Screening Version (screening + version)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Facets on the psychopathy checklist screening version and instrumental violence in forensic psychiatric patients

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2010
Jenny Laurell
Background,There is a recognised relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence, but not all violence by people who meet the criteria for psychopathy is instrumental. Aims,Our aims were to compare offence types among forensic psychiatric patients with and without the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) criteria for psychopathy. Our specific questions were whether factor 1 , the interpersonal affective dimension , was related to instrumentality and on severity of the violent crime. Our hypothesis was that the relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence would be dependent on the severity of the violent crime. Methods,Sixty-five male patients at the forensic psychiatric hospital in Sundsvall, all with a violent criminal history, were assessed for psychopathy through interview and records using the PCL: SV. Severity and the instrumentality of their previous violence were coded using the Cornell coding guide for violent incidents. Results,The interpersonal features of psychopathy (the interpersonal facet), and only the interpersonal features were significantly associated with instrumentality and severity of violence. Instrumentality was also significantly related to the severity of the violence, independent of psychopathy score. Conclusions,The results indicated that, at least among forensic psychiatric patients, planning is more likely than not with respect to serious crimes. The specific link between interpersonal features of psychopathy and instrumental and severe violence suggests potential clinical value in recognising subtypes of psychopathy. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social anxiety disorder

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 3 2009
Lenard A. Adler M.D.
Abstract Background: To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine (ATX) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, conducted in adults with ADHD and social anxiety disorder. Patients received 40,100,mg ATX (n=224) or placebo (n=218) for 14 weeks following a 2-week placebo lead-in period. Efficacy measures included the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale: Investigator-Rated: Screening Version (CAARS:Inv:SV), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Clinical Global Impression-Overall-Severity (CGI-O-S), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS), and Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale-29 (AAQoL). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: ATX mean change (,8.710.0) from baseline (29.610.4) on CAARS:Inv:SV Total ADHD Symptoms score was significantly greater than placebo mean change (,5.610.2) from baseline (31.29.4; P<.001). ATX mean change (,22.925.3) from baseline (85.323.6) on LSAS Total score was significant compared to placebo mean change (,14.420.3) from baseline (82.121.3; P<.001). The visit-wise analysis revealed greater improvement on the CAARS:Inv:SV Total ADHD Symptoms score and LSAS Total score for ATX at every time point throughout the study (P values ,.012). Mean changes in CGI-O-S, STAI-Trait Anxiety scores, and AAQoL Total score were significantly greater for ATX compared to placebo. Mean change for both groups on STAI-State Anxiety scores was comparable. Improvement on SAS for ATX compared to placebo was not significant. Rates of insomnia, nausea, dry mouth, and dizziness were higher with ATX than with placebo. Discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions: ATX monotherapy effectively improved symptoms of ADHD and comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults and was well tolerated. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Needs and risks of patients in a state-wide inpatient forensic mental health population

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 4 2010
Ariel Segal
ABSTRACT Routine needs assessments have become mandated requirements for public mental health services. However, the appropriateness of these generic health needs assessments to specialist populations remains questionable. This study sought to assess individual needs assessed using a widely used clinician rated assessment (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales-Secure; HoNOS-Secure), a subjective needs assessment that considers both staff and patient perspectives (Camberwell Assessment of Need-Forensic version; CANFOR), and a measure of risk for general criminal recidivism (Level of Service Inventory: Screening Version; LSI:SV) in a secure forensic mental health service. Results revealed significant positive correlations between staff ratings on HoNOS-Secure, CANFOR total needs, and CANFOR met needs scores, but no significant association between CANFOR ratings or HoNOS-Secure ratings and LSI:SV scores. Although patients and staff reported the same number of needs overall according to CANFOR (7.2 vs. 7.5, P > 0.05), patients reported that more of these needs were unmet (3.1 vs. 2.3, P < 0.05). Differences between staff and patient ratings of need suggest that needs assessments should include patient perspectives to facilitate more collaborative and comprehensive care planning. Divergent perspectives between patients and staff may impair patient engagement in treatment and therefore negatively impact on outcome. Service planning issues and opportunities for future research are discussed. [source]


Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 1 2009
Stuart D.M. Thomas
ABSTRACT Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory , Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies. [source]


Corporate psychopathy: Talking the walk,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 2 2010
Paul Babiak Ph.D.
There is a very large literature on the important role of psychopathy in the criminal justice system. We know much less about corporate psychopathy and its implications, in large part because of the difficulty in obtaining the active cooperation of business organizations. This has left us with only a few small-sample studies, anecdotes, and speculation. In this study, we had a unique opportunity to examine psychopathy and its correlates in a sample of 203 corporate professionals selected by their companies to participate in management development programs. The correlates included demographic and status variables, as well as in-house 360 assessments and performance ratings. The prevalence of psychopathic traits,as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist,Revised (PCL-R) and a Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) "equivalent",was higher than that found in community samples. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the underlying latent structure of psychopathy in our corporate sample was consistent with that model found in community and offender studies. Psychopathy was positively associated with in-house ratings of charisma/presentation style (creativity, good strategic thinking and communication skills) but negatively associated with ratings of responsibility/performance (being a team player, management skills, and overall accomplishments). Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Facets on the psychopathy checklist screening version and instrumental violence in forensic psychiatric patients

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2010
Jenny Laurell
Background,There is a recognised relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence, but not all violence by people who meet the criteria for psychopathy is instrumental. Aims,Our aims were to compare offence types among forensic psychiatric patients with and without the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) criteria for psychopathy. Our specific questions were whether factor 1 , the interpersonal affective dimension , was related to instrumentality and on severity of the violent crime. Our hypothesis was that the relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence would be dependent on the severity of the violent crime. Methods,Sixty-five male patients at the forensic psychiatric hospital in Sundsvall, all with a violent criminal history, were assessed for psychopathy through interview and records using the PCL: SV. Severity and the instrumentality of their previous violence were coded using the Cornell coding guide for violent incidents. Results,The interpersonal features of psychopathy (the interpersonal facet), and only the interpersonal features were significantly associated with instrumentality and severity of violence. Instrumentality was also significantly related to the severity of the violence, independent of psychopathy score. Conclusions,The results indicated that, at least among forensic psychiatric patients, planning is more likely than not with respect to serious crimes. The specific link between interpersonal features of psychopathy and instrumental and severe violence suggests potential clinical value in recognising subtypes of psychopathy. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Efficient assessment of social problem-solving abilities in medical and rehabilitation settings: a rasch analysis of the social problem-solving inventory-revised

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
Laura E. Dreer
Abstract The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age=71 years old, SD=15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age=58, and SD=14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age=56 years old, SD=12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65: 1,15, 2009. [source]


Factors affecting the risk of behaviour problems in children with severe intellectual disability

JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2000
O. Chadwick
In order to examine the importance of a range of potential risk factors for behaviour problems in children with severe intellectual disability, a sample was identified by the administration of a screening version of the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) to the parents of children aged 4,11years attending six special needs schools in three adjacent inner London boroughs. Parents whose children had a VABS standard score of 50 were interviewed using the Disability Assessment Schedule and both parents and teachers completed the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist. Most behaviour problems were more common in ambulant children, but problems less dependent on the ability to walk, such as sleeping difficulties, screaming and self-injury, were equally common in ambulant and non-ambulant children. Among ambulant children, there were few significant associations between the severity of the child's behaviour problems and the age or sex of the child, the presence or absence of epilepsy, and various indices of socio-economic disadvantage. Sleeping difficulties, overactivity, self-injury, destructive behaviour and autistic features, such as social withdrawal and stereotypies, were strongly associated with skills deficits, but aggression, temper tantrums and general disruptive behaviour were not. Limitations in daily living skills were better predictors of behaviour problems than were poor communication skills. [source]