Schwann Cell Development (schwann + cell_development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Development of the Schwann cell lineage: From the neural crest to the myelinated nerve

GLIA, Issue 14 2008
Ashwin Woodhoo
Abstract The myelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells in peripheral nerves are derived from the neural crest, which is a transient and multipotent embryonic structure that also generates the other main glial subtypes of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Schwann cell development occurs through a series of transitional embryonic and postnatal phases, which are tightly regulated by a number of signals. During the early embryonic phases, neural crest cells are specified to give rise to Schwann cell precursors, which represent the first transitional stage in the Schwann cell lineage, and these then generate the immature Schwann cells. At birth, the immature Schwann cells differentiate into either the myelinating or nonmyelinating Schwann cells that populate the mature nerve trunks. In this review, we will discuss the biology of the transitional stages in embryonic and early postnatal Schwann cell development, including the phenotypic differences between them and the recently identified signaling pathways, which control their differentiation and maintenance. In addition, the role and importance of the microenvironment in which glial differentiation takes place will be discussed. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A mouse embryonic stem cell model of Schwann cell differentiation for studies of the role of neurofibromatosis type 1 in Schwann cell development and tumor formation

GLIA, Issue 11 2007
Therese M. Roth
Abstract The neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene. One known function of neurofibromin, the NF1 protein product, is to accelerate the slow intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras to increase the production of inactive rasGDP, with wide-ranging effects on p21ras pathways. Loss of neurofibromin in the autosomal dominant disorder NF1 is associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system, particularly neurofibromas, benign lesions in which the major affected cell type is the Schwann cell (SC). NF1 is the most common cancer predisposition syndrome affecting the nervous system. We have developed an in vitro system for differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) that are NF1 wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/,), or null (,/,) into SC-like cells to study the role of NF1 in SC development and tumor formation. These mES-generated SC-like cells, regardless of their NF1 status, express SC markers correlated with their stage of maturation, including myelin proteins. They also support and preferentially direct neurite outgrowth from primary neurons. NF1 null and heterozygous SC-like cells proliferate at an accelerated rate compared to NF1 wild type; this growth advantage can be reverted to wild type levels using an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase (Mek). The mESC of all NF1 types can also be differentiated into neuron-like cells. This novel model system provides an ideal paradigm for studies of the role of NF1 in cell growth and differentiation of the different cell types affected by NF1 in cells with differing levels of neurofibromin that are neither transformed nor malignant. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Symposium S01: Molecules and mechanisms in Schwann cell development

K.R. Jessen
No abstract is available for this article. [source]