Science Citation Index (science + citation_index)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Science Citation Index

  • social science citation index

  • Selected Abstracts

    Epidemiological data on consumer allergy to p -phenylenediamine

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2008
    Jacob Pontoppidan Thyssen
    Many women and men now dye their hair. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a frequent and important component of permanent hair dye products; exposure to it may cause allergic contact sensitization, acute dermatitis, and severe facial oedema. To increase our understanding of PPD allergy, we reviewed published literature containing PPD patch test data from dermatitis patients and individuals in the general population. This was performed to estimate the median prevalence and the weighted average of PPD sensitization and thereby assess the burden of PPD-containing hair care products on health. Literature was examined using PubMed,MEDLINE, Biosis, and Science Citation Index. The median prevalence among dermatitis patients was 4.3% in Asia, 4% in Europe, and 6.2% in North America. A widespread increase in the prevalence of PPD sensitization was observed among Asian dermatitis patients. In Europe, a decrease in the 1970s was replaced by a plateau with steady, high prevalences ranging between 2% and 6%. The prevalence remained high in North America, although a decreasing tendency was observed. Contact allergy to PPD is an important health issue for both women and men. More stringent regulation and enforcement are required as public health measures to reduce the burden of disease that exposure to PPD has brought to populations. [source]

    Drug-elicited systemic allergic (contact) dermatitis , update and possible pathomechanisms

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2008
    Jacob Pontoppidan Thyssen
    An allergic dermatitis reaction may develop after systemic exposure to a hapten that reaches the skin through haematogenous transport. This condition can be observed with and without previous cutaneous sensitization to the hapten but has traditionally been described following topical exposure. A heterogeneous clinical picture, in combination with limited insight to its pathomechanisms, makes such systemic reactions an area in need of further study. This article summarizes knowledge about systemic dermatitis elicited by drugs, with a special emphasis on possible pathomechanisms. A list of putative pathomechanisms is offered for future research. Literature was examined using PubMed,MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, and Science Citation Index. Based on the literature, it is likely that humoral type 3, delayed-type hypersensitivity, and drug-driven (i.e. p-i concept) reactions are involved. As commonly used terms may be misleading because skin contact is not a prerequisite, we suggest that the term ,systemic allergic dermatitis' should be used in the future. [source]

    Hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics , update and proposal of evaluation algorithm

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2008
    Jacob Pontoppidan Thyssen
    Local anaesthetics (LA) are widely used drugs. Adverse reactions are rare but may be caused by delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and probably also immediate-type reactions. As it is not always easy to clinically differ between these subtypes, allergy skin testing should be considered. Although numerous test protocols have been published, how patients with hypersensitivity reactions to LA are ideally evaluated remains a topic of discussion. This review attempts to generate a comprehensive update on allergic reactions to LA and to present an algorithm that can be used for the evaluation of patients suspected with immediate- and delayed-type immune reactions. Literature was examined using PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, Biosis and Science Citation Index. Based on the literature, the proposed algorithm may safely and rapidly distinguish between immediate-type and delayed-type allergic immune reactions. [source]

    Authors in Dermatologic Surgery

    Nathalie Q. Nguyen BS
    Authors of scientific papers have been evaluated in the past by how frequently the medical literature cites them. In this analysis, we specifically identify those individuals who have contributed to the field of cutaneous surgery through publications in Dermatologic Surgery. We further analyze those publications frequently cited in Dermatologic Surgery, allowing us to determine topics of utmost value and interest. Using a citation database provided by the Institute for Scientific Information, we first identify all publications and citations from 1981 to 1999 for Dermatologic Surgery and the Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology (the previous name for this journal). Of the original articles published during this time frame, 3099 authors published 2167 papers. We quantify the publications from each author, and identify 57 authors with at least 10 original articles. When expanding the database parameters to include original articles, reviews, notes, and proceedings (as defined by the Science Citation Index), we find that the eight authors with the greatest number of publications are the same individuals with the greatest number of original articles. This reflects significant contributions to the field of cutaneous surgery by these authors. This analysis further identifies source papers for authors in Dermatologic Surgery. Publications frequently cited include those papers discussing laser surgery, with Dermatologic Surgery serving as the most frequently cited journal. [source]

    Review of validation studies of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    Malin Eberhard-Gran
    Objective: ,To review validation studies of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Method: ,A systematic search was performed in Medline and the Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI) from the period 1987,2000. For sensitivity and specificity of the EPDS presented in each study, 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Positive and negative predictive values were estimated assuming prevalences of postpartum depression ranging from 5% to 20%. Results: ,Eighteen validation studies were identified. The study design varied between studies. The sensitivity and specificity estimates also varied: 65,100% and 49,100%, respectively. The confidence intervals were estimated to be wide. Our estimates suggest a lower positive predictive value in a normal population than in the validation study samples. Conclusion: ,Most studies show a high sensitivity of the EPDS. Because of the differences in study design and large confidence intervals, uncertainty remains regarding the comparability between the sensitivity and specificity estimates of the different EPDS versions. [source]

    MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I Polymorphisms in Migraine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2010
    Markus Schürks MD
    (Headache 2010;50:588-599) Background., Data on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I polymorphisms and migraine including aura status are conflicting. Objective., The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on this topic. Methods., We searched for studies published until March 2009 using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index) and reference lists of studies and reviews on the topic. Assessment for eligibility of studies and extraction of data was performed by 2 independent investigators. For each study we calculated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) assuming additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. We then calculated pooled ORs and 95% CIs. Results., Thirteen studies investigated the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and migraine. The TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for any migraine, which only appeared for migraine with aura (pooled OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.13), but not for migraine without aura. Nine studies investigated the association of the ACE D/I polymorphism with migraine. The II genotype was associated with a reduced risk for migraine with aura (pooled OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.93) and migraine without aura (pooled OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Results for both variants were driven by studies in non-Caucasian populations. Results among Caucasians did not suggest an association. Extractable data did not allow investigation of gene,gene interactions. Conslusions., The MTHFR 677TT genotype is associated with an increased risk for migraine with aura, while the ACE II genotype is protective against both migraine with and without aura. Results for both variants appeared only among non-Caucasian populations. There was no association among Caucasians. [source]

    Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of somatostatin analogues for pancreatic surgery: a Cochrane review

    HPB, Issue 3 2010
    Rahul S. Koti
    Abstract Background:, The use of synthetic analogues of somatostatin following pancreatic surgery is controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine whether prophylactic somatostatin analogues (SAs) should be used routinely in pancreatic surgery. Methods:, Randomized controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Library Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and reference lists. Data were extracted from these trials by two independent reviewers. The risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) based on intention-to-treat or available case analysis. Results:, Seventeen trials involving 2143 patients were identified. The overall number of patients with postoperative complications was lower in the SA group (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.62,0.82), but there was no difference between the groups in perioperative mortality (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68,1.59), re-operation rate (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.56,2.36) or hospital stay (MD ,1.04 days, 95% CI ,2.54 to 0.46). The incidence of pancreatic fistula was lower in the SA group (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53,0.78). The proportion of these fistulas that were clinically significant is not clear. Analysis of results of trials that clearly distinguished clinically significant fistulas revealed no difference between the two groups (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.34,1.41). Subgroup analysis revealed a shorter hospital stay in the SA group than among controls for patients with malignant aetiology (MD ,7.57 days, 95% CI ,11.29 to ,3.84). Conclusions:, Somatostatin analogues reduce perioperative complications but do not reduce perioperative mortality. However, they do shorten hospital stay in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery for malignancy. Further adequately powered trials of low risk of bias are necessary. [source]

    Techniques for liver parenchymal transection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    HPB, Issue 4 2009
    Viniyendra Pamecha
    Abstract Background:, Different techniques of liver parenchymal transection have been described, including the finger fracture, sharp dissection, clamp,crush methods and, more recently, the Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA), the hydrojet and the radiofrequency dissection sealer (RFDS). This review assesses the benefits and risks associated with the various techniques. Methods:, Randomized clinical trials were identified from the Cochrane Library Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and reference lists. Odds ratio (ORs), mean difference (MDs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis or available-case analysis. Results:, We identified seven trials including a total of 556 patients. Blood transfusion requirements were lower with the clamp,crush technique than with the CUSA or hydrojet. The clamp,crush technique was quicker than the CUSA, hydrojet or RFDS. Infective complications and transection blood loss were greater with the RFDS than with the clamp,crush method. There was no significant difference between techniques in mortality, morbidity, liver dysfunction or intensive therapy unit and hospital stay. Conclusions:, The clamp,crush technique is more rapid and is associated with lower rates of blood loss and otherwise similar outcomes when compared with other methods of parenchymal transection. It represents the reference standard against which new methods may be compared. [source]

    Downloads and citations in Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management

    Daniel E. O'Leary
    This paper summarizes the papers downloaded most from the years 2000,2002 and traces the number of citations from Google Scholar (beta) for those papers at the beginning of 2008. It is found that the number of downloads and citations are highly correlated, suggesting that downloads is a leading indicator of citations, even years into the future. In addition, this paper assesses which of the papers from the journal have been cited most over the history of the journal, using both ISI,Social Science Citation Index and Google Scholar. It is found that the numbers of citations using both approaches are highly correlated. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Antibacterial efficacy of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    C. Sathorn
    Abstract Aim, To determine to what extent does calcium hydroxide intracanal medication eliminate bacteria from human root canals, compared with the same canals before medication, as measured by the number of positive cultures, in patients undergoing root canal treatment for apical periodontitis (teeth with an infected root canal system). Methodology, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Reference lists from identified articles were scanned. A forward search was undertaken on the authors of the identified articles. Papers that had cited these articles were also identified through the Science Citation Index to identify potentially relevant subsequent primary research. Review methods, The included studies were pre-/post-test clinical trials comparing the number of positive bacterial cultures from treated canals. Data in those studies were independently extracted. Risk differences of included studies were combined using the generic inverse variance and random effect method. Results, Eight studies were identified and included in the review, covering 257 cases. Sample size varied from 18 to 60 cases; six studies demonstrated a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-medicated canals, whilst two did not. There was considerable heterogeneity among studies. Pooled risk difference was ,21%; 95% CI: ,47% to 6%. The difference between pre- and post-medication was not statistically significant (P = 0.12). Conclusions, Calcium hydroxide has limited effectiveness in eliminating bacteria from human root canal when assessed by culture techniques. [source]

    Productivity in "Top-Ten" Academic Accounting Journals by Researchers at Canadian Universities,

    ABSTRACT We examine the research productivity of academic accountants at Canadian universities for the 11-year period 1990-2000. Our analysis is based on the "top-ten" ranked refereed journals in accounting, auditing, and taxation, as documented by Brown and Huefner (1994). We first provide an overview of the importance of publishing in highly ranked accounting journals for individual academics, departments, and business faculties. We then provide details of the proportion of articles published in each of these journals by academics from Canadian universities; the type of research published in each journal (auditing, financial accounting, managerial accounting, and taxation); and details of editorial board service. Our results indicate that even at the most productive Canadian university (in terms of "top-ten" publications), faculty members publish (on average) approximately one article every seven years. Six Canadian universities have faculty members with, on average, more than one article in "top-ten" journals every 10 years. We also provide results of analyses that rank each Canadian university, after controlling for the relative quality of each journal, using impact factors published by the Social Science Citation Index. In addition, statistics are provided with regard to the 15 most productive researchers, in terms of "top-ten" publications, in the 11-year period. Finally, in conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the Canadian Academic Accounting Association, we examine the productivity of academic accountants at Canadian universities over the past 25 years by combining our results with those reported by Richardson and Williams (1990). [source]

    The clinical effectiveness of nurse practitioners' management of minor injuries in an adult emergency department: a systematic review

    Anne Wilson PhD, FRCNA
    Abstract Background, The increasing cost of healthcare in Australia demands changes in the way healthcare is delivered. Nurse practitioners have been introduced into specialty areas including emergency departments. Specific interventions are known to include the treatment and management of minor injuries, but little has been reported on their work. Objectives, Examine the best available evidence to determine the clinical effectiveness of emergency department nurse practitioners in the assessment, treatment and management of minor injuries in adults. Inclusion criteria, For inclusion studies had to include adult patients treated for minor injuries by nurse practitioners in emergency departments. All study designs were included. Search strategy, English language articles from 1986 onwards were sought using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Science Citation Index. Methodological quality, Two independent reviewers critically appraised the quality of the studies and extracted data using standardised tools. Data collection, Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study for inclusion into the review and the study design used. Where any disagreement occurred, consensus was reached by discussion with an independent researcher. Data synthesis, Studies were assessed for homogeneity by considering populations, interventions and outcomes. Where heterogeneity was present, synthesis was undertaken in a narrative format; otherwise a meta-analysis was conducted. For each outcome measure, results were tabulated by intervention type and discussed in a narrative summary. Results from randomised controlled trials were pooled in meta-analyses where appropriate. Results, Nine studies from a total of 55 participants met the inclusion criteria. Two were randomised controlled trials. Metasynthesis of research findings generated five synthesised findings derived from 16 study findings aggregated into seven categories. Evidence comparing the clinical effectiveness of nurse practitioners to mainstream management of minor injuries was fair to poor methodological quality. When comparable data were pooled, there were no significant differences (P < 0.05) between nurse practitioners and junior doctors. Conclusions, The results emphasise the need for more high-quality research using appropriate outcome measures in the area of clinical effectiveness of nurse practitioners, particularly interventions that improve outcomes for presentations to emergency departments and address issues of waiting and congestion. [source]

    Effectiveness of topical skin care provided in aged care facilities

    Brent Hodgkinson MSc GradCertPH GradCertEcon(Health)
    Executive summary Background, The 2001 Australian census revealed that adults aged 65 years and over constituted 12.6% of the population, up from 12.1% in 1996. It is projected that this figure will rise to 21% or 5.1 million Australians by 2031. In 1998, 6% (134 000) of adults in Australia aged 65 years and over were residing in nursing homes or hostels and this number is also expected to rise. As skin ages, there is a decreased turnover and replacement of epidermal skin cells, a thinning subcutaneous fat layer and a reduced production of protective oils. These changes can affect the normal functions of the skin such as its role as a barrier to irritants and pathogens, temperature and water regulation. Generally, placement in a long-term care facility indicates an inability of the older person to perform all of the activities of daily living such as skin care. Therefore, skin care management protocols should be available to reduce the likelihood of skin irritation and breakdown and ultimately promote comfort of the older person. Objectives, The objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence for the effectiveness and safety of topical skin care regimens for older adults residing in long-term aged care facilities. The primary outcome was the incidence of adverse skin conditions with patient satisfaction considered as a secondary outcome. Search strategy, A literature search was performed using the following databases: PubMed (NLM) (1966,4/2003), Embase (1966,4/2003), CINAHL (1966,4/2003), Current Contents (1993,4/2003), Cochrane Library (1966,2/2003), Web of Science (1995,12/2002), Science Citation Index Expanded and ProceedingsFirst (1993,12/2002). Health Technology Assessment websites were also searched. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria, Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials, randomised and non-randomised controlled trials evaluating any non-medical intervention or program that aimed to maintain or improve the integrity of skin in older adults were considered for inclusion. Participants were 65 years of age or over and residing in an aged care facility, hospital or long-term care in the community. Studies were excluded if they evaluated pressure-relieving techniques for the prevention of skin breakdown. Data collection and analysis, Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility for inclusion. Study design and quality were tabulated and relative risks, odds ratios, mean differences and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated from individual comparative studies containing count data. Results, The resulting evidence of the effectiveness of topical skin care interventions was variable and dependent upon the skin condition outcome being assessed. The strongest evidence for maintenance of skin condition in incontinent patients found that disposable bodyworn incontinence protection reduced the odds of deterioration of skin condition compared with non-disposable bodyworns. The best evidence for non-pressure relieving topical skin care interventions on pressure sore formation found the no-rinse cleanser Clinisan to be more effective than soap and water at maintaining healthy skin (no ulcers) in elderly incontinent patients in long-term care. The quality of studies examining the effectiveness of topical skin care interventions on the incidence of skin tears was very poor and inconclusive. Topical skin care for prevention of dermatitis found that Sudocrem could reduce the redness of skin compared with zinc cream if applied regularly after each pad change, but not the number of lesions. Topical skin care on dry skin found the Bag Bath/Travel Bath no-rinse skin care cleanser to be more effective at preventing overall skin dryness and most specifically flaking and scaling when compared with the traditional soap and water washing method in residents of a long-term care facility. Information on the safety of topical skin care interventions is lacking. Therefore, because of the lack of evidence, no recommendation on the safety on any intervention included in this review can be made. [source]

    The past, present, and future of chemometrics worldwide: some etymological, linguistic, and bibliometric investigations,

    R. Kiralj
    Abstract Internet surfing for the word chemometrics in national languages and, in the Science Citation Index (SCI), searching for articles containing chemometr * were performed. The bibliometric, webometric, and country development descriptors from literature were then treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). In total, 82 written and 127 pronunciation forms of chemometrics were found in 48 languages worldwide. The forms ending in ,- y' (chemometry) and ,- ics' (chemometrics) can be grouped into at least three groups (I, J, K). Scientific collaboration, country development, geography, history, and language were shown to be important determinants in creation of form(s) of chemometrics in a particular country or language. PCA and HCA show that tradition in chemometrics, level of country development, and its scientific production are important for the existence of chemometric societies and laboratories worldwide. Today, the world tends toward becoming more homogeneous with respect to chemometric activity, and will reach a corresponding normal distribution in about 70 years from now. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Interventions for Weight Management in Postpartum Women

    Colleen Keller
    ABSTRACT Objective:, To report the results of a comprehensive review of published intervention studies to identify the best evidence available for guiding weight management interventions in postpartum women. Data Sources:, Electronic searches were conducted of three electronic databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Medline; and the Science Citation Index, Expanded, in the Web of Science from 1994 to May 2007. Keyword searches were conducted using the terms obesity, obese, overweight, postpartum, pregnancy weight, and weight management in postpartum women. Study Selection:, Six studies were selected that met the inclusion criteria of testing interventions and one that reported preintervention planning and targeted a weight management intervention for postpartum women. Data Extraction:, All six interventions showed significant impact with diet and exercise or some combination on body composition in the targeted sample of women. Data Synthesis:, The strengths of previous studies include an emphasis on precision in outcome measures and experimental conditions; limitations were that the theoretical basis for the interventions was frequently omitted and limited attention given to the cultural, social, and contextual factors established in descriptive research. Conclusions:, Interventions need to target women early in their childbearing years to have the most significant long-term impact. [source]

    Cisapride treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux in children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    R E Gilbert
    Abstract: The aim of the systematic review was to determine the effect of cisapride compared with placebo or other non-surgical therapies for the treatment of symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Science Citation Index and reference lists for randomized controlled trials which compared cisapride with placebo or other non-surgical therapy in children. We included only trials which reported reflux-related symptoms as an outcome, provided that cisapride was administered orally for at least 1 week. Seven trials (286 children in total) compared cisapride with placebo. Two trials reported good concealment of treatment allocation. The pooled odds ratio for the ,same or worse' symptoms was 0.34 (95%CI 0.10, 1.19). There was substantial heterogeneity between studies (P < 0.00001) and the funnel plot was asymmetrical. Adverse effects (mainly diarrhoea) were not significantly increased with cisapride (pooled odds ratio (OR) 1.80: 0.87, 3.70). The reflux index was significantly reduced in children treated with cisapride (weighted mean difference ,6.49: ,10.13, ,2.85). One study (50 children) compared cisapride with gaviscon plus carobel: the OR for the ,same or worse' symptoms was 3.26 (0.93, 11.38). There was no clear evidence that cisapride reduced symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. As smaller, poorer quality studies were biased in favour of a positive treatment effect, the pooled OR overestimated the potential benefits of cisapride. There was some evidence to suggest that gaviscon plus carobel may be a more effective option than cisapride. [source]

    Distributional differences of the impact factor in the sciences versus the social sciences: An analysis of the probabilistic structure of the 2005 journal citation reports

    Stephen J. Bensman
    This paper examines the probability structure of the 2005 Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) Journal Citation Reports (JCR) by analyzing the Impact Factor distributions of their journals. The distribution of the SCI journals corresponded with a distribution generally modeled by the negative binomial distribution, whereas the SSCI distribution fit the Poisson distribution modeling random, rare events. Both Impact Factor distributions were positively skewed,the SCI much more so than the SSCI,indicating excess variance. One of the causes of this excess variance was that the journals highest in the Impact Factor in both JCRs tended to class in subject categories well funded by the National Institutes of Health. The main reason for the SCI Impact Factor distribution being more skewed than the SSCI one was that review journals defining disciplinary paradigms play a much more important role in the sciences than in the social sciences. [source]

    Scientific research activity and communication measured with cybermetrics indicators

    Isidro F. Aguillo
    To test feasibility of cybermetric indicators for describing and ranking university activities as shown in their Web sites, a large set of 9,330 institutions worldwide was compiled and analyzed. Using search engines' advanced features, size (number of pages), visibility (number of external inlinks), and number of rich files (pdf, ps, doc, ppt, and xls formats) were obtained for each of the institutional domains of the universities. We found a statistically significant correlation between a Web ranking built on a combination of Webometric data and other university rankings based on bibliometric and other indicators. Results show that cybermetric measures could be useful for reflecting the contribution of technologically oriented institutions, increasing the visibility of developing countries, and improving the rankings based on Science Citation Index (SCI) data with known biases. [source]

    The place of serials in referencing practices: Comparing natural sciences and engineering with social sciences and humanities

    Vincent Larivière
    Journal articles constitute the core documents for the diffusion of knowledge in the natural sciences. It has been argued that the same is not true for the social sciences and humanities where knowledge is more often disseminated in monographs that are not indexed in the journal-based databases used for bibliometric analysis. Previous studies have made only partial assessments of the role played by both serials and other types of literature. The importance of journal literature in the various scientific fields has therefore not been systematically characterized. The authors address this issue by providing a systematic measurement of the role played by journal literature in the building of knowledge in both the natural sciences and engineering and the social sciences and humanities. Using citation data from the CD-ROM versions of the Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI) databases from 1981 to 2000 (Thomson ISI, Philadelphia, PA), the authors quantify the share of citations to both serials and other types of literature. Variations in time and between fields are also analyzed. The results show that journal literature is increasingly important in the natural and social sciences, but that its role in the humanities is stagnant and has even tended to diminish slightly in the 1990s. Journal literature accounts for less than 50% of the citations in several disciplines of the social sciences and humanities; hence, special care should be used when using bibliometric indicators that rely only on journal literature. [source]

    Dynamic and evolutionary updates of classificatory schemes in scientific journal structures

    Loet Leydesdorff
    Can the inclusion of new journals in the Science Citation Index be used for the indication of structural change in the database, and how can this change be compared with reorganizations of relations among previously included journals? Change in the number of journals (n) is distinguished from change in the number of journal categories (m). Although the number of journals can be considered as a given at each moment in time, the number of journal categories is based on a reconstruction that is time-stamped ex post. The reflexive reconstruction is in need of an update when new information becomes available in a next year. Implications of this shift towards an evolutionary perspective are specified. [source]

    Recollections of Irving H. Sher 1924,1996: Polymath/information scientist extraordinaire

    Eugene Garfield
    Over a 35-year period, Irving H. Sher played a critical role in the development and implementation of the Science Citation Index® and other ISI® products. Trained as a biochemist, statistician, and linguist, Sher brought a unique combination of talents to ISI as Director of Quality Control and Director of Research and Development. His talents as a teacher and mentor evoked loyalty. He was a particularly inventive but self-taught programmer. In addition to the SCI,® Social Sciences Citation Index,® and Arts and Humanities Citation Index,® Sher was involved with the development of the first commercial SDI system, the Automatic Subject Citation Alert, now called Research Alert,® and Request-A-Print Cards. Together we developed the journal impact factor and the Journal Citation Reports.® Sher was also the inventor of the SYSTABAR System of coding references and Sherhand. He was involved in key reports on citation-based historiography, forecasting Nobel prizes, and served as a referee for JASIS over a 20-year period. [source]

    Urquhart's and Garfield's Laws: The British controversy over their validity

    Stephen J. Bensman
    The British controversy over the validity of Urquhart's and Garfield's Laws during the 1970s constitutes an important episode in the formulation of the probability structure of human knowledge. This controversy took place within the historical context of the convergence of two scientific revolutions,the bibliometric and the biometric,that had been launched in Britain. The preceding decades had witnessed major breakthroughs in understanding the probability distributions underlying the use of human knowledge. Two of the most important of these breakthroughs were the laws posited by Donald J. Urquhart and Eugene Garfield, who played major roles in establishing the institutional bases of the bibliometric revolution. For his part, Urquhart began his realization of S. C. Bradford's concept of a national science library by analyzing the borrowing of journals on interlibrary loan from the Science Museum Library in 1956. He found that 10% of the journals accounted for 80% of the loans and formulated Urquhart's Law, by which the interlibrary use of a journal is a measure of its total use. This law underlay the operations of the National Lending Library for Science and Technology (NLLST), which Urquhart founded. The NLLST became the British Library Lending Division (BLLD) and ultimately the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC). In contrast, Garfield did a study of 1969 journal citations as part of the process of creating the Science Citation Index (SCI), formulating his Law of Concentration, by which the bulk of the information needs in science can be satisfied by a relatively small, multidisciplinary core of journals. This law became the operational principle of the Institute for Scientific Information created by Garfield. A study at the BLLD under Urquhart's successor, Maurice B. Line, found low correlations of NLLST use with SCI citations, and publication of this study started a major controversy, during which both laws were called into question. The study was based on the faulty use of the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient, and the controversy over it was instrumental in causing B. C. Brookes to investigate bibliometric laws as probabilistic phenomena and begin to link the bibliometric with the biometric revolution. This paper concludes with a resolution of the controversy by means of a statistical technique that incorporates Brookes' criticism of the Spearman rank-correlation method and demonstrates the mutual supportiveness of the two laws. [source]

    Breastfeeding protects against infectious diseases during infancy in industrialized countries.

    A systematic review
    Abstract Firstly, this review was performed to assess the effect of breastfeeding on infections during infancy in industrialized countries. Secondly, the effect of duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding were explored. Studies were identified using Medline, Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index and by a manual search from bibliographies of articles from August 1986 to January 2008. Follow-up, case,control and randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies performed in an industrialized country, published in English, with breastfeeding as a determinant, with overall infections, gastrointestinal or respiratory tract infections as a major outcome, and at least 40 participants in the study were included. Using Bauchner's criteria published in a review in 1986, two reviewers and a peer reviewer assessed the internal validity of those studies. Twenty-one studies that met the inclusion and internal validity criteria were included. These included 16 follow-up and four case,control studies and one RCT. Four out of five studies observed decreased effects on overall infections in breastfed infants. With regard to gastrointestinal infections, six out of eight studies suggested that breastfeeding had a protective effect. Thirteen out of 16 studies concluded that breastfeeding protects infants against respiratory tract infections. Five studies combined duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding. All studies observed a protective dose/duration-response effect on gastrointestinal or respiratory tract infections. These studies strongly suggest that breastfeeding protects infants against overall infections, gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in industrialized countries. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding for protection against infectious diseases needs to be studied in more detail. [source]

    Price development in important anesthesia and critical care medicine journals in comparison to journals of other disciplines

    J. Boldt
    Background: In today's climate of financial restrictions, libraries and individual subscribers complain about the price increase of scientific journals. The development in prices of anesthesia/critical care journals was analysed over the past 6 years and compared to prices of some journals of other disciplines. Methods: Important journals in the categories Anesthesiology, Emergency Medicine & Critical Care, Surgery, Medicine (General), and Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems listed in the 1999 Science Citation Index of Journal Citation Report were included and prices for the years 1995 to 2000 were analysed. Results: Increase in prices ranged from +13% to +199%. The mean increase in journal prices was lowest in the category Anesthesiology (+61%), higher in the category Critical Care (+73%), and highest in the category Medicine, General (+101%). Changes in the impact factor (IF) varied widely, ranging from a decrease (Lancet: ,43%; J Neurosurg Anesth: ,44%) to a tremendous increase (e.g. Reg Anesth +165%; Ann Emerg Med +149%). The journals' size (number of articles or pages) did not increase proportionally with the increase in prices. Conclusion: A disproportionate rise in journal prices was seen over the past 6 years. The large increase in cost may have multiple reasons. The rapidly increasing cost of research journals may affect research quality because economic pressure may result in reduction in availibility of information due to cancellation of subscriptions to journals. [source]

    The use of quality of life measures in oral medicine: a review of the literature

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2010
    R Ni Riordain
    Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 419,430 Objectives:, To explore the use of patient reported quality of life measures in oral medicine, to highlight the importance of use of these measures in oral medicine practice and to provide guidance for the selection of such measures in the future. Methods:, A detailed literature review was undertaken to investigate the use of quality of life measures in oral medicine. The databases searched were MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, CINDHL, Web of Science Citation Index and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and randomised controlled trials. Results:, The initial literature search yielded a total of 5310 citations; however, only 63 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles were regarding oral mucosal conditions, 14 related to orofacial pain disorders and 27 were regarding salivary gland-related conditions. Conclusions:, The evaluation of quality of life in oral medicine has a broad applicability, providing information in treatment-based studies and population-based studies. A predominance of generic and oral health specific quality of life measures are being used to a limited extent in oral medicine practice. A scarcity of reports of the development, validation or use of disease specific measures is evident. [source]

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis: genetic and acquired risk factors

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 6 2009
    ME Sarasquete
    The objectives of this study were to review epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects associated with the development of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, with special emphasis on the genetic aspects. A detailed review of previously described risk factors as well as recent genetic findings mostly comprises this work. The most recent meeting abstracts and relevant articles published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline are also examined. The review pays special attention to the genetic component of BRONJ. A total of 15 series and 14 guidelines or revisions were selected to fit the aims of the review. Gene variability was reviewed in depth to give a clinical illustration on the genetic aspects of BRONJ. Crude prevalence and 5-year cumulative incidence were considered as the most important end points for predictive purposes. Several acquired factors were recognized as predictors for BRONJ in MM, especially intravenous bisphosphonates, dental trauma and advanced age. Among genetic factors, polymorphisms on CYP2C8 gene arise as a promising risk factor. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw can be predicted with a conjunction of genetic and environmental risk factors. [source]

    Changes in the impact factor of anesthesia/critical care journals within the past 10 years

    J. Boldt
    Background: The impact factor (IF) is published by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). There is a tendency to assess quality of scientific journals with the help of the IF. An analysis of the changes in the IF over time in the different specialities may help to further enlighten the worth and problems of the IF. Methods: The IFs listed under the subheadings Anesthesiology and Emergency Medicine & Critical Care in the Science Citation Index , Journal Citation Report were descriptively analysed over the past 10 years. Additionally, IFs of some other important journals (subheadings Surgery, Cardiovascular, General Medicine) were analysed. Results: The IF of most of the journals showed a constant increase over the years (average in Anesthesiology: +65%; average in Emergency Medicine & Critical Care: +145%). IFs of the highest ranked journals of other specialities showed a similar increase over the years (average in surgical journals: +56%; average in cardiac journals: +59%; average in general journals: +40%). More Anesthesiology and Emergency Medicine & Critical Care journals originated from the USA show an IF >2.0 over the past 10 years than do European journals. Conclusion: Although the value of the IF is highly controversial, it is a frequently used tool to assess rating of a medical journal. Anesthesiology and Emergency Medicine & Critical Care journals showed a continuous increase in the IF over the past 10 years. [source]

    Early Hepatic Artery Thrombosis after Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Outcome and Risk Factors

    J. Bekker
    To clarify inconsistencies in the literature we performed a systematic review to identify the incidence, risk factors and outcome of early hepatic artery thrombosis (eHAT) after liver transplantation. We searched studies identified from databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index) and references of identified studies. Seventy-one studies out of 999 screened abstracts were eligible for this systematic review. The incidence of eHAT was 4.4% (843/21, 822); in children 8.3% and 2.9% in adults (p < 0.001). Doppler ultrasound screening (DUS) protocols varied from ,no routine' to ,three times a day.' The median time to detection was at day seven. The overall retransplantation rate was 53.1% and was higher in children (61.9%) than in adults (50%, p < 0.03). The overall mortality rate of patients with eHAT was 33.3% (range: 0,80%). Mortality in adults (34.3%) was higher than in children (25%, p < 0.03). The reported risk factors for eHAT were, cytomegalovirus mismatch (seropositive donor liver in seronegative recipient), retransplantation, arterial conduits, prolonged operation time, low recipient weight, variant arterial anatomy, and low volume transplantation centers. eHAT is associated with significant graft loss and mortality. Uniform definitions of eHAT and uniform treatment modalities are obligatory to confirm these results and to obtain a better understanding of this disastrous complication. [source]

    Mirtazapine: only for depression?

    Luis San
    Background:, Mirtazapine is an antidepressant first approved in the Netherlands in 1994 for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, evidence suggests its effectiveness in a variety of other psychiatric disorders and non-psychiatric medical conditions. Objective:, The present paper reviews the published literature on the off-label indications of Mirtazapine. Methods:, A search of the relevant literature from MEDLINE, PsycLIT and EMBASE databases, included in the Science Citation Index and available up to March 2006, was conducted using the terms mirtazapine, case-reports, open-label trials and randomized controlled trials. Only articles referring to conditions other than major depression were included in this present review. Results:, Off-label use of mirtazapine has been reported in panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dysthymia, menopausal depression, poststroke depression, depression as a result of infection with human immunodeficiency virus, elderly depression, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced depression, hot flashes, alcohol and other substance use disorders, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, tension-type headaches, cancer pain, fibromyalgia, schizophrenia and other less frequent conditions. Conclusions:, So far, data on the off-label usefulness of mirtazapine are limited and mainly based on observations from case reports or open-label studies. However, positive cues suggest that confirmation of these preliminary data with randomized controlled trials may give sufficient evidence to warrant the use of mirtazapine in a broad range of disorders. [source]

    Minimising undernutrition in the older inpatient

    Dawn Vanderkroft BSc internshipNutr&Diet APD
    Abstract Background, Malnutrition among elderly hospitalised patients is widespread and has been shown to lead to adverse health outcomes. The effectiveness of interventions to minimise undernutrition in elderly inpatients is not well documented. Objectives, To identify the best available practices, in the hospital setting, that minimise undernutrition or the risk of undernutrition, in the acute care patient especially for the older patient. The review will assesses the effectiveness of a range of interventions designed to promote adequate nutritional intake in the acute care setting, with the aim of determining what practices minimise malnutrition in the elderly inpatients. Search strategy, English language articles from 1980 onwards were sought using Medline, Premedline, Cinahl, Austrom-Australasian Medical Index and AustHealth, Embase and Science Citations Index. Selection criteria, For inclusion the study had to include an intervention aiming to minimise undernutrition in hospitalised elderly patients aged 65 years or older. All study designs were included. Data collection and analysis, Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study for inclusion into the review, critically appraised the study quality and extracted data using standardised tools. For each outcome measure results were tabulated by intervention type and discussed in a narrative summary. Results from randomised controlled trials were pooled in meta-analyses where appropriate. Main results, Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 4021 participants. The focus of 15 interventions was the supplying of oral supplements to the participants, six focused on enteral nutrition therapy, four interventions made changes to the foods provided as part of the hospital diet, one included the services of an additional staff member and three incorporated the implementation of evidence-based guidelines. Ten meta-analyses were conducted from which the main findings were: significant improvements in weight status and arm muscle circumferences with an oral supplement intervention, P < 0.05. Reviewers' conclusions, The findings of the review support the use of oral supplements to minimise undernutrition in elderly inpatients. The results also emphasise the need for more high-quality research using appropriate outcome measures in the area of minimisation of undernutrition, particularly interventions that make alterations to the hospital diet and address support for feeding patients at the ward level. [source]