Scientific Committee (scientific + committee)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked cheese

Marie Suchanová
Abstract BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of organic compounds containing two or more aromatic rings. Their control in the human food chain is required due to the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential, exhibited in vertebrates. In the present study, the occurrence of PAHs in 36 cheeses smoked by various processes was investigated. RESULTS: PAH concentrations (sum of 15 US EPA PAHs) found in samples smoked under controlled industrial conditions were at level 0.11 µg kg,1, whereas in ,home-made' cheeses, the PAH content was up to 10 times higher. A similar trend was observed for B[a]P, a marker compound representing carcinogenic PAHs. While its levels in commercial products prepared by controlled smoking technologies were close to the limit of quantification (0.03 µg kg,1); in household samples, the B[a]P content ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 µg kg,1. Significantly higher amounts of PAHs (up to three to six times) were found in surface layers as compared to internal parts of cheese. CONCLUSION: Although smoked cheese is a popular food, only several papers have focused on PAH levels in these products. This paper evaluates the contribution of different smoking technologies to PAH contamination of several cheeses and thus can help in a risk assessment associated with their consumption. Moreover, the study shows the concentration ratios of selected PAHs, from which the type of smoking technology can be indicated. The results obtained in this study also supported the suggestion of the EU Scientific Committee on Food to use benzo[a]pyrene as an indicator of the occurrence of higher-molecular mass PAHs. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Data from frequency-volume charts versus maximum free flow rate, residual volume, and voiding cystometric estimated urethral obstruction grade and detrusor contractility grade in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Ger E.P.M. van Venrooij
Abstract Aims To examine associations of data from frequency-volume charts with maximum free flow rate, residual volume, and voiding cystometric estimated urethral obstruction grade and detrusor contractility in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods The 160 men included in the study met the criteria of the International Scientific Committee on BPH, i.e., they voided more than 150 mL during uroflowmetry, their residual volume and prostate size were estimated, and they completed frequency-volume charts correctly. From the frequency-volume charts, voiding habits and fluid intake were evaluated. Pressure-flow studies were performed as well. Results Increasing residual volume was related to a decrease of maximum voided volume and to a decrease of maximum free flow rate. Cystometric capacity was little affected by residual volume. Low contractility did not result in high residual volume. A marked decrease in voided volumes with increasing obstruction grade was observed, due to a decrease of cystometric capacity and an increase of residual volume. Detrusor contractility was little associated with voided volumes. A higher voiding frequency was related to a higher fluid intake. However, increased standardized frequency (number of voidings per 1,000 mL) was associated with a substantial reduction of fluid intake. Conclusions Infravesical obstruction is the most important factor influencing voided volumes, cystometric capacity, and residual urine volume. Frequency of voiding was not influenced significantly because patients with small voided volumes minimized their fluid intake. Neurourol. Urodynam. 21:450,456, 2002. © Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Preface: phys. stat. sol. (b) 245/3

Christopher W. Smith
This is the third Special Issue of physica status solidi (b) focusing on materials with a negative Poisson's ratio or other ,anomalous' physical properties. This issue contains selected papers from the First International Conference on Auxetics and Anomalous Systems held at the University of Exeter, UK, on 4,6 September 2006. Around 50 participants from all over the world as well as from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines contributed to what was a highly successful conference. This conference follows in the footsteps of two previous workshops held at the Mathematical Research and Conference Centre in B,dlewo near Pozna,, Poland, in 2004 and 2005 [1, 2]. The papers selected for this issue publish recent results obtained for ,anomalous systems' in experiment, theory and computer simulations. In the following we summarize very briefly their contents. Alderson and Coenen compare the performance of auxetic composites to similar systems with conventional positive Poisson's ratios. They find that there are indeed differences which appear to arise from the change of the overall Poisson's ratio of the composite, some beneficial like a rise in impact tolerance at low impact rates, and others deleterious such as the reduced tolerance at higher impact rates. This is one of the first investigations of possible applications for auxetic materials. The two papers by Gaspar and Koenders both examine the effects of disorder upon anomalous properties, especially negative Poisson's ratio. In the first one Gaspar demonstrates how a mean strain estimate fails to predict negative values of Poisson's ratio because of an inability to account for local fluctuations in elastic properties. For instance it is shown that the volume fraction of auxetic regions in an globally auxetic material (measured experimentally) are smaller than a mean strain homogenisation would require. Koenders and Gaspar explore the elastic properties, and especially Poisson's ratio, of a heterogeneous 2D network of bending beams. They predict auxetic behaviour arising from localised disorder in the packing, and therefore effective locally aggregated elastic properties of the beams. In the three articles by Gatt et al. and Grima et al. models based on simple geometry are used to explain the behaviour of seemingly disparate systems, i.e. 2D honeycombs systems and zeolite SiO2 networks. Two papers concerning honeycombs demonstrate relationships between elastic properties and structure and the bounds for auxetic behaviour. The paper concerning the zeolite Natrolite uses numerical force field based energy minimisation methods to simulate the response of this particular zeolite to applied forces and then simplifies the predicted properties even further by considering structural units as rigid 2D polyhedra linked by flexible hinges. In a similar vein, though using a different approach and concerning a very different form of matter, Heyes shows how the heterogeneity in an assembly of particles in a liquid can affect the elastic properties of a liquid and notably the infinite frequency Poisson's ratio. Heyes uses the Molecular Dynamics approach to simulate a Lennard,Jones fluid under various pressures, notably comparing behaviour under positive and negative pressures. In their first paper Jasiukiewicz and co-authors derive elastic constants of 2D crystals for all four classes of 2D crystalline solids: hexagonal (isotropic), quadratic, rectangular, and oblique systems. In their second paper they demonstrate conditions required for auxetic behaviour of 2D crystals. Auxetic solids are further divided into those with some negative Poisson's ratios (auxetic), all negative Poisson's ratios (completely auxetic) and no negative Poisson's ratios (non-auxetic). Lakes and Wojciechowski consider counterintuitive properties of matter, like negative compressibility, negative Poisson's ratio, negative thermal expansion, negative specific heat, and negative pressure. They present and interpret experimental observations of negative bulk modulus in pre-strained foams. They propose also a constrained microscopic model which exhibits negative compressibility. Finally, they solve a very simple thermodynamic model with negative thermal expansion. Martin et al. take a long stride toward a real world application of auxetic materials with a wide ranging study starting with numerical modelling of a wingbox section to experimental testing in a wind tunnel. They show that an auxetic core in a wing box section can allow a passive aero-elastic response which can be tailored by careful design of the core so that camber, and thus drag, is reduced with increasing airspeed but without sacrificing structural integrity. Miller et al. consider another anomalous physical property, negative thermal expansivity, and its application in the form of particulate composites for amelioration of stresses arising from thermal mismatch. They show via experiments that particles with a negative coefficient of thermal expansion may be used as a composite reinforcer to reduce overall thermal expansion and behave according to the standard volume fraction based models. Narojczyk and Wojciechowski examine the effects of disorder upon the bulk elastic properties of 3D fcc soft sphere systems in terms of particle size. Systems, such as colloids, can be thought of in such terms. The study shows that higher order moments of probability distribution do not influence the bulk elastic properties much, but that lower moments such as the standard deviation of particle size influence the elastic properties greatly. The "hardness" of the particle interaction potential is also important in this context. In general, it is shown that the effect of increasing polydispersity is to increase the Poisson's ratio, except the [110] [10] directions. Scarpa and Malischewsky in their paper on Rayleigh waves in auxetic materials show how the Rayleigh wave speed is affected by the Poisson's ratio. The behaviour is complex and depends upon the homogeneity within the material, for instance slowing with decreasing Poisson's ratio in isotropic solids, but showing the reverse trend and increased sensitivity to Poisson's ratio in laminate composites. Scarpa et al. explore the buckling behaviour of auxetic tubes via three types of model, a simple beam mechanics and Eulerian buckling model, a 3D linear elastic FE model and a bespoke non-linear continuum model. The more sophisticated models provide increasing insight into the buckling behaviour though the simple beam model predicts reasonably well in the pre-buckling linear region. Some unexpected and interesting behaviour is predicted by the continuum model as the Poisson's ratio approaches the isotropic limit of ,1, including increasing sensitivity to Poisson's ratio and rapid mode jumping between integer wave numbers. The paper by Shilko et al. presents an analysis of a particular kind of friction joint, a double lap joint, and explores the effects of altering the elastic properties of one component, in particular it's Poisson's ratio. The manuscript introduces the evolution of smart materials from monolithic materials, and the classification of composites exhibiting negative Poisson's ratios. The paper then presents the case of a double lap joint and performs a sensitivity type study, via a 2D FE model, of the effects of changing the elastic properties and degree of anisotropy of one section of the model on various parameters defining the limits of functionality of the joint. The main finding is that an enhanced shear modulus, via a negative Poisson's ratio, can endow such a friction joint with superior performance. Manufacturing of auxetic materials on a commercial scale has proved to be the largest obstacle to their fuller exploitation. The paper by Simkins et al. explores one route for post processing of auxetic polymers fibres produced by a conventional melt extrusion route. Simkins et al. showed that a post process thermal annealing treatment, with carefully optimised parameters, was able to even out otherwise inhomogenous auxetic properties, and moreover improve other elastic and fracture properties often sacrificed for auxetic behaviour. We gratefully acknowledge the support given by the sponsors of the conference, namely the EPSRC of the UK and Auxetic Technologies Ltd. (UK). We also thank the Scientific Committee, the Organising Committee, and all the participants of the conference. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Fourth international consultation on incontinence recommendations of the international scientific committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence,,§¶,

P. Abrams
First page of article [source]

Nonadherence Consensus Conference Summary Report

R. N. Fine
This report is a summary of a ,Consensus Conference' on nonadherence (NA) to immunosuppressants. Its aims were: (1) to discuss the state-of-the-art on the definition, prevalence and measurement of NA, its risk factors and impact on clinical and economical outcomes and interventions and (2) to provide recommendations for future studies. A two-day meeting was held in Florida in January 2008, inviting 66 medical and allied health adherence transplant and nontransplant experts. A scientific committee prepared the meeting. Consensus was reached using plenary and interactive presentations and discussions in small break-out groups. Plenary presenters prepared a summary beforehand. Break-out group leaders initiated discussion between the group members prior to the meeting using conference calls and e-mail and provided a summary afterward. Conclusions were that NA: (a) is more prevalent than we assume; (b) is hard to measure accurately; (c) tends to confer worse outcomes; (d) happens for a number of reasons, and system-related factors including the patient's culture, the healthcare provider and the setting and (e) it is not currently known how to improve adherence. This consensus report provided some roadmaps for future studies on this complicated, multifaceted problem. [source]