 11.3 months after surgery. Results: A moderate to high frequency of memory impairment (44.4%; verbal or nonverbal), emotional disturbance (38.9%) and unemployment (27.8%) existed in the same individuals both before and after surgery. There were small to moderate rates of new onset memory (18.9%), emotional (11.1%), and vocational (7.8%) difficulties after surgery often regardless of seizure control outcome. Patients who underwent left-ATL and had emotional disturbance after surgery had the lowest verbal memory test scores. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of taking into account emotional status when assessing memory abilities after ATL. Results replicate the finding of moderate to high frequencies of memory impairment, emotional disturbance, and unemployment both before and after ATL. Results provide support for the rationale that cognitive, psychiatric and vocational interventions are indicated to mitigate the problems that exist before and persist after ATL. [source]

    The Influence of Gonadal Hormones on Neuronal Excitability, Seizures, and Epilepsy in the Female

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2006
    Helen E. Scharfman
    Summary:, It is clear from both clinical observations of women, and research in laboratory animals, that gonadal hormones exert a profound influence on neuronal excitability, seizures, and epilepsy. These studies have led to a focus on two of the primary ovarian steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, to clarify how gonadal hormones influence seizures in women with epilepsy. The prevailing view is that estrogen is proconvulsant, whereas progesterone is anticonvulsant. However, estrogen and progesterone may not be the only reproductive hormones to consider in evaluating excitability, seizures, or epilepsy in the female. It seems unlikely that estrogen and progesterone would exert single, uniform actions given our current understanding of their complex pharmacological and physiological relationships. Their modulatory effects are likely to depend on endocrine state, relative concentration, metabolism, and many other factors. Despite the challenges these issues raise to future research, some recent advances have helped clarify past confusion in the literature. In addition, testable hypotheses have developed for complex clinical problems such as "catamenial epilepsy." Clinical and animal research, designed with the relevant endocrinological and neurobiological issues in mind, will help advance this field in the future. [source]

    Prolonged Febrile Seizures Are Associated with Hippocampal Vasogenic Edema and Developmental Changes

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2006
    Rod C. Scott
    Summary:,Purpose: There is mounting evidence that a prolonged febrile seizure (PFS) can cause acute hippocampal edema although the nature of that edema remains uncertain. The principal aims of the current study were: (1) to use apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements to further characterize the hippocampal edema previously identified within 5 days of a PFS, and (2) to determine whether the age dependency of ADC in the hippocampus is different in patients when compared to a control population following a PFS. Methods: Diffusion weighted imaging was acquired in 23 children within 5 days of a PFS, and in 14 of these children a mean of 5.5 months later. Twenty-four control children were enrolled. Results: There was a reduction in ADC between the acute and follow-up investigations [mean reduction = 0.0072 mm2/s/month since PFS (95% confidence interval; 0.0001,0.014 mm2/s/month since PFS), p = 0.048] consistent with early vasogenic edema, followed by recovery in children investigated within 2 days of a PFS. In addition, the behavior of ADC with respect to age was different in patients when compared to control subjects [mean difference in slope =,0.155 mm2/s/log10 age (95% confidence interval; ,0.290,0.0203 mm2/s/log10 age), p = 0.029], in that the expected age dependence was observed only in the control subjects. Conclusion: We suggest that these latter findings are most consistent with a preexisting developmental hippocampal abnormality that may predispose individuals to having a PFS. [source]

    An Assessment of the Potential Value of Elevated Homocysteine in Predicting Alcohol-withdrawal Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2006
    Stefan Bleich
    Summary:,Purpose: Higher homocysteine levels were found in actively drinking patients with alcohol dependence. Recent studies have shown that high homocysteine levels are associated with alcohol-withdrawal seizures. The aim of the present study was to calculate the best predictive cutoff value of plasma homocysteine levels in actively drinking alcoholics (n = 88) with first-onset alcohol-withdrawal seizures. Methods: The present study included 88 alcohol-dependent patients of whom 18 patients had a first-onset withdrawal seizure. All patients were active drinkers and had an established diagnosis of alcohol dependence, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using every homocysteine plasma level found in the study population as cut-off value. A Bayes theorem was used to calculate positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values for all cutoff values used. Results: The highest combined sensitivity and specificity was reached at a homocysteine plasma cutoff value of 23.9 ,M. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.23 to 0.745; the maximum was reached at a homocysteine plasma level of 41.7 ,M. Negative predictive values ranged from 0.50 to 0.935, with a maximum at a homocysteine plasma level of 15.8,M. Conclusions: Homocysteine levels above this cutoff value on admission are a useful screening tool to identify actively drinking patients at higher risk of alcohol-withdrawal seizures. This pilot study gives further hints that biologic markers may be helpful to predict patients at risk for first-onset alcohol-withdrawal seizures. [source]

    Epileptic Seizures Superimposed on Catatonic Stupor

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2006
    Kazumasa Suzuki
    Summary:,Purpose: Some patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus are known to exhibit catatonic stupor. Thus it is necessary to rule out ictal catatonia by electroencephalography in patients with catatonic stupor. However, few reports are available on epileptic seizures superimposed on catatonic stupor. Methods: We report three cases of epileptic seizures superimposed on psychiatric catatonic stupor without a prominent predisposing factor, including high fever or encephalitis. None of the patients had a personal or family history of neurologic disease, including epilepsy. Results: In all three patients, catatonic stupor persisted after resolution of the epileptic seizures with administration of phenytoin. In two of the three patients, catatonic stupor resolved with electroconvulsive therapy, which caused no marked adverse effects. Conclusions: Because it is possible that catatonic stupor itself predisposes patients to the development of epileptic seizures, electroencephalographic examinations in patients with catatonic stupor are indispensable for early recognition not only of nonconvulsive status epilepticus but also of epileptic seizures superimposed on catatonic stupor. Electroconvulsive therapy deserves consideration when catatonic stupor persists after resolution of epileptic seizures. [source]

    Refractory Generalized Seizures: Response to Corpus Callosotomy and Vagal Nerve Stimulation

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2006
    Maromi Nei
    Summary:,Purpose: The vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) and corpus callosotomy can reduce seizure frequency when seizures are refractory to medications. However, the efficacy and safety of these two procedures have not been compared. This study evaluates the two procedures for generalized seizures. Methods: All patients with refractory generalized seizures (generalized tonic,clonic, tonic, or atonic) who underwent a corpus callosotomy (anterior or complete) (n = 53) without other forms of epilepsy surgery and those who underwent VNS placement (n = 25) were evaluated for this study. Seizure response and procedure complications were evaluated. Results: For those with a corpus callosotomy and generalized tonic,clonic seizures (n = 50), 79.5% had ,50% decrease in the frequency of generalized tonic,clonic seizures, and 60% had ,80% seizure reduction. For those with a VNS and generalized tonic,clonic seizures (n = 21), 50% had ,50% seizure reduction, and 33% had ,80% seizure reduction. Tonic and atonic seizures decreased after either VNS or a corpus callosotomy. The complication rate for corpus callosotomy was higher (21% all complications, 3.8% permanent) than that for VNS (8%; none permanent), but complications for both corpus callosotomy and VNS were rarely permanent. Conclusions: Both corpus callosotomy and VNS are effective in reducing generalized seizures. Corpus callosotomy is associated with greater efficacy but higher risk for complications, although these were generally transient. [source]

    Epilepsy in Colombia: Epidemiologic Profile and Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Syndromes

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2006
    Alberto Velez
    Summary:,Purpose: A national study was performed in Colombia to determine the general and regional prevalence of epilepsy, clinical profiles, seizure types, and clinical syndromes. Methods: Based on the National Epidemiological Study of Neurological Diseases (EPINEURO), we evaluated and followed up for 1 year all the subjects with epilepsy from the National Sample. Clinical profiles were further assessed. Seizure types and epilepsy syndromes were established according to the international classifications. Results: General prevalence was found to be 11.3 per 1,000, with little variation among regions, except the eastern region, where prevalence was 23 per 1,000; prevalence for active epilepsy was 10.1 per 1,000. Women have a slightly greater (not statistically significant) risk. Most seizures are focal (partial), frequently with secondary generalization. The most frequent epilepsy syndrome encountered was partial symptomatic/cryptogenic (80%). Epilepsy onset in Colombia occurs most frequently in childhood. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of epilepsy in Colombia are similar to those reported in nations with comparable developmental status and have diminished over time. The study presents the distribution of seizures and syndromes. The most frequent types are focal syndromes. [source]

    Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2005
    S. Nizam Ahmed
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    On the Definition of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2005
    Juan Gomez-Alonso
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Characterizing the Patterned Images That Precipitate Seizures and Optimizing Guidelines To Prevent Them

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2005
    Arnold Wilkins
    Summary:, The use of guidelines to prevent the broadcast of epileptogenic television program content has reduced the incidence of seizures in Britain and Japan. Epileptogenic content includes both flicker and patterns. The guidelines for flicker were developed on the basis of a model that related stimulus parameters to the proportion of patients affected. We here extend the model to pattern stimuli. A set of rules is advocated that keeps the level of risk to a consistent minimum and simplifies compliance. We propose that striped patterns that last >0.5 s, occupy more than one fourth the area of the screen, and have bright stripes >50 cd/m2 in luminance be restricted as regards the number of cycles admissible. The guidelines are estimated to protect at least two thirds of susceptible patients. [source]