Sedation

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Sedation

  • adequate sedation
  • conscious sedation
  • deep sedation
  • inhalation sedation
  • intravenous sedation
  • ketamine sedation
  • moderate sedation
  • pediatric procedural sedation
  • procedural sedation
  • propofol sedation

  • Terms modified by Sedation

  • sedation level
  • sedation practice
  • sedation scale
  • sedation score

  • Selected Abstracts


    Does propofol and alfentanil-induced sedation cause periodic apnoea in chronic renal failure patients?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
    S. M. Lee
    Summary Aims:, There is evidence suggesting that the respiratory response to sedation is different in patients with sleep apnoea, which is common in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study examined the respiratory response of sedation with propofol and alfentanil, whose pharmacokinetics are not affected by the renal function, in CRF patients. Methods:, Chronic renal failure patients who underwent arteriovenous-fistular surgery (CRF group) and patients who underwent chemoport insertion (control group) were enrolled in this study. Sedation was induced by infusing propofol 1.5 ,/ml and alfentanil 0.2 ,/kg/min continuously in both groups. In the desaturation study, the respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation in room air were checked. In the apnoea,hypopnoea study, the patient's sedation (Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation) score, apnoea,hypopnoea index (AHI) was recorded using a portable ventilation effort recorder (microMesam) while applying 5 l/min of oxygen through a facial mask. Results:, The desaturation event was more common (21.5/h vs. 2/h, p = 0.001) in the CRF patients. Apnoea and hypopnoea (AHI: 13.0 vs. 1.6, p = 0.012, per cent of patients with an AHI > 5: 53.3% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.014) occurred more frequently in the CRF patients but the sedation score was not different. Conclusion:, Chronic renal failure patients have a higher risk of developing apnoea and hypopnoea during sedation, which highlights the need for careful monitoring and management in these patients. [source]


    Clinical trial: a dose,response study of fospropofol disodium for moderate sedation during colonoscopy

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 7 2008
    L. B. COHEN
    Summary Background, An effective agent is needed that provides rapid onset of sedation and quick recovery for patients undergoing colonoscopy. Aim, To assess the efficacy and safety of fospropofol disodium in providing sedation in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Methods, A randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial evaluated 127 adult patients who received fospropofol (2, 5, 6.5 or 8 mg/kg) or midazolam 0.02 mg/kg following pre-treatment with fentanyl. Supplemental doses of study medication were allowed to reach a Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale score ,4. Efficacy end points included sedation success, measures of clinical benefit, sedation, and recovery as well as patient- and doctor-rated satisfaction. Results, Fospropofol produced a significant dose-dependent increase in sedation success from 24% (2 mg/kg), 35% (5 mg/kg) and 69% (6.5 mg/kg) to 96% (8 mg/kg; P < 0.001). There were also dose-dependent trends for time to sedation, requirements for alternative sedative medication, supplemental doses of sedative and fentanyl, time to ready for discharge and doctor-rated satisfaction scores. Fospropofol was well tolerated, with most adverse events mild-to-moderate in severity. Conclusion, The 6.5 mg/kg dose of fospropofol provides the ideal balance of efficacy and safety for patients undergoing colonoscopy and has been selected for phase 3 clinical development. [source]


    DEXMEDETOMIDINE FOR SEDATION DURING UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2008
    Kazutoshi Hashiguchi
    Background:, A clinical study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for sedation of patients undergoing routine upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods:, Forty middle-aged patients who were admitted for medical examination were randomized to receive an initial loading dose infusion of dexmedetomidine 6.0 g/kg per h over 10 min followed by a maintenance infusion of 0.6 g/kg per h (group A) or rapid infusion of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg (group B) as sedation for routine endoscopy. Sixty patients did not receive sedative agent (group C). Assessment included measurement of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), oxygen saturation, and endoscopy duration. Results:, There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in baseline characteristics. The level of sedation was similar between groups A and B, and the gag response score was significantly lower in the sedated groups than in group C. Hemodynamic stability was also demonstrated in group A during and after the endoscopic procedure. Increased systolic/diastolic BP was significantly attenuated in group A compared with group C. Interestingly, HR was significantly suppressed in group A than in groups B and C. In groups A and B, SpO2 was decreased compared with group C during and after the procedures; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference among the groups with endoscopy duration. Conclusions:, For sedation during upper endoscopy, dexmedetomidine is as safe and effective as midazolam, and it significantly reduces HR and BP during and after the endoscopic procedures. [source]


    DOSE,RESPONSE OF ROPIVACAINE ADMINISTERED CAUDALLY TO CHILDREN UNDERGOING SURGICAL PROCEDURES UNDER SEDATION WITH MIDAZOLAM

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    F Tonatiu Aguirre-Garay
    SUMMARY 1.,In a double-blind randomized controlled design, 50 children were allocated to receive bupivacaine 0.25% or ropivacaine 0.25%, 0.32%, 0.40% or 0.50% by caudal block. 2.,Caudal block was performed after induction of anaesthesia with 2,5% sevoflurane, atropine 10 g/kg and midazolam 100,300 g/kg. During the surgical procedure, patients were maintained under spontaneous ventilation and no intravenous or inhalatory anaesthetic agent was administered. For transoperative sedation, midazolam 100,300 g/kg was administered every 0.5,1.0 h. Transoperative cardiovascular response, postoperative analgesia and local and systemic complications were evaluated. 3.,Groups were similar (P > 0.05) in sex, age, weight and in the time elapsed from caudal block to the beginning of the surgical procedure. The surgical time was significantly lower in the ropivacaine 0.25% group. The duration of analgesia was 24 h with ropivacaine 0.25% and approximately 10 h in the other four groups (P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between the postoperative analgesic period produced by ropivacaine and the surgical time (r = , 0.48, two-sided P = 0.002). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures remained in the physiologically normal range for the duration of the transoperative period. Vomiting was present in only one patient receiving ropivacaine 0.50%. 4.,In children, the duration of analgesia produced by caudal block with ropivacaine may be affected by surgical time. At surgical times of 0.5,1 h, ropivacaine 0.25% produced at least 24 h postoperative analgesia. At similar surgical times, ropivacaine 0.32%, 0.40% and 0.50% produced similar analgesic times to bupivacaine 0.25%. [source]


    Procedural sedation in children in the emergency department: A PREDICT study

    EMERGENCY MEDICINE AUSTRALASIA, Issue 1 2009
    Meredith Borland
    Abstract Objective: To investigate current procedural sedation practice and compare clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for procedural sedation at Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) sites. This will determine areas for improvement and provide baseline data for future multicentre studies. Methods: A questionnaire of specialist emergency physicians regarding demographics, general procedural sedation practice and specific sedation agents given to children. CPG for general sedation and sedation agents were obtained for each site. Results: Seventy-five (71%) useable surveys returned from 105 potential respondents. Most commonly used agents were nitrous oxide (N2O) (75, 100%), ketamine (total 72, 96%; i.v. 59, 83% and i.m. 22, 31%) and midazolam (total 68, 91%; i.v. 52, 81%, oral 47, 73%, intranasal 26, 41% and i.m. 6, 9%). Sedation was used for therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. Forty-three (57%) used formal sedation records and sedation checklists and thirty-one (41%) respondents reported auditing sedations. Four sites ran staff education and competency programmes. Nine sites had general sedation CPG, eight for ketamine, nine for N2O, eight for midazolam (four parenteral, five oral and six intranasal) and three for fentanyl. No site had a guideline for propofol administration. Conclusion: Procedural sedation in this research network commonly uses N2O, ketamine and midazolam for a wide range of procedures. Areas of improvement are the lack of guidelines for certain agents, documentation, staff competency training and auditing processes. Multicentre research could close gaps in terms of age cut-offs, fasting times and optimal indications for various agents. [source]


    Bispectral Electroencephalographic Analysis of Patients Undergoing Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2003
    James R. Miner MD
    Abstract Objective: To determine whether there is a correlation between the level of sedation achieved during procedural sedation (PS) in the emergency department as determined by bispectral electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis (BIS) and the rate of respiratory depression (RD), the patient's perception of pain, recall of the procedure, and satisfaction. Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in an urban county hospital of adult patients undergoing PS using propofol, methohexital, etomidate, and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. Consenting patients were monitored by vital signs, pulse oximetry, nasal-sample end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), and BIS monitors during PS. Respiratory depression (RD) was defined as an oxygen saturation <90%, a change from baseline ETCO2 of >10 mm Hg, or an absent ETCO2 waveform at any time during the procedure. After the procedure, patients were asked to complete three 100-mm visual analog scales (VASs) concerning their perception of pain, recall of the procedure, and satisfaction with the procedure. Patients were divided into four groups based on the lowest BIS score recorded during the procedure, group 1, >85; group 2, 70,85; group 3, 60,69; group 4, <60. Rates of RD and VAS outcomes were compared between groups using chi-square statistics. Results: One hundred eight patients were enrolled in the study. No serious adverse events were noted. RD was seen in three of 14 (21.4%) of the patients in group 1, seven of 34 (20.6%) in group 2, 16 of 26 (61.5%) in group 3, and 18 of 34 (52.9%) in group 4. The rate of RD in patients in group 2 was not significantly different from that in group 1 (p = 0.46). The rate of RD in group 2 was significantly lower than that in groups 3 (p = 0.0003) and 4 (p = 0.006). For the VAS data, when group 1 was compared with the combined groups 2, 3, and 4, it had significantly higher rates of pain (p = 0.003) and recall (p = 0.001), and a dissatisfaction rate (p = 0.085) that approached significance. When groups 2, 3, and 4 were compared with chi-square test, there was not a significant difference in pain (p = 0.151), recall (p = 0.27), or satisfaction (p = 0.25). Conclusions: Patients with a lowest recorded BIS score between 70 and 85 had the same VAS outcomes as more deeply sedated patients and the same rate of RD as less deeply sedated patients. This range of scores represented the optimally sedated patients in this study. [source]


    Sedation and general anaesthesia of the foal

    EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue S7 2005
    S. A. Robertson
    First page of article [source]


    Prevalence of various radiographic manifestations of osteochondrosis and their correlations between and within joints in Dutch Warmblood horses

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    E. M. Van Grevenhof
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Osteochondrosis (OC) is the most important orthopaedic developmental disorder in horses and may manifest in several different forms. No detailed study on the prevalence and/or interrelation of these forms is available, even though these data are a prerequisite for conclusive genetic studies. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of the various manifestations of OC as detected radiographically and to evaluate possible relationships between their occurrence within the same joint and between different joints. Methods: The FP (femoropatellar), TC (tarsocrural) and MCP/MTP (metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal) joints of 811 yearlings selected randomly, descending from 32 representative stallions, were radiographed and scored for the presence and grade of osteochondrotic lesions. Results were compared at the sire, animal, joint and predilection site levels. Results: In the FP joint, the percentage of animals showing normal joint contours in all sites was 60.7%. For the TC joint and the combined MCP/MTP joints, these figures were 68.6 and 64.6%, respectively. For all joints combined, the percentage dropped to 30.5%. Sedation improved detection of OC lesions in the FP joint. There was a high correlation between the right and left joints. The correlation between flattened bone contours and fragments was considerably less. Conclusions: Scoring on a detailed scale is necessary to achieve good insight into the prevalence of OC. Observations on the right and left joints can be combined in further analyses, whereas flattened bone contours and fragments should be evaluated as statistically different disorders. Potential relevance: This study provides insight into the prevalences of various manifestations of OC and their relationships, within and between joints. These results form the basis for detailed quantitative and/or molecular genetic studies that should lead to the establishment of breeding indices and/or genetic marker sets for OC. [source]


    Sedation with detomidine and acepromazine influences the endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function in horses

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
    C. Lindegaard
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Endoscopy of the upper airways of horses is used as a diagnostic tool and at purchase examinations. On some occasions it is necessary to use sedation during the procedure and it is often speculated that the result of the examination might be influenced due to the muscle-relaxing properties of the most commonly used sedatives. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of detomidine (0.01 mg/kg bwt) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt) on the appearance of symmetry of rima glottidis, ability to abduct maximally the arytenoid cartilages and the effect on recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) grade. Methods: Forty-two apparently normal horses underwent endoscopic examination of the upper airways on 3 different occasions, under the influence of 3 different treatments: no sedation (control), sedation with detomidine and sedation with acepromazine. All examinations were performed with a minimum of one week apart. The study was performed as an observer-blind cross-over study. Results: Sedation with detomidine had a significant effect on the RLN grading (OR = 2.91) and ability maximally to abduct the left arytenoid cartilages (OR = 2.91). Sedation with acepromazine resulted in OR = 2.43 for the RLN grading and OR = 2.22 for the ability to abduct maximally. The ability to abduct maximally the right arytenoid cartilage was not altered. Conclusions: Sedating apparently healthy horses with detomidine or acepromazine significantly impairs these horses' ability to abduct fully the left but not the right arytenoid cartilage. This resulted in different diagnosis with respect to RLN when comparing sedation to no sedation. Potential relevance: Since the ability to abduct the right arytenoid cartilage fully is not altered by sedation, it is speculated that horses changing from normal to abnormal laryngeal function when sedated, might be horses in an early stage of the disease. To confirm or reject these speculations, further studies are needed. Until then sedation during endoscopy should be used with care. [source]


    Etomidate for Pediatric Sedation Prior to Fracture Reduction

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2001
    Richard Dickinson MD
    Abstract. Objective: While etomidate is reported as a procedural sedative in adults, its use in children has not been extensively reported. The authors describe their experience with etomidate for procedural sedation in children with extremity fractures and major joint dislocations. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive chart review. The setting was a university-based emergency department (ED) that follows national guidelines for procedural sedation. Subjects were children less than 18 years old who received etomidate prior to fracture reduction or major joint dislocations. Standardized data were abstracted from the medical records, including patient demographics, diagnosis, weight, types and doses of sedative and analgesic agents used, number of boluses of etomidate, attempts at reduction, complications encountered, vitals signs before, during, and after the reduction, disposition, and the time from procedure to discharge. Descriptive statistics calculated included means and proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Fifty-three children received etomidate for fracture reduction. Their mean age was 9.7; 41.5% were females. Indications for reduction included forearm fractures (38), ankle fractures (12), upper arm fractures (2), and hip dislocations (1). In most cases (83%) reduction was successful after one attempt only. The mean initial and total doses of etomidate were 0.20 mg/kg (range, 0.1 to 0.4) and 0.24 mg/kg (range, 0.13 to 0.52), respectively. Thirteen patients required a second bolus of etomidate or midazolam. Thirty-four patients (64%) were discharged from the ED after a mean observation of 94 minutes (range, 35 to 255). There were no major adverse events (95% CI = 0% to 5.7%). One patient reported nausea and one required a fluid bolus for hypotension. One patient receiving multiple sedatives and opioid analgesics was admitted for observation due to prolonged sedation. No patient required assisted ventilation or intubation. Conclusions: These results suggest that etomidate is a safe and effective agent for procedural sedation in children requiring fracture and major joint reductions. [source]


    A Combination of Midazolam and Ketamine for Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Adult Emergency Department Patients

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 3 2000
    Carl R. Chudnofsky MD
    Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of a combination of midazolam and ketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia in adult emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: This was a prospective, observational trial, conducted in the ED of an urban level II trauma center. Patients , 18 years of age requiring procedural sedation and analgesia were eligible, and enrolled patients received 0.07 mg/kg of intravenous midazolam followed by 2 mg/kg of intravenous ketamine. Vital signs were recorded at regular intervals. The adequacy of sedation, adverse effects, patient satisfaction, and time to reach discharge alertness were determined. Descriptive statistics were calculated using statistical analysis software. Results: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled. Three were excluded due to protocol violations, three due to lack of documentation, and one due to subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine, leaving 70 patients for analysis. The average age was 31 years, and 41 (59%) were female. Indications for procedural sedation and analgesia included abscess incision and drainage (66%), fracture/joint reduction (26%), and other (8%). The mean dose of midazolam was 5.6 1.4 mg and the mean dose of ketamine was 159 42 mg. The mean time to achieve discharge criteria was 64 24 minutes. Fivepatients experienced mild emergence reactions, but there were no episodes of hallucinations, delirium, or other serious emergence reactions. Eighteen (25%) patients recalled dreaming while sedated; twelve (17%) were described as pleasant, two (3%) unpleasant, three (4%) both pleasant and unpleasant, and one (1%) neither pleasant nor unpleasant. There were four (6%) cases of respiratory compromise, two (3%) episodes of emesis, and one (1%) case of myoclonia. All of these were transient and did not result in a change in the patient's disposition. Only one (1%) patient indicated that she was not satisfied with the sedation regimen. Conclusions: The combination of midazolam and ketamine provides effective procedural sedation and analgesia in adult ED patients, and appears to be safe. [source]


    Sedation and antihistamines: an update.

    HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 7 2008
    Review of inter-drug differences using proportional impairment ratios
    Abstract Background The use of antihistamines (AHs) has been associated with cognitive and psychomotor impairments, largely caused by the sedative properties of many of these drugs. Due to the ambulant nature of the population using AHs, it is important to evaluate these effects using standardised methodology and psychometric tests. A previous extensive review of the literature collated the results of studies of H1 receptor antagonists to determine the extent to which a particular AH produced impairments on a battery of psychometric tests by calculating a proportional impairment ratio for each AH. Objective In light of a number of major studies published following the previous review, and the development of the second and new-generation AHs, the present review aims to add to the database and update the review, using the same methodology. Results and Conclusion The newer generation AHs appear to be the least impairing, and the first generation, as expected, appear to be the most impairing. There are also differences within the AH drug generations. The review highlights the necessity to consider the sedating potential of AHs, along with other factors such as efficacy, when prescribing AHs to ambulant patients. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Does propofol and alfentanil-induced sedation cause periodic apnoea in chronic renal failure patients?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
    S. M. Lee
    Summary Aims:, There is evidence suggesting that the respiratory response to sedation is different in patients with sleep apnoea, which is common in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study examined the respiratory response of sedation with propofol and alfentanil, whose pharmacokinetics are not affected by the renal function, in CRF patients. Methods:, Chronic renal failure patients who underwent arteriovenous-fistular surgery (CRF group) and patients who underwent chemoport insertion (control group) were enrolled in this study. Sedation was induced by infusing propofol 1.5 ,/ml and alfentanil 0.2 ,/kg/min continuously in both groups. In the desaturation study, the respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation in room air were checked. In the apnoea,hypopnoea study, the patient's sedation (Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation) score, apnoea,hypopnoea index (AHI) was recorded using a portable ventilation effort recorder (microMesam) while applying 5 l/min of oxygen through a facial mask. Results:, The desaturation event was more common (21.5/h vs. 2/h, p = 0.001) in the CRF patients. Apnoea and hypopnoea (AHI: 13.0 vs. 1.6, p = 0.012, per cent of patients with an AHI > 5: 53.3% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.014) occurred more frequently in the CRF patients but the sedation score was not different. Conclusion:, Chronic renal failure patients have a higher risk of developing apnoea and hypopnoea during sedation, which highlights the need for careful monitoring and management in these patients. [source]


    Once-daily desloratadine improves the signs and symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Johannes Ring MD
    Background Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is the most common type of chronic urticaria, and pruritus is the most prominent symptom. Antihistamines are the first-line treatment for CIU. Sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects are often experienced with the first-generation antihistamines and there is a risk of cardiovascular adverse effects and drug interactions with some second-generation agents. Hence, new treatment options are needed. Desloratadine is a new, potent, nonsedating antihistamine that has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to determine the efficacy and safety of desloratadine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe CIU. A total of 190 patients, aged 12,79 years, with at least a 6-week history of CIU and who were currently experiencing a flare of at least moderate severity, were randomly assigned to therapy with desloratadine 5 mg or placebo once daily for 6 weeks. Twice daily, patients rated the severity of CIU symptoms (pruritus, number of hives, and size of largest hive), as well as the impact of CIU symptoms on sleep and daily activity. Patients and investigators jointly evaluated therapeutic response and overall condition. Safety evaluations included the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events, and changes from baseline in vital signs, laboratory parameters, and ECG intervals. Results Desloratadine was superior to placebo in controlling pruritus and total symptoms after the first dose and maintained this superiority to the end of the study. Measures of sleep, daily activity, therapeutic response, and global CIU status were also significantly better with desloratadine after the first dose; these clinical benefits were also maintained throughout the 6-week study. No significant adverse events occured. Conclusions Desloratadine 5 mg daily is a safe and effective treatment for CIU with significant benefits within 24 h and maintained through the treatment period. [source]


    Review of studies and guidelines on fasting and procedural sedation at the emergency department

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED HEALTHCARE, Issue 2 2010
    Joseph Antonio D Molina MD MSc(Public Health)
    Abstract Aim, Procedural sedation and analgesia allows urgent procedures to be performed safely by preserving patients' airway reflexes. Fasting, which is required before deeper levels of sedation, and where the airway reflexes are not preserved, is difficult to impose in emergencies. This paper aims to synthesise evidence on the need for pre-procedure fasting to minimise aspiration among adults undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia for emergency procedures. Methods, Overviews, guidelines with graded recommendations and primary studies on aspiration and pre-procedure fasting in procedural sedation and analgesia were retrieved from Medline, Cochrane, and Center for Reviews and Dissemination Databases. Terms searched were procedural sedation, fasting, emergency and sedation. Results, One primary study and one guideline were included. The American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee on Procedural Sedation and Analgesia issued a recommendation based on ,preliminary, inconclusive or conflicting evidence, or on panel consensus'. The recommendation states: ,recent food intake is not a contraindication for administering procedural sedation and analgesia . . .'. The primary study conducted by Bell in an emergency department in Australia compared patients who last ate or drank more than 6 and 2 h from induction, respectively, with those who last ate or drank within 6 and 2 h. There were no cases of aspiration in both groups. Out of 118 patients who fasted, 1 (0.8%) vomited, as did one of 282 patients (0.4%) who did not fast. Conclusions, Aspiration risk is expected to be lower in procedural sedation and analgesia than in general anaesthesia. Current guidelines rely on expert consensus due to the lack of primary studies. Contextualisation of existing guidelines are quick and efficient strategies for developing locally relevant tools. [source]


    A study to assess the validity of clinical judgement in determining paediatric dental anxiety and related outcomes of management

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 3 2005
    R. D. HOLMES
    Summary. Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of subjective anxiety assessment and the outcomes of management of children receiving operative dental treatment. Setting., The study was conducted at the Departments of Sedation and Child Dental Health, Newcastle Dental Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Subjects and methods., One hundred children and adolescents aged between 8 and 15 years participated in the study. Clinicians subjectively allocated 50 children for treatment with local analgesia alone (low anxiety), and identified 50 children who had the potential to benefit from nitrous oxide and oxygen sedation (high anxiety). Participants then completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Venham Picture Test (VPT) and the Child Fear Survey Schedule , Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). A global rating scale classified behaviour during dental treatment. Results., State anxiety and dental fear prior to treatment were significantly higher in children allocated to receive inhalation sedation (P = 0004 and P = 0005, respectively). There was no significant difference in trait anxiety or post-treatment state anxiety between the two groups (P = 069 and P = 006, respectively). Only 11% displayed ,negative' behaviour during treatment: 82% of this group represented those allocated to receive sedation. Conclusion., Children receiving inhalation sedation were significantly more anxious prior to treatment than children receiving treatment with local analgesia alone. The findings support the subjective assessment of anxiety in children; however, objective anxiety measures may assist clinicians in identifying specific fears, which may ultimately aid patient management. [source]


    Sedation with midazolam versus local anaesthesia with lignocaine for transrectal prostate biopsies

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGICAL NURSING, Issue 2 2008
    Ilana Golan
    Abstract Transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate is the only method for diagnosing prostate cancer. Although tolerated by most patients, 65,90% of patients complain of pain during the procedure. Most urologists utilize ultrasound-guided transrectal injection of lignocaine. Intravenous sedation with short-acting medications such as midazolam has been successfully used during many invasive ambulatory procedures, reducing discomfort and anxiety. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of pain and anxiety reduction using intravenous sedation with midazolam versus local anaesthesia with lignocaine during transrectal biopsies of the prostate in a cross-sectional study. Ninety consecutive candidates for transrectal prostate biopsy were divided into 2 groups. Group A received periprostatic block with 2% lignocaine and group B received sedation with intravenous injection of 4 mg midazolam prior to insertion of the probe. Side-effects and patient satisfaction were documented by questionnaires, which included a pain visual analogue scale (VAS). Significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to the patient's perceived intensity of pain. Pain level expressed by a VAS was 42 in group A and 19 in group B (P < 0001). Eighty-seven per cent of the patients in group B stated that they would be willing to repeat the procedure if necessary compared with 55% in group A (P = 0002). There were no complications or side-effects as a result of midazolam sedation. Midazolam is more effective in relieving pain and anxiety during transrectal prostate biopsies and as safe as a local injection of lignocaine. [source]


    Titrated propofol induction vs. continuous infusion in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2010
    J. E. CHO
    Background: Propofol is the popular intravenous (i.v.) anaesthetic for paediatric sedation because of its rapid onset and recovery. We compared the efficacy and safety of a single dose and conventional infusion of propofol for sedation in children who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized-controlled study. One hundred and sixty children were assigned to group I (single dose) or II (infusion). Sedation was induced with i.v. propofol 2 mg/kg, and supplemental doses of propofol 0.5 mg/kg were administered until adequate sedation was achieved. After the induction of sedation, we treated patients with a continuous infusion of normal saline at a rate of 0.3 ml/kg/h in group I and the same volume of propofol in group II. In case of inadequate sedation, additional propofol 0.5 mg/kg was administered and the infusion rate was increased by 0.05 ml/kg/h. Induction time, sedation time, recovery time, additional sedation and adverse events were recorded. Results: Recovery time was significantly shorter in group I compared with group II [0 (0,3) vs. 1 (0,3), respectively, P<0.001]. Group I (single dose) had significantly more patients with recovery time 0 compared with group II (infusion) (65/80 vs. 36/80, respectively, P<0.001). Induction and sedation times were not significantly different between groups. There was no significant difference in the frequency of additional sedation and adverse events between groups. Conclusion: A single dose of propofol without a continuous infusion can provide appropriate sedation in children undergoing MRI for <30 min. [source]


    Defibrillation Efficacy and Pain Perception of Two Biphasic Waveforms for Internal Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation

    JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2003
    Jens Jung M.D.
    Introduction: We evaluated the influence of the peak voltage of waveforms used for internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation on defibrillation efficacy and pain perception. A low peak voltage biphasic waveform generated by a 500-,F capacitor with 40% tilt was compared to a standard biphasic waveform generated by a 60-,F capacitor with 80% tilt. Methods and Results: In 19 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (79% male, age 55 11 years, 21% with heart disease), the atrial defibrillation threshold (ADFT) was determined during deep sedation with midazolam for both waveforms in a randomized fashion using a step-up protocol. Internal cardioversion with a single lead (shock vector: coronary sinus to right atrium) was successful in 18 (95%) of 19 patients. ADFT energy and peak voltage were significantly lower for the low-voltage waveform (2.1 2.4 J vs 3.5 3.9 J, P < 0.01; 100 53 V vs 290 149 V, P < 0.01). Sedation then was reversed with flumazenil after ADFT testing. Two shocks at the ADFT (or a 3-J shock if ADFT >3 J) were administered to the patient using each waveform in random order. Pain perception was assessed using both a visual scale and a numerical score. ADFTs were above the pain threshold in 17 (94%) of 18 patients, even though the ADFT with the 500-,F waveform was <100 V in 63% of the patients. Pain perception was comparable for both waveforms (numerical score: 6.5 2.4 vs 6.3 2.6; visual scale: 5.4 2.6 vs 5.2 3.1; P = NS, 500-,F vs 60-,F). The second shock was perceived as more painful in 88% of the patients, independent of the waveform used. Conclusion: Despite a 66% lower peak voltage and a 40% lower energy, the 40% tilt, 500-,F capacitor biphasic waveform did not change the pain perceived by the patient during delivery of internal cardioversion shocks. Pain perception for internal cardioversion probably is not influenced by peak voltage alone and increases with the number of applied shocks. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. 837-840, August 2003) [source]


    Safety and efficacy of sonographic-guided random real-time core needle biopsy of the liver

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 3 2009
    Siddharth A. Padia MD
    Abstract Purpose. To determine the safety and efficacy of real-time, sonographic-guided, random percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver in a tertiary medical center. Method. From an IRB-approved biopsy database, all patients who had random liver biopsy performed over a 24-month period were selected. In 350 patients, 539 random percutaneous needle biopsies of the liver were performed under real-time sonographic visualization. The following were recorded from the electronic medical record: patient demographics, indication for biopsy procedure; radiologist's name; needle type and gauge and number of passes; use and amount of IV sedation or anesthesia; adequacy of the specimen; and complications following the procedure. Result. Of 539 biopsies, 378 (70%) biopsy procedures were performed on liver transplant recipients. Of the biopsy procedures in nontransplant patients, 81/161 (50%) concurrently underwent biopsy of a focal liver mass. An 18-gauge automated core biopsy needle was used in 536/539 (99%). Median number of passes per biopsy procedure was 1 (mean, 1.7; range, 1,6). Sedation using midazolam and fentanyl was used in 483/539 (90%). There were only 8 inadequate specimens (1.5%, [2.3, upper 95% confidence limit, fully described in Statistical Analysis]). Complications were identified in 11/539 biopsy procedures (2.0%, [2.6, upper 95% confidence limit]): 5 with severe postprocedural pain, 3 with symptomatic hemorrhage, 2 with infection, and 1 with a rash. There were no sedation-related complications and no deaths related to the procedure. Conclusion. Real-time, sonographic-guided, random core-needle liver biopsy is a safe and highly effective procedure. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2009 [source]


    Conscious Sedation with Intermittent Midazolam and Fentanyl in Electrophysiology Procedures

    JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    F.A.C.C., ROMAN T. PACHULSKI M.D.
    Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of intermittent midazolam and fentanyl conscious sedation for electrophysiology procedures (EP). Background: Intermittent midazolam and fentanyl conscious sedation was administered in 700 consecutive cases (175 radiofrequency ablations, 163 EP studies, 261 pacemakers, and 101 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators) for 471 patients (239 males, 51%) mean age 65 15 years. The mean dose of midazolam was 0.063 mg/kg/hr and fentanyl was 0.591,g/kg/hr. Methods: Cardiac rate and rhythm were monitored continuously, while blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation were noninvasively assessed evevy 5 minutes. Drugs were administered in aliquots of 0.5 to 2.0 mg of midazolam and 6.25 to 25 ,g of fentanyl as determined by clinical condition every 15 to 30 minutes. Results: There were no deaths. In no case was endotracheal intubation required. Mild hypoxemia (SaO2 > 80%, but < 90%) occurred in 17 cases (2.4%) and was easily reversed with verbal stimulation and oropharyngeal repositioning (12 cases, 1.7%), increased F1O2 (3 cases, 0.4%), or intravenous naloxone (2 cases, 0.3%). Reversible hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90, but > 60 mmHg) occurred in 14 patients (2.0%) and was corrected with intravenous crystalloid bolus or flumazenil (10 cases, 1.4%) or inotrope infusion (4 cases, 0.6%). No patient stay was prolonged due to sedation. Only five patients (0.7%) had any recollection of the procedure, while two (0.3%) were aware of pain. All hypoxemic episodes occurred during the first hour, whereas 43% (6/14) of hypotensive episodes occurred after the first hour. Conclusion: Conscious sedation with intermittent midazolam and fentanyl is safe and eficacious for a broad range of EP procedures. (J Interven Cardiol 2001; 14:143,146) [source]


    Anticholinergics and Ketamine Sedation in Children: A Secondary Analysis of Atropine Versus Glycopyrrolate

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
    Steven M. Green MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Adjunctive anticholinergics are commonly administered during emergency department (ED) ketamine sedation in children under the presumption that drying oral secretions should decrease the likelihood of airway and respiratory adverse events. Pharmacologic considerations suggest that glycopyrrolate might exhibit a superior adverse effect profile to atropine. The authors contrasted the adverse events noted with use of each of these anticholinergics in a large multicenter observational database of ketamine sedations. Methods:, This was a secondary analysis of an observational database of 8,282 ED ketamine sedations assembled from 32 prior series. The authors compared the relative incidence of six adverse events (airway and respiratory adverse events, laryngospasm, apnea, emesis, recovery agitation, and clinically important recovery agitation) between children who received coadministered atropine, glycopyrrolate, or no anticholinergic. Multivariable analysis using the specific anticholinergic as a covariate was performed, while controlling for other known predictors. Results:, Atropine was associated with less vomiting (5.3%) than either glycopyrrolate (10.7%) or no anticholinergic (11.4%) in both unadjusted and multivariable analyses. Glycopyrrolate was associated with significantly more airway and respiratory adverse events (6.4%) than either atropine (3.3%) or no anticholinergic (3.0%) and similarly more clinically important recovery agitation (2.1% vs. 1.2 and 1.3%). There were, however, no differences noted in odds of laryngospasm and apnea. Conclusions:, This secondary analysis unexpectedly found that the coadministered anticholinergic atropine exhibited a superior adverse event profile to glycopyrrolate during ketamine sedation. Any such advantage requires confirmation in a separate trial; however, our data cast doubt on the traditional premise that glycopyrrolate might be superior. Further, neither anticholinergic showed efficacy in decreasing airway and respiratory adverse events. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:157,162 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


    A Prospective Case Series of Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in the Emergency Department Using Single-syringe Ketamine,Propofol Combination (Ketofol)

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
    Gary Andolfatto MD
    Abstract Objectives:, This study evaluated the effectiveness, recovery time, and adverse event profile of intravenous (IV) ketofol (mixed 1:1 ketamine,propofol) for emergency department (ED) procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in children. Methods:, Prospective data were collected on all PSA events in a trauma-receiving, community teaching hospital over a 3.5-year period, from which data on all patients under 21 years of age were studied. Patients receiving a single-syringe 1:1 mixture of 10 mg/mL ketamine and 10 mg/mL propofol (ketofol) were analyzed. Patients received ketofol in titrated aliquots at the discretion of the treating physician. Effectiveness, recovery time, caregiver and patient satisfaction, drug doses, physiologic data, and adverse events were recorded. Results:, Ketofol PSA was performed in 219 patients with a median age of 13 years (range = 1 to 20 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 8 to 16 years) for primarily orthopedic procedures. The median dose of medication administered was 0.8 mg/kg each of ketamine and propofol (range = 0.2 to 3.0 mg/kg; IQR = 0.7 to 1.0 mg/kg). Sedation was effective in all patients. Three patients (1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0% to 3.0%) had airway events requiring intervention, of which one (0.4%; 95% CI = 0.0% to 1.2%) required positive pressure ventilation. Two patients (0.9%; 95% CI = 0.0% to 2.2%) had unpleasant emergence requiring treatment. All other adverse events were minor. Median recovery time was 14 minutes (range = 3 to 41 minutes; IQR = 11 to 18 minutes). Median staff satisfaction was 10 on a 1-to-10 scale. Conclusions:, Pediatric PSA using ketofol is highly effective. Recovery times were short; adverse events were few; and patients, caregivers, and staff were highly satisfied. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:194,201 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


    Accuracy of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring in clinical practice

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2009
    M. TALLGREN
    Background: The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is used to quantify the severity of illness daily during intensive care. Our aim was to evaluate how accurately SOFA is recorded in clinical practice, and whether this can be improved by a refresher course in scoring rules. Methods: The scores recorded by physicians in a university hospital intensive care unit (ICU) were compared with the gold standard determined by two expert assessors. Data concerning all consecutive patients during two 6-week-long observation periods (baseline and after the refresher course) were compared. Results: SOFA was accurate on 75/158 (48%) patient days at baseline. The cardiovascular, coagulation, liver, and renal component scores showed excellent accuracy (,82%, weighted ,,0.92), while the neurological score showed only moderate (70%, weighted , 0.51) and the respiration score showed good accuracy (75%, weighted , 0.79). After the refresher course, the number of ,2 point errors decreased (P<0.01). Sedation precluded neurological evaluation on 135/311 (43%) days. The accuracy of the assumed neurological scores was lower than those based on timely data: 89/135 (66%, weighted , 0.55) vs. 125/176 (71%, weighted , 0.81) (P<0.01). Conclusion: Only half of the SOFA scores were accurate. In most cases, they were accurate enough to allow the recognition of organ failure and detection of change. The component scores showed good to excellent accuracy, except the neurological score. After the refresher course, the results improved slightly. The moderate accuracy of the neurological score was not amended. A simpler neurological classification tool than the Glasgow Coma Scale is needed in the ICU. [source]


    Safety and Acceptability of Implantation of Internal Cardioverter-Defibrillators Under Local Anesthetic and Conscious Sedation

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
    DAVID J. FOX B.M.Sc., M.B.Ch.B., M.R.C.P.
    Background: Implantation and testing of implantable defibrillators (ICDs) using local anesthetic and conscious sedation is widely practiced; however, some centers still use general anesthesia. We assessed safety and patient acceptability for implantation of defibrillators using local anesthetic and conscious sedation. Methods: The records of 500 consecutive device implants from two UK cardiac centers implanted under local anesthetic and conscious sedation from January 1996 to December 2004 were reviewed. Procedure time, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) sedative dosage (midazolam), analgesic dosage (fentanyl or diamorphine), requirement for drug reversal, and respiratory support were recorded. Patient acceptability of the procedure was also assessed. Results: Of 500 implants examined, 387 were ICDs, 88 were biventricular ICDs, and 25 were generator changes. Patients with biventricular-ICDs had significantly longer (mean SD) procedure times 129.7 7.6 minutes versus 63.3 32.3 minutes; P < 0.0001 and lower LVEF 24.4 8.4% versus 35.7 15.4%; P < 0.0001. There were no differences in the doses (mean SD) of midazolam 8.9 3.5 mg versus 8.0 3.1 mg; P = NS, diamorphine 4.3 2.0 mg versus 3.8 1.7 mg; P = NS or fentanyl 94.4 53.7 mcg versus 92.2 48.6 mcg; P = NS, between the two groups. There were no deaths or tracheal intubations in either group. Acceptability was available for 373 of 500 (75%) patients, 41 of 373 (11%) described "discomfort," but from these 41 patients only 14 of 373 (3.8%) declined a second procedure under the same conditions. Conclusions: Implantation of defibrillators under local anesthetic and sedation is safe and acceptable to patients. General anesthesia is no longer routinely required for implantation of defibrillators. [source]


    Midazolam as a sole sedative for computed tomography imaging in pediatric patients

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 9 2009
    RANJU SINGH MD
    Summary Objective:, To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of i.v. midazolam as a sole agent for sedation in children for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Materials and Methods:, Prospective clinical trial in which 516 children under ASA classification II,IV (273 boys and 243 girls) in the age group of 6 months to 6 years for elective CT scan were enrolled over a 17-month period. Patients were administered i.v. midazolam 0.2 mgkg,1 and further boluses of 0.1 mgkg,1 (total 0.5 mgkg,1) if required. Measurements included induction time, efficacy, side effects, complications, and degree of sedation. Sedation was graded on the basis of Ramsay sedation score (RSS) as over sedated (RSS 5,6), adequately sedated (AS, RSS 3,4), under sedated (RSS 1,2), or failed if the procedure could not be completed or another agent had to be administered. Results:, Of the 516 procedures, 483 brains, 16 chests, and 17 abdomens were scanned with a mean duration of 4.75 1.75 min with a mean dose of 0.212 mgkg,1 of i.v. midazolam. Four hundred and sixty-five (90.12%) patients were AS in 5.9 0.7 min while 40 (7.75%) patients required additional boluses. Of these 40 patients, 24 (4.65%) required a single bolus, 12 (2.32%) required two boluses, whereas the remaining four (0.78%) required three boluses. In 11 (2.13%; P < 0.0001) patients, the scan could not be completed satisfactorily. Side effects were seen in 46 (9.11%) patients in the form of desaturation, hiccups (seven patients, 1.38%), and agitation (four patients, 0.79%). Desaturation (SpO2 90,95%) was seen in 35 (6.93%) patients, which was corrected by topical application of oxygen. None of the patients exhibited any complications such as pulmonary aspiration or need to maintain airway. The patients were kept under observation for 1 h after the procedure. Conclusion:, The level of sedation achieved in children with midazolam 0.2 mgkg,1 is adequate for imaging with minimal side effects, no airway complications, and fast recovery. It can be recommended as the sole agent for sedation in pediatric patients for CT imaging. [source]


    Sedation of neonates with chloral

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 6 2009
    Oliver R Dearlove
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Sedation with ketamine and low-dose midazolam for short-term procedures requiring pharyngeal manipulation in young children

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 1 2008
    HELENA NOVAK MD
    Summary Background:, Pediatric intestinal biopsy procedures including considerable transpharyngeal manipulation of a wire-guided metal capsule require adequate sedation or anesthesia. This retrospective cohort study was designed to evaluate intravenous sedation with ketamine and low-dose midazolam in young children undergoing these procedures before and also after discharge from the hospital. Methods:, A total of 244 biopsy procedures in 217 children under the age of 16 years were evaluated. All anesthesia records were reviewed according to a defined study protocol and in 145 cases the parents were also interviewed by telephone to obtain further information on possible adverse effects before and after discharge. Results:, Ketamine and low-dose midazolam were carefully titrated by an experienced anesthesia team at an approximate dose ratio of 40 : 1 (total doses 2.3 and 0.05 mgkg,1) in continuously monitored spontaneously breathing children. Possibly associated problems before discharge were salivation (5.7%), vomiting (4.9%), oxygen desaturation (3.3%), laryngospasm (2.5%) and rash (1.2%) according to the patient records and blurred vision (27%), nausea and vomiting (19%), vertigo (13%) and hallucinations or nightmares (3.5%) according to telephone interviews. Few, mild and transient problems remained after discharge from the hospital. Conclusions:, Careful titration of ketamine and low-dose midazolam provides adequate sedation for nonsurgical pediatric short-term procedures also requiring considerable pharyngeal manipulation, particularly considering the low number of serious airway problems such as laryngospasm. The high incidence of late postoperative problems suggests that prospective studies should be designed for long-term follow-up of young children subjected to sedation or anesthesia. [source]


    Sedation of children with ADHD: trazodone or midazolam?

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 10 2007
    Simonetta Tesoro
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Pentobarbital vs chloral hydrate for sedation of children undergoing MRI: efficacy and recovery characteristics

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 7 2004
    Shobha Malviya MD
    Summary Background :,Chloral hydrate (CH) sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with significant failure rates, adverse events and delayed recovery. Pentobarbital (PB), reportedly produces successful sedation in 98% of children undergoing diagnostic imaging. This study compared the efficacy, adverse events and recovery characteristics of CH vs PB in children undergoing MRI. Methods :,With Institutional Review Board approval and written consent, children were randomly assigned to receive intravenous (i.v.) PB (maximum 5 mgkg,1 in incremental doses) or oral CH (75 mgkg,1) prior to MRI. Sedation was augmented with 0.05 mgkg,1 doses of i.v. midazolam (maximum 0.1 mgkg,1) as necessary. Adverse effects, including hypoxaemia, failed sedation, paradoxical reactions and behavioural changes, the return of baseline activity, and parental satisfaction were documented. The quality of MRI scans was evaluated by a radiologist blinded to the sedation technique. Results :,PB facilitated an earlier onset of sedation (P = 0.001), higher sedation scores (P = 0.01), and less need for supplemental midazolam compared with CH. Severe hypoxaemia occurred in two children (6%) in the PB group. Fourteen per cent of the PB group experienced a paradoxical reaction, 9% sedation failure and 11% major motion artefact, compared with 0% (P = 0.05), 3 and 2% (P = NS), respectively, in the CH group. CH and PB were both associated with a high incidence of motor imbalance, and agitation. However, children who received PB had a slower return to baseline activity (P = 0.04). Conclusions :,Although PB facilitated a quicker sedation onset and reduced the requirement for supplemental sedation, it produced a higher incidence of paradoxical reaction and prolonged recovery with a similar failure rate compared with CH. [source]