School-age Children (school-age + child)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Parenting Self-Efficacy Among Mothers of School-Age Children: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Correlates,

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2000
Priscilla K. Coleman
Relationships among parenting self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, child and maternal characteristics, and parenting satisfaction in 145 mothers of school-aged children were examined. Higher parenting self-efficacy was observed in mothers of less emotional and more sociable children, and among mothers who were better educated, had higher family incomes, and reported more previous experience with children. Higher parenting self-efficacy and several mother and child variables predicted greater satisfaction with parenting. Influences of mothers' experience with children other than their own and maternal education on parenting satisfaction were mediated by parenting self-efficacy. Suggestions concerning the conceptualization and measurement of parenting self-efficacy are provided. [source]


Lack of Relationship Between Acceptance and Knowledge of Asthma in School-Age Children and Early Adolescents

JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN PEDIATRIC NURSING, Issue 1 2004
Eileen Kae Kintner PhD
ISSUES AND PURPOSE Early adolescents diagnosed with asthma have difficulty accepting their condition. This study is part of an ongoing program of research designed to increase understanding of the adolescent process of coming to acceptance. The purpose was to explore relationships among variables in the Acceptance of Asthma Model. DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional, theory-testing design with a sample of 94 students ages 9 to 14 years. RESULTS Acceptance was dependent on psychosocial influences and disease characteristics rather than knowledge of asthma. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Psychosocial interventions are needed to facilitate acceptance. [source]


The Effects of a Stress-Management Program on Self-concept, Locus of Control, and the Acquisition of Coping Skills in School-Age Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 1 2002
Lois O. Gonzalez PhD
[source]


Serotonin, Impulsivity, and Alcohol Use Disorders in the Older Adolescent: A Psychobiological Study

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2000
Paul H. Soloff
Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents are associated with a high prevalence of conduct disorder (CD), much as type II alcoholism in adults is associated with impulsive-aggressive behavior and antisocial personality traits. Adults with impulsive personality disorders and AUD demonstrate diminished central serotonergic responsiveness to serotonergic agonists. Dysregulation of central serotonergic function may contribute to a vulnerability to impulsive-aggressive behavior, CD, and AUD. We studied older adolescents, both male and female, to examine the relationships between sex, dispositional impulsivity, aggressivity, CD, and responsiveness to serotonergic challenge with d,l fenfluramine (FEN) early in the development of AUD. Methods: Thirty-six adolescents between the ages of 16 and 21 years were assessed for DSM-IV AUD and other Axis I disorders by using the Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children,Present and Lifetime Version, and CD interviews. Impulsivity and aggressivity were assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Lifetime History of Aggression, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Youth Self Report, and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaires. FEN was administered as 0.8 mg/kg to a maximum of 60 mg, and blood was sampled at fixed intervals for prolactin, cortisol, fenfluramine, and norfenfluramine levels. Results: Eighteen adolescents (12 male, 6 female) with AUD scored significantly higher on all measures of impulsivity and aggressivity compared with 18 healthy controls (12 male, 6 female). There were no significant differences between groups in peak prolactin or cortisol responses (minus baseline), or area-under-the-curve determinations (AUC); however, 9 subjects with AUD and comorbid CD had significantly elevated cortisol AUC levels compared with subjects with AUD and no CD or with normal controls. In the total sample, cortisol AUC was associated positively with measures of aggression. Conclusions: Adolescents with early-onset AUD are characterized by impulsivity and aggressivity compared with healthy peers but do not demonstrate the diminished prolactin or cortisol responses to FEN characteristic of adult alcoholics with impulsive-aggression. [source]


Acute effects of methylphenidate on performance during the Test of Variables of Attention in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 3 2007
YU-SHU HUANG md
Abstract This study attempted to determine the acute effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognitive performance using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study subjects comprised 57 children diagnosed with ADHD aged 6,13 years. Diagnoses of ADHD and other comorbid psychiatric disorders were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition criteria following a standard interview with the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, epidemiologic version. The subjects' performance on the TOVA was compared before and 1 h after administration of MPH. After administration of MPH, commission scores, response time and ADHD scores improved significantly, however, there were no significant changes in omission scores, response time variability or response sensitivity. The authors concluded that administration of one dose of MPH (0.5,1.0 mg/kg) produced more effects on impulsivity than on attention deficiency in children with ADHD, and that the second half section of the TOVA could be more sensitive than the first half in determining the acute effects of MPH therapy in children with ADHD. However, the effects of different MPH doses on the TOVA results need further investigation. [source]


Psychopathology in female juvenile offenders

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 6 2004
Angela Dixon
Background:, The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method:, One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and socioeconomic status (SES). Psychological profiles and trauma histories of both groups were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children , Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and family functioning was assessed with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale II (FACES II) self-report measure. Results:, Rates of psychopathology were higher for offenders than non-offenders (p < .001), with particularly high levels of conduct disorder (91% v.1%, p < .001), substance abuse disorders (85% v. 5%, p < .001), depression (55% v. 25%, p < .001) and posttraumatic stress disorder (37% v. 4%, p < .001). In the offenders, 78% met the criteria for three or more diagnoses. The number of psychiatric diagnoses was the most significant factor associated with offender status (OR = 21.26, p < .001). Conclusions:, There is a high prevalence of psychological disorder in females in juvenile justice custody and this has a very strong association with offender status. Because these co-morbid disorders are treatable, there is a clear opportunity to intervene to decrease psychological distress. [source]


Clinical decision-making using the General Behavior Inventory in juvenile bipolarity

BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1 2002
Robert L Findling
Objective: The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is a questionnaire that has utility in the assessment of mood disorders in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how the GBI might optimally be used in the assessment of youths. Method: Children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 17 years participated in this study. All youths were evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS). Based on the K-SADS results, subjects were then assigned to one of four groups: a bipolar spectrum group, a depressive disorders group, a disruptive behaviors disorders group, and a no diagnosis group. Guardians completed a version of the GBI modified for parent reporting. Patients 10 years old or greater also completed the GBI as a self-report measure. Results: There were 196 subjects who participated. Both parent report and youth self-report assigned patients to the appropriate diagnostic group with better than 74% accuracy. Combining information from multiple informants did not significantly improve diagnostic group assignment. Conclusions: These data suggest that the GBI may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of mood disorders in youths, particularly when diagnostic specificity is more important than sensitivity. [source]


Home Asthma Management for Rural Families

JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN PEDIATRIC NURSING, Issue 2 2003
Sharon D. Horner
ISSUES AND PURPOSE. To assess home asthma management among rural families with a school-age child who has asthma. DESIGN AND METHODS. Exploratory analysis of baseline data of a tri-ethnic sample of rural families with school-age children who have asthma. RESULTS. Parents and children enact a moderate amount of asthma management behaviors. Preventive behaviors were correlated with the Asthma Behavior Inventory and treatment behaviors were correlated with the child's asthma severity. Factors that could affect asthma management include no insurance, no visits to providers in 12 months, or no asthma medications. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Nurses must use every contact with families to assess their asthma management and availability of resources, and to determine the fit between asthma severity and the asthma management plan. [source]


Penetrating injuries in children: Is there a message?

JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 5 2002
AJA Holland
Objectives: To determine the frequency, management and outcome of penetrating trauma in children. Methods: A retrospective review of penetrating injuries in children under 16 years of age admitted to the Children's Hospital at Westmead (CHW), and deaths reported to the New South Wales Paediatric Trauma Death (NPTD) Registry, from January 1988 to December 2000. Patient details, circumstances of trauma, injuries identified, management and outcome were recorded. Results: Thirty-four children were admitted to the CHW with penetrating injuries during the 13-year period. This represented 0.2% of all trauma admissions, but 3% of those children with major trauma. The injury typically involved a male, school-age child that fell onto a sharp object or was assaulted with a knife or firearm by a parent or person known to them. Twenty-five children (75%) required operative intervention for their injuries and 14 survivors (42%) suffered long-term morbidity. Thirty children were reported to the NPTD Registry over the same interval, accounting for 2.3% of all trauma deaths in New South Wales. Of these, a significant minority was injured by falls from a mower or a tractor towing a machine with blades. Conclusions: Penetrating injuries are uncommon, but cause serious injury in children. There are two clear groups: (i) those dead at the scene or moribund on arrival, in whom prevention must be the main aim; and (ii) those with stable vital signs. Penetrating wounds should be explored in the operating theatre to exclude major injury. Young children should not ride on mowers or tractors. [source]


Early motherhood and disruptive behaviour in the school-age child

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2004
P Trautmann-Villalba
Aim: To determine the significance of young maternal age, family adversity and maternal behaviour during mother-toddler interaction in the prediction of child disruptive behaviour at age eight. Methods: From an ongoing longitudinal study of infants at risk for later psychopathology (n= 362), 72 young mothers aged between 15 and 24 y (median 22 y) at first birth were compared with 197 primiparous older mothers ranging in age from 25 to 41 y (median 29 y). Family adversity at childbirth was assessed using a modified version of Rutter's Family Adversity Index (FAI) and measures of child disruptive behaviour at age eight were obtained using Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF). An observational procedure was used to assess maternal behaviour during mother-child interaction at the age of 2 y. Results: Young mothers encountered more adverse family characteristics and were more inadequate, restrictive and more negative during interaction with their toddlers. Their school-aged children showed higher scores on all disruptive behaviour scales of the TRF. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that family adversity and maternal behaviour during toddler interaction could account for most of the association between early motherhood and child disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: The impact of young motherhood on child mental health is not confined to teenage mothers and is mainly attributed to psychosocial and interactional factors. [source]


Recurrent abdominal pain, food allergy and endoscopy

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2001
Steffen Husby
Gastrointestinal food allergy, a well-recognized clinical entity, has a wide spectrum of clinical features, including cutaneous, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and objective abnormalities. The gastrointestinal alterations in food allergy have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in school-age children. The findings among children with RAP of an underlying food allergy associated with mucosal pathology of the foregut may support a causal relationship between food allergy and RAP. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether well-documented food allergy (based on double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges) is a major cause of RAP. [source]


An open-label trial of enhanced brief interpersonal psychotherapy in depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment,,

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 7 2006
Holly A. Swartz M.D.
Abstract Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. Depression and Anxiety 23:398,404, 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Use of the Broselow Tape May Result in the Underresuscitation of Children

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 10 2006
ACNP, Carolyn T. Nieman MSN
Abstract Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the concordance of the Broselow tape with the measured heights and weights of a community-based population of children, especially in light of the increase in obesity in today's children. Methods The authors examined more than 7,500 children in a cross-sectional, descriptive study in two different cohorts of children to compare their actual weight with their predicted weight by a color-coded tape measure. Results In all patients, the percent agreement and , values of the Broselow color predicted by height versus the actual color by weight for the 2002A tape were 66.2% and 0.61, respectively. The concordance was best in infants, followed by school-age children, toddlers, and preschoolers (,= 0.66, 0.44, 0.39, and 0.39, respectively; percent agreement, 81.3%, 58.2%, 60.7%, and 64.0%, respectively). The tapes accurately predicted (within 10%) medication dosages for resuscitation in 55.3%,60.0% of the children. The number of children who were underdosed (by ,10%) exceeded those who were overdosed (by ,10%) by 2.5 to 4.4 times (p < 0.05). The tapes accurately predicted uncuffed endotracheal tube sizes when compared with age-based guidelines in 71% of the children, with undersizing (,0.5 mm) exceeding oversizing by threefold to fourfold (p < 0.05). Conclusions The Broselow tape color-coded system inaccurately predicted actual weight in one third of children. Caregivers need to take into consideration the accuracy of this device when estimating children's weight during the resuscitation of a child. [source]


Mathematical development in spina bifida

DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
Lianne H. English
Abstract Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the deficits in visual-spatial processing that are also associated with the disorder. An overview of math and its cognitive correlates in preschoolers, school-age children and adults with SB is presented including the findings from a longitudinal study linking early executive functions in infancy to the development of later preschool and school age math skills. These findings are discussed in relation to socio-historical perspectives on math education and implications for intervention and directions for further research are presented. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2009;15:28,34. [source]


Neuromotor development from 5 to 18 years.

DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2001
Part 1: timed performance
Timed performance in specific motor tasks is an essential component of a neurological examination applied to children with motor dysfunctions. This article provides centile curves describing normal developmental course and interindividual variation of timed performances of non-disabled children from 5 to 18 years. In a cross-sectional study (n=662) the following motor tasks were investigated: repetitive finger movements, hand and foot movements, alternating hand and foot movements, sequential finger movements, pegboard, and dynamic and static balance. Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliability for timed measurements were moderate to high. Timed performances improved throughout the entire prepubertal period, but differed among various motor tasks with respect to increase in speed and when the,adolescent plateau' was reached. Centile curves of timed performance displayed large interindividual variation for all motor tasks. At no age were clinically relevant sex differences noted, nor did socioeconomic status significantly correlate with timed performance. Our results demonstrate that timed motor performances between 5 and 18 years are characterized by a long-lasting developmental change and a large interindividual variation. Therefore, a well standardized test instrument, and age-specific standards for motor performances are necessary preconditions for a reliable assessment of motor competence in school-age children. [source]


Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
Nicola C. Newton
ABSTRACT Aims To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. Participants A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Measures Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. Results This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Conclusions Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion. [source]


Head injuries related to sports and recreation activities in school-age children and adolescents: Data from a referral centre in Victoria, Australia

EMERGENCY MEDICINE AUSTRALASIA, Issue 1 2010
Louise M Crowe
Abstract Objectives:, Head injuries (HI) in children are common and even mild HI can lead to ongoing cognitive and behavioural changes. We set out to determine the causes of sport-related HI in school-age children presenting to a large urban ED as a basis for future interventions. Method:, Identification and medical record review of all sport-related HI in children aged 6,16 years at a tertiary children's hospital ED in Victoria, Australia, over a 1 year period. Information was collected on demographics, injury variables and radiology findings. HI were classified as mild, moderate and severe based on GCS and radiography reports. Results:, Over 12 months there were 406 HI in school-age children. Seventy per cent were male. A large number of HI (129; 33%) were related to sports. Of these, most were classified as mild and 13% were classified as moderate or severe. Among a range of sports, Australian Rules football was associated with more than 30% of all HI attributable to a sport and recreation cause. Equestrian activities were the main cause of moderate HI. Conclusion:, The present study identified sports as a major cause of HI in the Victorian paediatric emergency setting with Australian Rules football the most commonly involved sport. Further prevention initiatives should consider targeting Australian Rules football and equestrian activities. [source]


Cortical auditory dysfunction in benign rolandic epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2008
Dana F. Boatman
Summary Purpose: To evaluate cortical auditory function, including speech recognition, in children with benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE). Methods: Fourteen children, seven patients with BRE and seven matched controls, underwent audiometric and behavioral testing, simultaneous EEG recordings, and auditory-evoked potential recordings with speech and tones. Speech recognition was tested under multiple listening conditions. Results: All participants demonstrated normal speech recognition abilities in quiet, as well as normal peripheral and subcortical auditory function. BRE patients performed significantly worse than controls when speech recognition was tested under adverse listening conditions, including background noise. Five BRE patients who were impaired on two or more tests had centrotemporal spiking on awake EEG. There were no significant group differences in the latency or amplitude of early N100 cortical responses to speech or tones. Conversely, the mismatch negativity, a preattentive index of cortical processing that is elicited passively, was absent or prolonged for speech, but not tones, in BRE patients as compared to controls. Discussion: Children with BRE demonstrated specific speech recognition impairments. Our evoked potential findings indicate that these behavioral impairments reflect dysfunction of nonprimary auditory cortex and cannot be attributed solely to attention difficulties. A possible association between auditory impairments and centrotemporal spiking (>1/min) on awake EEG was identified. The pattern of speech recognition impairments observed is a known risk factor for academic difficulties in school-age children. Our results underscore the importance of comprehensive auditory testing, using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in children with BRE. [source]


Understanding AIDS: A Comparison of Children in the United States and Thailand,

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2001
Margaret H. Young
Replicating a prior U.S. study, data were gathered from preschool and school-age children in Thailand (n= 80). Taking a developmental perspective, Thai children's knowledge and understanding of AIDS was assessed, and results were compared with those of the U.S. sample. The findings show that Thai children in each of four designated age groups have higher levels of accurate knowledge of AIDS compared with their U.S. counterparts. The findings of these early studies are discussed in terms of current AIDS infection rates and educational prevention efforts in both cultures. [source]


Whining as mother-directed speech

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2005
Rosemarie I. Sokol
Abstract Although little studied, whining is a vocal pattern that is both familiar and irritating to parents of preschool- and early school-age children. The current study employed multidimensional scaling to identify the crucial acoustic characteristics of whining speech by analysing participants' perceptions of its similarity to other types of speech (question, neutral speech, angry statement, demand, and boasting). We discovered not only that participants find whining speech more annoying than other forms of speech, but that it shares the salient acoustic characteristics found in motherese, namely increased pitch, slowed production, and exaggerated pitch contours. We think that this relationship is not random but may reflect the fact that the two forms of vocalization are the result of a similar accommodation to a universal human auditory sensitivity to the prosody of both forms of speech. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Home Asthma Management for Rural Families

JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN PEDIATRIC NURSING, Issue 2 2003
Sharon D. Horner
ISSUES AND PURPOSE. To assess home asthma management among rural families with a school-age child who has asthma. DESIGN AND METHODS. Exploratory analysis of baseline data of a tri-ethnic sample of rural families with school-age children who have asthma. RESULTS. Parents and children enact a moderate amount of asthma management behaviors. Preventive behaviors were correlated with the Asthma Behavior Inventory and treatment behaviors were correlated with the child's asthma severity. Factors that could affect asthma management include no insurance, no visits to providers in 12 months, or no asthma medications. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Nurses must use every contact with families to assess their asthma management and availability of resources, and to determine the fit between asthma severity and the asthma management plan. [source]


Care dependency of hospitalized children: testing the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in a cross-cultural comparison

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 2 2009
Hanan Tork
Abstract Title.,Care dependency of hospitalized children: testing the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in a cross-cultural comparison. Aim., This paper is a report of a study to examine the psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in Germany and Egypt and to compare the care dependency of school-age children in both countries. Background., Cross-cultural differences in care dependency of older adults have been documented in the literature, but little is known about the differences and similarities with regard to children's care dependency in different cultures. Method., A convenience sample of 258 school-aged children from Germany and Egypt participated in the study in 2005. The reliability of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics was assessed in terms of internal consistency and interrater reliability. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) was employed to verify the construct validity. A Visual Analogue Scale was used to investigate the criterion-related validity. Findings., Good internal consistency was detected both for the Arabic and German versions. Factor analysis revealed one factor for both versions. A Pearson's correlation between the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics and Visual Analogue Scale was statistically significant for both versions indicating criterion-related validity. Statistically significant differences between the participants were detected regarding the mean sum score on the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics. Conclusion., The Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the care dependency of children and is recommended for assessing the care dependency of children from different ethnic origins. Differences in care dependency between German and Egyptian children were detected, which might be due to cultural differences. [source]


Differences in Trait Anger Among Children with Varying Levels of Anger Expression Patterns

JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 2 2006
Marti Rice PhD
PROBLEM:,Little research has been done with children to determine effects of using various patterns of anger expression on trait anger. The purpose was to examine differences in trait anger of children who indicated high, moderate, or low use of three patterns of anger expression. METHODS:,A convenience sample of 1,060 third through sixth graders completed trait anger and patterns of expressing anger instruments. FINDINGS:,High users of anger-out (anger expressed outwardly) had the highest trait anger for every grade while high users of anger-reflection/control had the lowest. CONCLUSIONS:,Anger-reflection/control may be more effective than anger-out in reducing trait anger in school-age children. [source]


Increased Mental Health Needs and New Roles in School Communities

JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 3 2003
Janis Hootman PhD
TOPIC Mental health issues and partnership roles in school communities. PURPOSE To heighten the awareness of healthcare providers about the multiple mental health conditions students bring into school communities and the impact of these conditions on students' ability to learn; to encourage partnering between healthcare providers and educators to support students in achieving academic and developmental success. SOURCES Literature review and authors' experiences with assessment of and intervention with school-age children presenting with impaired mental health. CONCLUSIONS Health and education systems must increase their partnerships on behalf of children for a healthy future. [source]


Care dependency of children in Egypt

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 3 2008
Hanan Tork RN
Aims., This study aimed to modify the Care Dependency Scale so that it could be used for children, to apply its Arabic version to Egyptian children to test the reliability and validity of the modified scale and to compare the care dependency of disabled and non-disabled Egyptian children. Background., A higher dependence of children in their daily tasks undoubtedly places a greater burden on their caregivers. To estimate the extent of the problem of care dependency, data from different countries and proper standard instruments are required. Method., The Care Dependency Scale was modified for children by Delphi technique. This study assessed the care dependency of non-disabled children compared with children with physical and mental disabilities using the modified version of the Care Dependency Scale for paediatrics. The total sample included 260 Egyptian school-age children (508% of whom were disabled and 492% were non-disabled). Results., Reliability was examined in terms of internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha (091). Inter-rater reliability revealed moderate to very good Kappa statistics between 057,089. Content validity and criterion validity were evaluated. Differences regarding care dependency were found between disabled and non-disabled children. Conclusion., The psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale for paediatrics support its usefulness in measuring the care dependency of children in Egypt. This study provides an Arabic version of the Care Dependency Scale for paediatrics that is easy to administer and may be useful to measure the care dependency in various Arabic countries. Relevance to clinical practice., The findings raise concerns regarding the extent to which disabled and also non-disabled school-age children are care dependent leading to an increased burden of care on nurses or on caregivers in general. The Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics can help nurses conduct an appropriate assessment of children's care dependency so that any nursing care can be planned according to the children's needs. [source]


Work Choices of Mothers in Families with Children with Disabilities

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 4 2002
Shirley L. Porterfield
This study used a sample of single and married mothers with children under the age of 20 drawn from the 1992 and 1993 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine one facet of the economic implications a child with disabilities brings to a family. Specifically, the choice of women with children to work full time, part time, or not at all was estimated as a function of individual and family characteristics, including the number and ages of children with disabilities. The presence of young children, with or without disabilities, has a significant negative influence on the work choice of both single and married mothers. However, once children enter elementary school, single mothers with disabled or nondisabled children and married mothers with nondisabled children are significantly more likely to enter the labor market or increase their labor market hours than are married mothers of school-age children with disabilities. [source]


School-Based Obesity Interventions: A Literature Review

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 4 2008
Fadia T. Shaya PhD
ABSTRACT Background:, Childhood obesity is an impending epidemic. This article is an overview of different interventions conducted in school settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk. Methods:, PubMed and OVID Medline databases were searched for school-based obesity interventions with anthropometric measures in children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 19 years from June 1986 to June 2006. Studies were reviewed by duration, type of intervention, and defined qualitative and quantitative measures, resulting in a yield of 51 intervention studies. Results:, The interventions ranged from 4 weeks in length to as long as 8 continuing years. In total, 15 of the intervention studies exclusively utilized physical activity programs, 16 studies exclusively utilized educational models and behavior modification strategies, and 20 studies utilized both. In addition, 31 studies utilized exclusively quantitative variables like body mass indices and waist-to-hip ratios to measure the efficacy of the intervention programs, and another 20 studies utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative measures that included self-reported physical activity and attitude toward physical activity and the tested knowledge of nutrition, cardiovascular health, and physical fitness. A total of 40 studies achieved positive statistically significant results between the baseline and the follow-up quantitative measurements. Conclusions:, No persistence of positive results in reducing obesity in school-age children has been observed. Studies employing long-term follow-up of quantitative and qualitative measurements of short-term interventions in particular are warranted. [source]


Asthma Hospitalization Rates Among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 8 2006
Erin Belanger
This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma hospitalizations, including sociodemographics and school environmental factors, among school-age children (5-18 years) in New York State (NYS) over an 11-year period (1991-2001). Asthma hospitalization data from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System and the 1990 and 2000 census population files were geocoded into NYS school districts statewide, and school district asthma hospitalization rates were then calculated. Building Condition Survey for each school was then utilized to create summary measures of school building conditions for each school district. Hospitalization rates were linked to district school building conditions by using logistic regression analysis that controlled for poverty. Calculation of time trends revealed overall declines in asthma rates among school-age children for NYS from 1991 to 2001. This general decline was found in each sociodemographic group. The mean rate for NYS from 1991 to 2001 was 27/10,000. Poorly rated building systems that were significantly associated with increased school district asthma hospitalization rates were roofing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI95] = 1.13-2.74), windows (OR = 1.66; CI95= 1.08-2.54), exterior walls (OR = 2.24; CI95= 1.31-3.83), floor finishes (OR = 1.75; CI95= 1.14-2.69), and boiler/furnace (OR = 1.71; CI95= 1.99-2.94). This does not indicate a definite link between these systems and asthma hospitalizations since the available building system information is very general and crude. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(8):408-413) [source]


The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

ALLERGY, Issue 7 2007
E. N. C. Mills
The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro diagnostics make food challenges the only reliable means of diagnosis in many instances. The EuroPrevall project brings together a multidisciplinary partnership to address these issues. Cohorts spanning the main climatic regions of Europe are being developed in infants through a birth cohort, community surveys in school-age children and adults and an outpatient clinic study. Confirmatory double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge diagnosis is being undertaken using foods as they are eaten with titrated doses to allow no-effect and lowest-observable effect levels for allergenic foods to be determined. The cohorts will also facilitate validation of novel in vitro diagnostics through the development of the EuroPrevall Serum Bank. Complementary studies in Ghana, western Siberia, India and China will allow us to gain insights into how different dietary patterns and exposure to microorganisms affect food allergies. New instruments to assess the socioeconomic impact of food allergy are being developed in the project and their application in the clinical cohorts will allow, for the first time, an assessment to be made of the burden this disease places on allergy sufferers and their communities. [source]


What do young school-age children know about occupational therapy?

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2001
An evaluation study
Abstract Occupational therapy is a poorly understood profession. In response to this fact, the American Occupational Therapy Association has launched a national campaign to increase awareness of occupational therapy among adults. Little is known, however, about children's perceptions of occupational therapy. The current evaluation study reports on the assessment of children's perceptions of occupational therapy prior to, and following, an interactive demonstration on occupational therapy as part of a larger neuroscience exposition. One hundred and three elementary school-aged children (55 boys and 48 girls) from local schools attended a one-day neuroscience exposition held at the Boys & Girls Clubs of Omaha. At three of 18 booths at the exposition, occupational therapy faculty and students explained what occupational therapists do, and demonstrated the link between brain function and occupational performance. Children completed pre and post questionnaires. Results revealed that on pre-test, the vast majority of participants could not answer the question or had no idea of what occupational therapists do. On post-test, 75% reported that they had knowledge of what occupational therapists do. These preliminary findings suggest that a campaign of public awareness about occupational therapy for children would be highly effective and beneficial, and that a neuroscience exposition including occupational therapy is one effective intervention to promote such awareness. Copyright 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]