Sedimentary Basins (sedimentary + basin)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


D. Franke
A total of 11,700 km of multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired during three recent reconnaissance surveys of the wide, shallow shelves of the Laptev and western East Siberian Seas in the Siberian Arctic Ocean. Three seismic marker horizons were defined and mapped in both shelf areas. Their nature and age were predicted on the basis of regional tectonic and palaeoenvironmental events and corroborated using onshore geology. To the north of the Laptev Sea, the Gakkel Ridge, an active mid-ocean ridge which separates the North American and Eurasian Plates, abruptly meets the steep slope of the continental shelf which is curvilinear in plan view. Extension has affected the Laptev Shelf since at least the Early Tertiary and has resulted in the formation of three major, generally north-south trending rift basins: the Ust'Lena Rift, the Anisin Basin and the New Siberian Basin. The Ust'Lena Rift has a minimum east-west width of 300km at latitude 75°N and a Cenozoic infill up to 6 s (twt) in thickness. Further to the NW of the Laptev Shelf, the downthrown and faulted basement is overlain by a sub-parallel layered sedimentary succession with a thickness of 4 s (twt) that thins towards the west. Although this area was affected by extension as shown by the presence of numerous faults, it is not clear whether this depression on the NW Laptev Shelf is continuous with the Ust'Lena Rift. The Anisin Basin is located in the northern part of the Laptev Shelf and has a Cenozoic sedimentary fill up to 5 s (twt) thick. The deepest part of the basin trends north-south. To the west is a secondary, NW-SE trending depression which is slightly shallower than the main depocentre. The overall structure of the basin is a half-graben with the major bounding fault in the east. The New Siberian Basin is up to 70 km wide and has a minimum NW-SE extent of 300 km. The sedimentary fill is up to 4.5 s (twt) thick. Structurally, the basin is a half-graben with the bounding fault in the east. Our data indicate that the rift basins on the Laptev Shelf are not continuous with those on the East Siberian Shelf. The latter shelf can best be described as an epicontinental platform which has undergone continuous subsidence since the Late Cretaceous. The greatest subsidence occurred in the NE, as manifested by a major depocentre filled with inferred (?)Late Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments up to 5 s (twt) thick. [source]

Role of southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of Zagros Orogenic Belt, Iran

ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2009
Ramin Arfania
Abstract Geological studies indicate that the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone, located in the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt, is subdivided transversally into the Esfahan,Sirjan Block with typical Central Iranian stratigraphic features and the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane consisting of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic metamorphic rocks. The Main Deep Fault (Abadeh Fault) is a major lithospheric fault separating the two parts. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of the southeastern Sanandaj,Sirjan Zone in the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Zagros Orogenic Belt on the basis of geological evidence. The new model implies that Neo-Tethys 1 came into being when the Central Iran Microcontinent split from the northeastern margin of Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian. During the Late Triassic a new spreading ridge, Neo-Tethys 2, was created to separate the Shahrekord,Dehsard Terrane from Afro,Arabian Plate. The Zagros sedimentary basin was formed on a continental passive margin, southwest of Neo-Tethys 2. The two ophiolitic belts of Naien,Shahrebabak,Baft and Neyriz were developed to the northeast of Neo-Tethys 1 and southwest of Neo-Tethys 2 respectively, related to the sinking of the lithosphere of the Neo-Tethys 1 in the Late Cretaceous. It can be concluded that deposition of the Paleocene conglomerate on the Central Iran Microcontinent and Pliocene conglomerate in the Zagros Sedimentary Basin is directly linked to the uplift generated by collision. [source]


J. Köster
In this study we report on Devonian (Frasnian , Famennian) limestones and dolostones exposed near Nigel Peak in the Main Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. These carbonates are a proximal facies of the Southesk-Cairn Carbonate Complex. The investigated strata are stratigraphically equivalent to the oil- and gas bearing Nisku Formation in the subsurface of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, about 300 km to the east. The rocks were investigated by polarisation and cathodoluminescence microscopy, total organic carbon analysis, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, solid bitumen reflectance measurements, gas chromatography and fluid inclusion analysis. Thin section analyses showed that silt-grade quartz and saddle dolomite increase upward from the base of the stratigraphic section, and that porosities are generally low. This is due to reduction of pore space due to early cementation and extensive dolomitization. Cathodoluminescence identified up to four generations of calcite cements. TOC values ranged from 0.2 to 2.4 %. Rock-Eval pyrolysis of carbonate samples resulted in measurable S1 peaks but not S2 peaks, indicating that there was no residual petroleum generation potential. Organic petrographic analyses identified dispersed kerogen and migrabitumen, and calculated vitrinite reflectance values were around 4 % on average which implies peak temperatures of 234,262 °C (due to deep burial) or 309,352 °C (due to short term hydrothermal heating). Fluid inclusion data indicates at least one pulse of hot fluids with elevated homogenization temperatures of > 300 °C, and this may explain the high thermal maturity of the studied rocks. [source]

Basic Types and Structural Characteristics of Uplifts: An Overview of Sedimentary Basins in China

Dengfa HE
Abstract: The uplift is a positive structural unit of the crust It is an important window for continental dynamics owing to its abundant structural phenomena, such as fault, fold, unconformity and denudation of strata. Meanwhile, it is the very place to store important minerals like oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. Giant and large-scale oil and gas fields in China, such as the Daqing Oilfield, Lunnan-Tahe Oilfield, Penglai 19,3 Oilfield, Puguang Gas Field and Jingbian Gas Field, are developed mainly on uplifts. Therefore, it is the main target both for oil and gas exploration and for geological study. The uplift can be either a basement uplift, or one developed only in the sedimentary cover. Extension, compression and wrench or their combined forces may give rise to uplifts. The development process of uplifting, such as formation, development, dwindling and destruction, can be taken as the uplifting cycle. The uplifts on the giant Precambrian cratons are large in scale with less extensive structural deformation. The uplifts on the medium- and small-sized cratons or neo-cratons are formed in various shapes with strong structural deformation and complicated geological structure. Owing to changes in the geodynamic environment, uplift experiences a multi-stage or multi-cycle development process. Its geological structure is characterized in superposition of multi-structural layers. Based on the basement properties, mechanical stratigraphy and development sequence, uplifts can be divided into three basic types , the succession, superposition and destruction ones. The succession type is subdivided into the maintaining type and the lasting type. The superposition type can be subdivided into the composite anticlinal type, the buried-hill draped type, the faulted uplift type and the migration type according to the different scales and superimposed styles of uplifts in different cycles. The destruction type is subdivided into the tilting type and the negative inverted type. The development history of uplifts and their controlling effects on sedimentation and fluids are quite different from one another, although the uplifts with different structural types store important minerals. Uplifts and their slopes are the main areas for oil and gas accumulation. They usually become the composite oil and gas accumulation zones (belts) with multiple productive formations and various types of oil and gas reservoirs. [source]

Equations of state for basin geofluids: algorithm review and intercomparison for brines

J. J. Adams
ABSTRACT Physical properties of formation waters in sedimentary basins can vary by more than 25% for density and by one order of magnitude for viscosity. Density differences may enhance or retard flow driven by other mechanisms and can initiate buoyancy-driven flow. For a given driving force, the flow rate and injectivity depend on viscosity and permeability. Thus, variations in the density and viscosity of formation waters may have or had a significant effect on the flow pattern in a sedimentary basin, with consequences for various basin processes. Therefore, it is critical to correctly estimate water properties at formation conditions for proper representation and interpretation of present flow systems, and for numerical simulations of basin evolution, hydrocarbon migration, ore genesis, and fate of injected fluids in sedimentary basins. Algorithms published over the years to calculate water density and viscosity as a function of temperature, pressure and salinity are based on empirical fitting of laboratory-measured properties of predominantly NaCl solutions, but also field brines. A review and comparison of various algorithms are presented here, both in terms of applicability range and estimates of density and viscosity. The paucity of measured formation-water properties at in situ conditions hinders a definitive conclusion regarding the validity of any of these algorithms. However, the comparison indicates the versatility of the various algorithms in various ranges of conditions found in sedimentary basins. The applicability of these algorithms to the density of formation waters in the Alberta Basin is also examined using a high-quality database of 4854 water analyses. Consideration is also given to the percentage of cations that are heavier than Na in the waters. [source]

Interpretation of observed fluid potential patterns in a deep sedimentary basin under tectonic compression: Hungarian Great Plain, Pannonian Basin

J. Tóth
Abstract The , 40 000 km2 Hungarian Great Plain portion of the Pannonian Basin consists of a basin fill of 100 m to more than 7000 m thick semi- to unconsolidated marine, deltaic, lacustrine and fluviatile clastic sediments of Neogene age, resting on a strongly tectonized Pre-Neogene basement of horst-and-graben topography of a relief in excess of 5000 m. The basement is built of a great variety of brittle rocks, including flysch, carbonates and metamorphics. The relatively continuous Endr,d Aquitard, with a permeability of less than 1 md (10,15 m2) and a depth varying between 500 and 5000 m, divides the basin's rock framework into upper and lower sequences of highly permeable rock units, whose permeabilities range from a few tens to several thousands of millidarcy. Subsurface fluid potential and flow fields were inferred from 16 192 water level and pore pressure measurements using three methods of representation: pressure,elevation profiles; hydraulic head maps; and hydraulic cross-sections. Pressure,elevation profiles were constructed for eight areas. Typically, they start from the surface with a straight-line segment of a hydrostatic gradient (,st = 9.8067 MPa km,1) and extend to depths of 1400,2500 m. At high surface elevations, the gradient is slightly smaller than hydrostatic, while at low elevations it is slightly greater. At greater depths, both the pressures and their vertical gradients are uniformly superhydrostatic. The transition to the overpressured depths may be gradual, with a gradient of ,dyn = 10,15 MPa km,1 over a vertical distance of 400,1000 m, or abrupt, with a pressure jump of up to 10 MPa km,1 over less than 100 m and a gradient of ,dyn > 20 MPa km,1. According to the hydraulic head maps for 13 100,500 m thick horizontal slices of the rock framework, the fluid potential in the near-surface domains declines with depth beneath positive topographic features, but it increases beneath depressions. The approximate boundary between these hydraulically contrasting regions is the 100 m elevation contour line in the Duna,Tisza interfluve, and the 100,110 m contours in the Nyírség uplands. Below depths of ,,600 m, islets of superhydrostatic heads develop which grow in number, areal extent and height as the depth increases; hydraulic heads may exceed 3000 m locally. A hydraulic head ,escarpment' appears gradually in the elevation range of ,,1000 to ,,2800 m along an arcuate line which tracks a major regional fault zone striking NE,SW: heads drop stepwise by several hundred metres, at places 2000 m, from its north and west sides to the south and east. The escarpment forms a ,fluid potential bank' between a ,fluid potential highland' (500,2500 m) to the north and west, and a ,fluid potential basin' (100,500 m) to the south and east. A ,potential island' rises 1000 m high above this basin further south. According to four vertical hydraulic sections, groundwater flow is controlled by the topography in the upper 200,1700 m of the basin; the driving force is orientated downwards beneath the highlands and upwards beneath the lowlands. However, it is directed uniformly upwards at greater depths. The transition between the two regimes may be gradual or abrupt, as indicated by wide or dense spacing of the hydraulic head contours, respectively. Pressure ,plumes' or ,ridges' may protrude to shallow depths along faults originating in the basement. The basement horsts appear to be overpressured relative to the intervening grabens. The principal thesis of this paper is that the two main driving forces of fluid flow in the basin are gravitation, due to elevation differences of the topographic relief, and tectonic compression. The flow field is unconfined in the gravitational regime, whereas it is confined in the compressional regime. The nature and geometry of the fluid potential field between the two regimes are controlled by the sedimentary and structural features of the rock units in that domain, characterized by highly permeable and localized sedimentary windows, conductive faults and fracture zones. The transition between the two potential fields can be gradual or abrupt in the vertical, and island-like or ridge-like in plan view. The depth of the boundary zone can vary between 400 and 2000 m. Recharge to the gravitational regime is inferred to occur from infiltrating precipitation water, whereas that to the confined regime is from pore volume reduction due to the basement's tectonic compression. [source]

Carbonate melting and peperite formation at the intrusive contact between large mafic dykes and clastic sediments of the upper Palaeozoic Saint-Jules Formation, New-Carlisle, Quebec

P. Jutras
Abstract The base of an upper Palaeozoic graben-fill in eastern Canada was affected by mafic dyke intrusions shortly after deposition, resulting in the formation of peperite. Complex magma,sediment interactions occurred as the melts mingled with the wet and poorly consolidated clastic material of this sedimentary basin, which is separated from underlying rocks by the Acadian unconformity (Middle Devonian). As a result of these interactions, the mafic rocks are strongly oxidized, albitized and autobrecciated near and above the unconformity, where blocky juvenile clasts of mafic glass and porphyritic basalt have mingled with molten or fluidized sediments of the upper Palaeozoic Saint-Jules Formation, forming a peperite zone several metres thick. In contrast to most peperite occurrences, the New-Carlisle peperites are associated with the tip of dykes rather than with the sides of sills or dykes. We argue that more heat can be concentrated above a dyke than above a sill, as the former provides a more efficient and focused pathway for heated waters to invade the poorly consolidated host sediments. Superheated groundwaters that issued from the sides of the dykes appear to have promoted melting of carbonate components in calcareous sedimentary rock clasts of the Saint-Jules Formation, locally generating carbonate melts that contributed to the mingling of juvenile and sedimentary clasts in the peperite. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fish and ostracod remains from the Santos Basin (Cretaceous to Recent), Brazil

C. Giles Miller
Abstract For the first time, ichthyoliths are described from the Santos sedimentary basin, offshore southern Brazil. Isolated teeth, dermal scales and the first documented otoliths from Cretaceous (Albian) to Recent cuttings from five wells are described. The following groups are represented: Chondrichthyans: Triakidae, Carcharhinidae; Ginglymostomatidae: ?Ginglymostoma sp., Lamnidae indet., Scyliorhinidae; Osteichthyans: Teleostei; Myctophiidae: Diaphus aff. splendidus sp. complex, Diaphus spp., Diaphus cf. garmani, Ceratoscopelus aff. warmingii; Sternoptychidae: Valenciennellus tripunctulatus, teeth of indeterminate Teleostei. The majority of these ichthyofossils represent extant forms, known to occur in the Atlantic Ocean, and are of potential value for stratigraphical correlations between oil-yielding basins in the region. Ostracods are not well preserved but can be identified to generic level indicating marine environments. The ostracod faunas offer potential for intrabasinal correlation in the Eocene and Oligocene. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stratigraphy of the mid- to upper-Cretaceous System in the Aridagawa area, Wakayama, Southwest Japan

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2010
Akihiro Misaki
Abstract The litho- and biostratigraphy of the mid- to upper-Cretaceous System around the Yagumaike Pond in the Aridagawa area, Wakayama, Southwest Japan, were investigated. Many Middle to Late Albian megafossils were found in the strata of a block bounded by faults. It was also revealed that the Upper Cretaceous System of other blocks ranges from the Middle Turonian to Santonian. The Albian megafossil assemblage contains few benthic organisms, in contrast with the abundance of nektons found (e.g. cephalopods). Sedimentological observations of the mudstone profiles also indicate that scarcely or weakly bioturbated, well-laminated mudstone is dominant among the Albian deposits. These results suggest deposition of the Albian mudstone under a dysaerobic to anoxic environment. It is comparable to the extended oceanic anoxia (OAEs) in mid-Cretaceous time. Albian deposits with similar characteristics are also known to exist in Shikoku, Southwest Japan. A wide sedimentary basin that was directly affected by global environmental events, such as OAEs, seemed to be formed on the Chichibu Belt in the Albian. The Upper Cretaceous strata in the study area are extremely thin, similar to the coeval deposits on the Chichibu Belt in Shikoku. It is suggested that the sedimentation rate in the sedimentary basin on the Chichibu Belt was extremely low during early Late Cretaceous time. [source]

Sandstone diagenesis of the Lower Cretaceous Sindong Group, Gyeongsang Basin, southeastern Korea: Implications for compositional and paleoenvironmental controls

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2008
Yong Il Lee
Abstract The Gyeongsang Basin is a non-marine sedimentary basin formed by extensional tectonism during the Early Cretaceous in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The sediment fill starts with the Sindong Group distributed along the western margin of the basin. It consists of three lithostratigraphic units: the Nakdong (alluvial fan), Hasandong (fluvial) and Jinju (lacustrine) formations with decreasing age. Sindong Group sandstones are classified into four petrofacies (PF) based on their detrital composition: PF-A consists of the lower Nakdong Formation with average Q73F12R15; PF-B the upper Nakdong and lower Hasandong formations with Q66F15R18; PF-C the middle Hasandong to middle Jinju formations with Q49F29R22; and PF-D the upper Jinju Formation with Q26F34R41. The variations of detrital composition influenced the diagenetic mineral assemblage in the Sindong Group sandstones. Illite and dolomite/ankerite are important diagenetic minerals in PF-A and PF-B, whereas calcite and chlorite are dominant diagenetic minerals in PF-C and PF-D. Most of the diagenetic minerals can be divided into early and late diagenetic stages of formation. Early diagenetic calcites occur mostly in PF-C, probably controlled by arid to semiarid climatic conditions during the sandstone deposition, no early calcite being found in PF-A and PF-B. Late-stage calcites are present in all Sindong Group sandstones. The calcium ions may have been derived from shale diagenesis and dissolution of early stage calcites in the Hasandong and Jinju sandstones. Illite, the only diagenetic clay mineral in PF-A and lower PF-B, is inferred to be a product of kaolinite transformation during deep burial, and the former presence of kaolinite is inferred from the humid paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the Nakdong Formation. Chlorites in PF-C and PF-D are interpreted to be the products of transformation of smectitic clay or of precipitation from alkaline pore water under arid to semiarid climatic conditions. The occurrence of late-stage diagenetic minerals largely depended on the distribution of early diagenetic minerals, which was controlled initially by the sediment composition and paleoclimate. [source]

Holocene coastal environmental changes on the periphery of an area of glacio-isostatic uplift: an example from Scapa Bay, Orkney, UK,

A. C. de la Vega-Leinert
Abstract The first detailed investigation of a deep, coastal, sedimentary basin in Orkney reveals a complex Holocene history of back-barrier morphodynamics. At Scapa Bay, the sea flooded a freshwater marsh after ca. 9400,yr BP at ca. ,5.4,m OD. Before ca. 7800 BP, abundant sediment from nearby cliffs was mobilised inland into a series of gravel barriers across the valley mouth. By ca. 7500 BP, direct marine influence was restricted in the back-barrier area, although saltmarsh persisted until ca. 5900 BP. By then, at least four gravel ridges had enclosed the backing lagoon, where freshwater inputs became dominant. As terrestrial sediments filled the basin, another freshwater marsh developed. The multiple barrier complex demonstrates progradation resulting from continuous sediment supply in a sheltered embayment. The progressively rising height of the barrier crests seawards probably resulted from a combination of factors such as barrier morphodynamics, increased storminess and long-term rising relative sea levels. The dominant vegetation surrounding Scapa Bay changed from open grassland to scrub ca. 9400 BP, then to deciduous woodland ca. 7800 BP, and to dwarf-shrub heath ca. 2600 BP, the latter probably a response to a combination of climate change and human activity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evolution of basin architecture in an incipient continental rift: the Cenozoic Most Basin, Eger Graben (Central Europe)

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Michal Rajchl
ABSTRACT The Oligo-Miocene Most Basin is the largest preserved sedimentary basin within the Eger Graben, the easternmost part of the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS). The basin is interpreted as a part of an incipient rift system that underwent two distinct phases of extension. The first phase, characterised by NNE,SSW- to N,S-oriented horizontal extension between the end of Eocene and early Miocene, was oblique to the rift axis and caused evolution of a fault system characterised by en-échelon-arranged E,W (ENE,WSW) faults. These faults defined a number of small, shallow initial depocentres of very small subsidence rates that gradually merged during the growth and linkage of the normal fault segments. The youngest part of the basin fill indicates accelerated subsidence caused probably by the concentration of displacement at several major bounding faults. Major post-depositional faulting and forced folding were related to a change in the extension vector to an orthogonal position with respect to the rift axis and overprinting of the E,W faults by an NE,SW normal fault system. The origin of the palaeostress field of the earlier, oblique, extensional phase remains controversial and can be attributed either to the effects of the Alpine lithospheric root or (perhaps more likely because of the dominant volcanism at the onset of Eger Graben formation) to doming due to thermal perturbation of the lithosphere. The later, orthogonal, extensional phase is explained by stretching along the crest of a growing regional-scale anticlinal feature, which supports the recent hypothesis of lithospheric folding in the Alpine,Carpathian foreland. [source]

Uplift, exhumation and precipitation: tectonic and climatic control of Late Cenozoic landscape evolution in the northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 4 2003
Edward R. Sobel
Deciphering the evolution of mountain belts requires information on the temporal history of both topographic growth and erosion. The exhumation rate of a mountain range undergoing shortening is related to the erodability of the uplifting range as well as the efficiency of erosion, which partly depends on the available precipitation. Young, rapidly deposited sediments have low thermal conductivity and are readily eroded, in contrast to underlying resistant basement rocks that have a higher thermal conductivity. Apatite fission-track thermochronology can quantify cooling; thermal models constrain the relationship between this cooling and exhumation. By utilizing geological relations for a datum, we can examine the evolution of rock uplift, surface uplift and exhumation. In the northern Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina, a young sedimentary basin that overlay resistant crystalline basement prior to rapid exhumation provides an ideal setting to examine the effect of contrasting thermal and erosional regimes. There, tectonically active reverse-fault-bounded blocks partly preserve a basement peneplain at elevations in excess of 4500 m. Prior to exhumation, the two study areas were covered by 1000 and 1600 m of recently deposited sediments; this sequence begins with shallow marine deposits immediately overlying the regional erosion surface. Apatite fission-track data were obtained from vertical transects in the Calchaquíes and Aconquija ranges. At Cumbres Calchaquíes, erosion leading to the development of the peneplain commenced in the Cretaceous, probably as a result of rift-shoulder uplift. In contrast, Sierra Aconquija cooled rapidly between 5.5 and 4.5 Myr. At the onset of this rapid exhumation, the sediment was quickly removed, causing fast cooling, but relatively slow rates of surface uplift. Syntectonic conglomerates were produced when faulting exposed resistant bedrock; this change in rock erodability led to enhanced surface uplift rates, but decreased exhumation rates. The creation of an orographic barrier after the range had attained sufficient elevation further decreased exhumation rates and increased surface uplift rates. Differences in the magnitude of exhumation at the two transects are related to both differences in the thickness of the sedimentary basin prior to exhumation and differences in the effective precipitation due to an orographic barrier in the foreland and hence differences in the magnitude of headward erosion. [source]

Mineral Geochemical Compositions of Tourmalines and Their Significance in the Gejiu Tin Polymetallic Deposits, Yunnan, China

Runxing JIA
Abstract: The Gejiu tin polymetallic deposits are located in the southeastern part of Yunnan Province in China. A detailed electronic microprobe study has been carried out to document geochemical compositions of tourmalines from the deposits. The results indicate a systematic change of mineral geochemical compositions, which might be used as a mineral geochemical tracer for post-magmatic hydrothermal fluid, basin fluid and their mixture. The tourmalines from granite are schorl with Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios of 0.912,1.00 and Na/(Na+Ca) ratios of 0.892,0.981. Tourmalines as an inclusion in quartz from the ore bodies are dravite with Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios of 0.212,0.519 and Na/ (Na+Ca) ratios of 0.786,0.997. Tourmalines from the country rocks are dravite with Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios of 0.313,0.337 and Na/(Na+Ca) ratio of 0.599,0.723. Tourmalines from cassiterite-tourmaline veins that occur in crannies within the country rocks show distinct optical zoning with alternate occurrence of dravite and schorl, Fe/(Fe+Mg)=0.374,0.843, Na/(Na+Ca)=0.538,0.987. It suggests that schorl in granite and dravite in carbonatite are related to magmatic fluid and basin fluid respectively. When magmatic fluid rose up and entered into crannies of the country rocks, consisting mainly of carbonatite, basin fluid would be constantly added to the magmatic fluid. The two types of fluid were mixed in structural crannies of the sedimentary basin accompanied with periodic geochemical osculations to form material records in chemical composition zonings of tourmalines. [source]

ESR/OSL ages of long-debated subtill fossil-bearing marine deposits from the southern Kola Peninsula: stratigraphic implications

BOREAS, Issue 2 2004
The occurrence of sandy clay deposited in a warm marine environment just below the till of the last glaciation has created controversy about its age and stratigraphic position in the sedimentary basin of the Kola Peninsula. Data on marine microfauna, diatoms, malacofauna and pollen composition indicate that during the period when the sandy clay was deposited the climate was similar or even warmer than at present. According to 14C dates, sedimentation of the sandy clay occurred around 40 ka BP. Based on these data, some researchers have attributed these marine deposits to the third Late Pleistocene Belomorian (sensu Lavrova 1960) interglacial transgression. At the same time there are geological indications suggesting re-deposition of these subtill sediments. To solve this problem we have reinvestigated the subtill interglacial marine deposits from the Varzuga section (,66.4° N and 36.6° E). Four different marine shell species and enclosing sandy clay sediments taken from the subtill marine unit of the section were dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods at about 103 and 104 ka, respectively. The results indicate that the subtill marine deposits belong to the first Late Pleistocene Boreal transgression that, according to our previous studies of the marginal areas of the Eurasian North, has occurred in the time interval from approximately 145 to 70 ka BP. [source]

COMMENTARY: Comment , On maintaining high fluid pressures in older sedimentary basins: a new hypothesis or déjà vu?

C. Cranganu
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

COMMENTARY: Reply , On maintaining high fluid pressures in older sedimentary basins

J. Bredehoeft
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The application of structured-light illumination microscopy to hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions

Abstract Structured-light illumination (SLI)-based microscopy offers geologists a new perspective for screening of hydrocarbon-bearing (HCFI) and small aqueous fluid inclusion (AFI) assemblages. This optical-sectioning technique provides rapid, confocal-like imaging, using relatively simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The 3D fluorescent images of HCFI planes and large single HCFIs permit the visualization of the relationships between HCFI assemblages, examination of HCFI morphology, and volume estimates of the fluorescent components within HCFIs. By the use of normal white light illumination, SLI image capture, and varying acquisition time it is also possible to image AFI because of the random movements of vapour bubbles within the inclusions. This allows the near-simultaneous visualization of hydrocarbon and AFI which is of significant importance for the study of sedimentary basins and petroleum reservoirs. SLI is a unique and accessible 3D petrographic tool, with practical advantages over conventional epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. [source]

Hydrologic and geochemical controls on soluble benzene migration in sedimentary basins

Abstract The effects of groundwater flow and biodegradation on the long-distance migration of petroleum-derived benzene in oil-bearing sedimentary basins are evaluated. Using an idealized basin representation, a coupled groundwater flow and heat transfer model computes the hydraulic head, stream function, and temperature in the basin. A coupled mass transport model simulates water washing of benzene from an oil reservoir and its miscible, advective/dispersive transport by groundwater. Benzene mass transfer at the oil,water contact is computed assuming equilibrium partitioning. A first-order rate constant is used to represent aqueous benzene biodegradation. A sensitivity study is used to evaluate the effect of the variation in aquifer/geochemical parameters and oil reservoir location on benzene transport. Our results indicate that in a basin with active hydrodynamics, miscible benzene transport is dominated by advection. Diffusion may dominate within the cap rock when its permeability is less than 10,19 m2. Miscible benzene transport can form surface anomalies, sometimes adjacent to oil fields. Biodegradation controls the distance of transport down-gradient from a reservoir. We conclude that benzene detected in exploration wells may indicate an oil reservoir that lies hydraulically up-gradient. Geochemical sampling of hydrocarbons from springs and exploration wells can be useful only when the oil reservoir is located within about 20 km. Benzene soil gas anomalies may form due to regional hydrodynamics rather than separate phase migration. Diffusion alone cannot explain the elevated benzene concentration observed in carrier beds several km away from oil fields. [source]

Equations of state for basin geofluids: algorithm review and intercomparison for brines

J. J. Adams
ABSTRACT Physical properties of formation waters in sedimentary basins can vary by more than 25% for density and by one order of magnitude for viscosity. Density differences may enhance or retard flow driven by other mechanisms and can initiate buoyancy-driven flow. For a given driving force, the flow rate and injectivity depend on viscosity and permeability. Thus, variations in the density and viscosity of formation waters may have or had a significant effect on the flow pattern in a sedimentary basin, with consequences for various basin processes. Therefore, it is critical to correctly estimate water properties at formation conditions for proper representation and interpretation of present flow systems, and for numerical simulations of basin evolution, hydrocarbon migration, ore genesis, and fate of injected fluids in sedimentary basins. Algorithms published over the years to calculate water density and viscosity as a function of temperature, pressure and salinity are based on empirical fitting of laboratory-measured properties of predominantly NaCl solutions, but also field brines. A review and comparison of various algorithms are presented here, both in terms of applicability range and estimates of density and viscosity. The paucity of measured formation-water properties at in situ conditions hinders a definitive conclusion regarding the validity of any of these algorithms. However, the comparison indicates the versatility of the various algorithms in various ranges of conditions found in sedimentary basins. The applicability of these algorithms to the density of formation waters in the Alberta Basin is also examined using a high-quality database of 4854 water analyses. Consideration is also given to the percentage of cations that are heavier than Na in the waters. [source]

From the intra-desert ridges to the marine carbonate island chain: middle to late Permian (Upper Rotliegend,Lower Zechstein) of the Wolsztyn,Pogorzela high, west Poland

Hubert Kiersnowski
Abstract The tectonic Wolsztyn,Pogorzela palaeo-High (WPH) is the south-eastern termination of the Brandenburg,Wolsztyn High (western Poland), which during Late Permian times was an intra-basin ridge surrounded by Upper Rotliegend sedimentary basins within the Southern Permian Basin. The geological history and structural framework of the WPH are complex. The High belongs to the Variscan Externides, consisting at present of strongly folded, faulted and eroded Viséan to Namurian flysch deposits capped by a thick cover of Upper Carboniferous,Lower Permian volcanic rocks. This sedimentary-volcanic complex was strongly fragmented and vertically differentiated by tectonic movements and subsequently eroded, resulting in the deposition of coarse clastics surrounding uplifted tectonic blocks. During late Rotliegend time, arid climatic conditions significantly influenced occurrences of specific facies assemblages: alluvial, fluvial, aeolian and playa. Sedimentological study helped to recognize the interplay of tectonic and palaeoclimatic factors and to understand the phenomenon of aeolian sandstones interbedded with coarse deposits of alluvial cones close to fault scarps. Subsequent tectonic and possible thermal subsidence of the studied area was synchronous with inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The rapid inundation process allowed for the preservation of an almost perfectly protected Uppermost Rotliegend landscape. Based on 3D seismic data from the base Zechstein reflector, a reconstruction of Rotliegend palaeogeomorphology was carried out, which shows examples of tectonic rejuvenation of particular tectonic blocks within the WPH area before inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The inundation led to the deposition of the marine Kupferschiefer Shale followed by the Zechstein Limestone. In the deeper parts of the basin the latter is developed in thin basinal facies: in shallow parts (e.g. uplifted tectonic blocks forming in some cases islands), carbonate buildups were formed. The remarkable thickness of those buildups (bryozoan reefs) is interpreted as due to stable tectonic subsidence together with a rise of sea level. A detailed study of carbonate buildups has showed that their internal structure reflects changes in shallow marine environments and even emersion events, caused by sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements of the reef substrate. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Tectonic and environmental evolution of Quaternary intramontane basins in Southern Apennines (Italy): insights from palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations

M. Porreca
SUMMARY Southern Apennines is characterized by active extensional tectonics with NE,SW stretching direction. The seismicity of the region is very well understood and continuously monitored. In contrast, the onset of extensional tectonics is chronologically poorly constrained. The aim of this study is that to give important constraints on the development of extensional regime and the onset of the continental deposition during Quaternary in Southern Apennines. We report the results of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses from four Quaternary small intramontane basins in the Picentini Mountains (Southern Apennines). The sedimentary sequences are located at different altitudes, from 600 to 1200 m a.s.l., and were deposited in fluvial-lacustrine environments. We sampled 29 sites in clays and lacustrine limestones from Tizzano, Piano del Gaudo and Acerno basins and in red palaeosoils and matrix-supported conglomerates from the Iumaiano basins. In the clay and limestones samples magnetite, titano-magnetite, hematite and iron-sulphide have been recognized as the main magnetic carriers, whereas magnetite and hematite characterize the Iumaiano conglomerates and red soils. Palaeomagnetic results have been integrated with published radiometric data in order to constrain the age of each sedimentary basins. Sites from the Iumaiano basin, which represents the substrate of the Tizzano and Piano del Gaudo basins, show a reverse polarity and therefore have been attributed to the lower Matuyama chron. In contrast, palaeomagnetic data from Tizzano basin show a transition from reversed to normal polarity along the exposed section, which has been interpreted as the Matuyama/Brunhes transition. Sites from Acerno and Piano del Gaudo basins show a normal polarity, which, according to radiometric and pollen data, have been correlated to the Brunhes epoch. On the base of such results we discuss the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basins and the role of extensional tectonics in this portion of the Southern Apennine during the Quaternary. [source]

On accuracy of the finite-difference and finite-element schemes with respect to P -wave to S -wave speed ratio

Peter Moczo
SUMMARY Numerical modelling of seismic motion in sedimentary basins often has to account for P -wave to S -wave speed ratios as large as five and even larger, mainly in sediments below groundwater level. Therefore, we analyse seven schemes for their behaviour with a varying P -wave to S -wave speed ratio. Four finite-difference (FD) schemes include (1) displacement conventional-grid, (2) displacement-stress partly-staggered-grid, (3) displacement-stress staggered-grid and (4) velocity,stress staggered-grid schemes. Three displacement finite-element schemes differ in integration: (1) Lobatto four-point, (2) Gauss four-point and (3) Gauss one-point. To compare schemes at the most fundamental level, and identify basic aspects responsible for their behaviours with the varying speed ratio, we analyse 2-D second-order schemes assuming an elastic homogeneous isotropic medium and a uniform grid. We compare structures of the schemes and applied FD approximations. We define (full) local errors in amplitude and polarization in one time step, and normalize them for a unit time. We present results of extensive numerical calculations for wide ranges of values of the speed ratio and a spatial sampling ratio, and the entire range of directions of propagation with respect to the spatial grid. The application of some schemes to real sedimentary basins in general requires considerably finer spatial sampling than usually applied. Consistency in approximating first spatial derivatives appears to be the key factor for the behaviour of a scheme with respect to the P -wave to S -wave speed ratio. [source]

Seismic anisotropy of shales

C.M. Sayers
ABSTRACT Shales are a major component of sedimentary basins, and they play a decisive role in fluid flow and seismic-wave propagation because of their low permeability and anisotropic microstructure. Shale anisotropy needs to be quantified to obtain reliable information on reservoir fluid, lithology and pore pressure from seismic data, and to understand time-to-depth conversion errors and non-hyperbolic moveout. A single anisotropy parameter, Thomsen's , parameter, is sufficient to explain the difference between the small-offset normal-moveout velocity and vertical velocity, and to interpret the small-offset AVO response. The sign of this parameter is poorly understood, with both positive and negative values having been reported in the literature. , is sensitive to the compliance of the contact regions between clay particles and to the degree of disorder in the orientation of clay particles. If the ratio of the normal to shear compliance of the contact regions exceeds a critical value, the presence of these regions acts to increase ,, and a change in the sign of ,, from the negative values characteristic of clay minerals to the positive values commonly reported for shales, may occur. Misalignment of the clay particles can also lead to a positive value of ,. For transverse isotropy, the elastic anisotropy parameters can be written in terms of the coefficients W200 and W400 in an expansion of the clay-particle orientation distribution function in generalized Legendre functions. For a given value of W200, decreasing W400 leads to an increase in ,, while for fixed W400, , increases with increasing W200. Perfect alignment of clay particles with normals along the symmetry axis corresponds to the maximum values of W200 and W400, given by and . A comparison of the predictions of the theory with laboratory measurements shows that most shales lie in a region of the (W200, W400)-plane defined by W400/W200,Wmax400/Wmax200. [source]

Compaction process in sedimentary basins: the role of stiffness increase and hardening induced by large plastic strains

V. Deudé
Abstract This paper is devoted to the simulation of large strain compaction process in sedimentary basins. Special attention is paid to the effects of large porosity changes on the elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the sediment material. The latter are introduced in the constitutive behaviour in the framework of a micromechanical reasoning. In particular, the proposed approach avoids the problem of negative porosities that are predicted by classical models under high confining pressures. Some closed-form solutions are presented in the simplified case of one-dimensional compaction. While the influence of stiffness increase is shown to be negligible as regards the compaction law, it proves to affect significantly the stress and porosity profiles. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Subsurface sediment remobilization and fluid flow in sedimentary basins: an overview

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 4 2010
Mads Huuse
ABSTRACT Subsurface sediment remobilization and fluid flow processes and their products are increasingly being recognized as significant dynamic components of sedimentary basins. The geological structures formed by these processes have traditionally been grouped into mud volcano systems, fluid flow pipes and sandstone intrusion complexes. But the boundaries between these groups are not always distinct because there can be similarities in their geometries and the causal geological processes. For instance, the process model for both mud and sand remobilization and injection involves a source of fluid that can be separate from the source of sediment, and diapirism is now largely discarded as a deformation mechanism for both lithologies. Both mud and sand form dykes and sills in the subsurface and extrusive edifices when intersecting the sediment surface, although the relative proportions of intrusive and extrusive components are very different, with mud volcano systems being largely extrusive and sand injectite systems being mainly intrusive. Focused fluid flow pipes may transfer fluids over hundreds of metres of vertical section for millions of years and may develop into mud volcano feeder systems under conditions of sufficiently voluminous and rapid fluid ascent associated with deeper focus points and overpressured aquifers. Both mud and sand remobilization is facilitated by overpressure and generally will be activated by an external trigger such as an earthquake, although some mud volcano systems may be driven by the re-charge dynamics of their fluid source. Future research should aim to provide spatio-temporal ,injectite' stratigraphies to help constrain sediment remobilization processes in their basinal context and identify and study outcrop analogues of mud volcano feeders and pipes, which are virtually unknown at present. Further data-driven research would be significantly boosted by numerical and analogue process modelling to constrain the mechanics of deep subsurface sediment remobilization as these processes can not be readily observed, unlike many conventional sediment transport phenomena. [source]

Mudstone compaction curves in basin modelling: a study of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sediments in the northern North Sea

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
Ø. Marcussen
ABSTRACT Basin modelling studies are carried out in order to understand the basin evolution and palaeotemperature history of sedimentary basins. The results of basin modelling are sensitive to changes in the physical properties of the rocks in the sedimentary sequences. The rate of basin subsidence depends, to a large extent, on the density of the sedimentary column, which is largely dependent on the porosity and therefore on the rate of compaction. This study has tested the sensitivity of varying porosity/depth curves and related thermal conductivities for the Cenozoic succession along a cross-section in the northern North Sea basin, offshore Norway. End-member porosity/depth curves, assuming clay with smectite and kaolinite properties, are compared with a standard compaction curve for shale normally applied to the North Sea. Using these alternate relationships, basin geometries of the Cenozoic succession may vary up to 15% from those predicted using the standard compaction curve. Isostatic subsidence along the cross-section varies 2.3,4.6% between the two end-member cases. This leads to a 3,8% difference in tectonic subsidence, with maximum values in the basin centre. Owing to this, the estimated stretching factors vary up to 7.8%, which further gives rise to a maximum difference in heat flow of more than 8.5% in the basin centre. The modelled temperatures for an Upper Jurassic source rock show a deviation of more than 20 °C at present dependent on the thermal conductivity properties in the post-rift succession. This will influence the modelled hydrocarbon generation history of the basin, which is an essential output from basin modelling analysis. Results from the northern North Sea have shown that varying compaction trends in sediments with varying thermal properties are important parameters to constrain when analysing sedimentary basins. [source]

Superposed deformation in turbidites and syn-sedimentary slides of the tectonically active Miocene Waitemata Basin, northern New Zealand

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2007
K. B. Spörli
ABSTRACT The Miocene Waitemata Basin was deposited on a moving base provided by the Northland Allochthon, which was emplaced in the Late Oligocene, as a new convergent plate boundary was established in northern New Zealand. The basin experienced complex interaction between tectonic and gravity-driven shallow deformation. Spectacular examples of the resulting structures exposed on eastern Whangaparaoa Peninsula 50 km north of Auckland provide a world-class example of weak rock deformation, the neglected domain between soft-sediment and hard rock deformation. Quartz-poor turbidite sequences display a protracted sequence of deformations: D1, synsedimentary slumping; D2, large scale deeper-seated sliding and extensional low-angle shearing, associated with generation of boudinage and broken formation; D3, thrusting and folding, indicating transport mostly to the SE; D4, thrusting and folding in the opposite direction; D5, further folding, including sinistral shear; D6, steep faults. The deformation sequence suggests continuous or intermittent southeastward transport of units with increasing sedimentary and structural burial. By phase D3, the rocks had passed from the soft-sediment state to low levels of consolidation. However, with a compressive strength of ,5 MPa they are weak rocks even today. Such weak-rock deformation must be important in other sedimentary basins, especially those associated with active convergent plate boundaries and with immature source areas for their sediments. [source]

Dynamic modelling of passive margin salt tectonics: effects of water loading, sediment properties and sedimentation patterns

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2005
Lykke Gemmer
We investigate the evolution of passive continental margin sedimentary basins that contain salt through two-dimensional (2D) analytical failure analysis and plane-strain finite-element modelling. We expand an earlier analytical failure analysis of a sedimentary basin/salt system at a passive continental margin to include the effects of submarine water loading and pore fluid pressure. Seaward thinning sediments above a weak salt layer produce a pressure gradient that induces Poiseuille flow in the viscous salt. We determine the circumstances under which failure at the head and toe of the frictional,plastic sediment wedge occurs, resulting in translation of the wedge, landward extension and seaward contraction, accompanied by Couette flow in the underlying salt. The effects of water: (i) increase solid and fluid pressures in the sediments; (ii) reduce the head to toe differential pressure in the salt and (iii) act as a buttress to oppose failure and translation of the sediment wedge. The magnitude of the translation velocity upon failure is reduced by the effects of water. The subsequent deformation is investigated using a 2D finite-element model that includes the effects of the submarine setting and hydrostatic pore pressures. The model quantitatively simulates a 2D approximation of the evolution of natural sedimentary basins on continental margins that are formed above salt. Sediment progradation above a viscous salt layer results in formation of landward extensional basins and listric normal growth faults as well as seaward contraction. At a later stage, an allochthonous salt nappe overthrusts the autochthonous limit of the salt. The nature and distribution of major structures depends on the sediment properties and the sedimentation pattern. Strain weakening of sediment favours landward listric growth faults with formation of asymmetric extensional depocentres. Episodes of low sediment influx, with partial infill of depocentres, produce local pressure gradients in the salt that result in diapirism. Diapirs grow passively during sediment aggradation. [source]

Aqueous and petroleum fluid flow associated with sand injectites

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
Rene Jonk
Field, petrographic and fluid inclusion characteristics of sand injectites from five outcrop localities and from the subsurface of the Tertiary of the south Viking Graben are described. Although the case studies are from a wide variety of sedimentological, stratigraphic and tectonic settings, and hence their diagenetic evolutions differ significantly, it is possible and useful to assign diagenetic events to three distinct phases of fluid flow associated with sand injectites in sedimentary basins. Firstly, there is fluid flow associated with the injection of the fluid,sediment mix during shallow burial. Early diagenetic imprints in sand injectites reveal that basinal fluids, which may be released during movement along deeper-seated faults, can be associated with this process and thus the injection process may reveal information on the timing of basin-scale movement of fluids. Secondly, following the injection process, basinal fluids continue to migrate through uncemented injectites and mix with the ambient meteoric and/or marine pore fluids that invade injectites from the overlying and surrounding host sediments. Early, often pervasive, carbonate cementation is common within sand injectites and rapidly turns sand injectites into flow barriers during shallow (<1 km) burial. If early carbonate cementation is not pervasive, fluid inclusions in late quartz cement (,>2 km of burial) reveal additional information on fluid flow associated with sand injectites during deeper burial. The latest phase of fluid flow occurs when sand injectites are reactivated as preferential fluid conduits during phases of deformation, when well-cemented subvertical sand injectites become sites of focussed brittle deformation (fracturing). This study shows that sand injectites are a common and volumetrically important type of structural heterogeneity in sedimentary basins and that long-lived fluid flow associated with sand injectites in very different settings can be assessed and compared systematically using a combination of petrography and fluid inclusion studies. [source]