Science Perspective (science + perspective)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Science Perspective

  • social science perspective

  • Selected Abstracts

    The New Spirituality from a Social Science Perspective

    DIALOG, Issue 4 2001
    Stephen Ellingson

    Dementia Studies: A Social Science Perspective

    Clive Baldwin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Adaptive Management and Watersheds: A Social Science Perspective,

    Catherine Allan
    Abstract: Adaptive management is often proposed as the most effective way to manage complex watersheds. However, our experience suggests that social and institutional factors constrain the search for, and integration of, the genuine learning that defines adaptive management. Drawing on our work as social scientists, and on a guided panel discussion at a recent AWRA conference, we suggest that watershed-scale adaptive management must be recognized as a radical departure from established ways of managing natural resources if it is to achieve its promise. Successful implementation will require new ways of thinking about management, new organizational structures and new implementation processes and tools. Adaptive management encourages scrutiny of prevailing social and organizational norms and this is unlikely to occur without a change in the culture of natural resource management and research. Planners and managers require educational, administrative, and political support as they seek to understand and implement adaptive management. Learning and reflection must be valued and rewarded, and fora established where learning through adaptive management can be shared and explored. The creation of new institutions, including educational curricula, organizational policies and practices, and professional norms and beliefs, will require support from within bureaucracies and from politicians. For adaptive management to be effective researchers and managers alike must work together at the watershed-scale to bridge the gaps between theory and practice, and between social and technical understandings of watersheds and the people who occupy and use them. [source]

    A Design Theory Approach to Building Strategic Network-Based Customer Service Systems,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2009
    M. Kathryn Brohman
    ABSTRACT Customer service is a key component of a firm's value proposition and a fundamental driver of differentiation and competitive advantage in nearly every industry. Moreover, the relentless coevolution of service opportunities with novel and more powerful information technologies has made this area exciting for academic researchers who can contribute to shaping the design and management of future customer service systems. We engage in interdisciplinary research,across information systems, marketing, and computer science,in order to contribute to the service design and service management literature. Grounded in the design-science perspective, our study leverages marketing theory on the service-dominant logic and recent findings pertaining to the evolution of customer service systems. Our theorizing culminates with the articulation of four design principles. These design principles underlie the emerging class of customer service systems that, we believe, will enable firms to better compete in an environment characterized by an increase in customer centricity and in customers' ability to self-serve and dynamically assemble the components of solutions that fit their needs. In this environment, customers retain control over their transactional data, as well as the timing and mode of their interactions with firms, as they increasingly gravitate toward integrated complete customer solutions rather than single products or services. Guided by these design principles, we iterated through, and evaluated, two instantiations of the class of systems we propose, before outlining implications and directions for further cross-disciplinary scholarly research. [source]

    Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2005
    Abstract The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply. This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects. Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many human-imposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores. [source]

    Detection of volatile organic compounds using a polythiophene derivative

    V. C. Gonçalves
    Abstract Conjugated polymers have been subject of great interest in the recent literature from both fundamental point of view and applied science perspective. Among the several types of conjugated polymers used in recent investigations, polythiophene and its derivatives have attracted considerable attention over the past 20,years due to their high mobility and other remarkable solid-state properties. They have potential applications in many fields, such as microelectronic devices, catalysts, organic field-effect transistors, chemical sensors, and biosensors. They have been studied as gas and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensors using different principles or transduction techniques, such as optical absorption, conductivity, and capacitance measurements. In this work, we report on the fabrication of gas sensors based on a conducting polymer on an interdigitated gold electrode. We use as active layer of the sensor a polythiophene derivative: poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and analyzed its conductivity as response for exposure to dynamic flow of saturated vapors of six VOCs [n -hexane, toluene, chloroform, dichloromethane, methanol, and tetrahydrofuran (THF)]. Different responses were obtained upon exposure to all VOCs, THF gave the higher response while methanol the lower response. The influence of moisture on the measurements was also evaluated. [source]

    The lively process of interdisciplinarity

    AREA, Issue 4 2009
    Henry Buller
    Food chain research offers particular opportunities for the development of interdisciplinary problematics and approaches. For example, the issue of ,quality' cannot be interpreted solely from natural or from social science perspectives but rather requires a consilient and interdisciplinary vision. Suggesting a ,ground upwards' approach, building upon transitional objects and networks of practice and drawing upon a recently completed research project involving natural and social science research teams, this paper considers the practice and performance of interdisciplinarity as a lively process of knowledge creation that operates within what Luhmann calls ,forums of articulation' through which epistemologically mobile socio-natural entities are defined and explored. [source]