Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Scholars

  • administration scholar
  • american scholar
  • communication scholar
  • family scholar
  • feminist scholar
  • google scholar
  • ir scholar
  • legal scholar
  • literary scholar
  • management scholar
  • many scholar
  • modern scholar
  • other scholar
  • public administration scholar
  • several scholar

  • Selected Abstracts


    Vonnie C. McLloyd
    First page of article [source]

    Walter LaFeber: Scholar, Teacher, Intellectual

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 5 2004
    First page of article [source]

    Using the internet to research hidden populations of illicit drug users: a review

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Peter G. Miller
    ABSTRACT Aims To review the current research of hidden populations of illicit drugs users using web-based methods and discuss major advantages and disadvantages. Methods Systematic review of 16 databases, including PubMed, PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), CSA Sociological Abstracts, Expanded Academic ASAP and Google Scholar. Findings Substances researched were most commonly ,party/club drugs' (such as ecstasy) and cannabis. All of the studies reviewed concluded that the internet is a useful tool for reaching hidden populations, but is likely to impose some bias in samples. Advantages include: access to previously under-researched target groups; speed; international applications; increased ease of data entry; and improved confidentiality for respondents. The major disadvantage is a lack of representativeness of samples. Conclusions Internet research is successful at accessing hidden populations of illicit drugs users, when appropriately targeted and provides unprecedented opportunities for research across a wide range of topics within the addictions field. Findings are unlikely to be generalisable to the general public, but appropriate for describing target populations. [source]

    Memories of Tom David Andersen: Friend, Colleague, Scholar, Inspirer, and Rhizome

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2007
    First page of article [source]

    Outside Directors (Distinguished Scholar of 2002 Keynote Address to the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Finance Association)

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2003
    John J. McConnell
    First page of article [source]

    Downloads and citations in Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management

    Daniel E. O'Leary
    This paper summarizes the papers downloaded most from the years 2000,2002 and traces the number of citations from Google Scholar (beta) for those papers at the beginning of 2008. It is found that the number of downloads and citations are highly correlated, suggesting that downloads is a leading indicator of citations, even years into the future. In addition, this paper assesses which of the papers from the journal have been cited most over the history of the journal, using both ISI,Social Science Citation Index and Google Scholar. It is found that the numbers of citations using both approaches are highly correlated. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    The clinical effectiveness of length of bed rest for patients recovering from trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation

    Sek Ying Chair RN MBA PhD
    Background, Cardiac catheterisation plays a vital role in the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac conditions. The goal of management of patients after cardiac catheterisation is to reduce the risk of development of any local or prolonged vascular complications, in particular bleeding and haematoma formation at the puncture site. Bed rest and immobilisation of the affected leg are recommended practices to ensure adequate haemostasis at the femoral arterial puncture site and prevent complications. Objectives, The objective of this review was to present the best available evidence for the optimal length of bed rest after trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. The main outcome of interest was the incidence of bleeding and haematoma formation following varying periods of bed rest. Search strategy, We searched the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Library, Current Contents, EBSCO, Web of Science, Embase, British Nursing Index, Controlled clinical trials database, Google Scholar. Reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings were searched. We also contacted key organisations and researchers in the field. Selection criteria, All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of different lengths of bed rest following trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation on patient outcomes were considered for inclusion in the review. Data collection and analysis, Eligibility of the trials for inclusion in the review, details of eligible trials and the methodological quality of the trials were assessed independently by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous data and a weighted mean difference for continuous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where synthesis was inappropriate, trials were considered separately. Main results, Eighteen trials involving a total of 4294 participants were included in the review. One trial included three treatment groups. In seven trials among 747 people there was no significant difference in the incidence of bleeding following six or less than 6 h of bed rest (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.60, 3.64). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the incidence of bleeding following bed rest at other time periods. In eight trials involving 2272 patients there was no significant difference in the incidence of haematoma formation following 6 or less than 6 h of bed rest (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.59, 1.16). Significantly fewer patients randomised to less than 6 h of bed rest complained of back pain. The odds of developing back pain at 4 (OR 24.60; 95% CI 1.29, 469) and 24 h (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.16, 5.23) following coronary catheterisation was significantly higher among patients randomised to 6 compared with 3 h of bed rest. Authors' conclusions, There is evidence of no benefit relating to bleeding and haematoma formation in patients who have more than 3 h of bed rest following trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. However, there is evidence of benefit relating to decreased incidence and severity of back pain and cost-effectiveness following 3 h of bed rest. There is suggestive but inconclusive evidence of a benefit from bed rest for 2 h following trans-femoral cardiac catheterisation. Clinicians should consider a balance between avoiding increased risk of haematoma formation following 2,2.5 h of bed rest and circumventing back pain following more than 4 h of bed rest. [source]

    Consumers' views on generic medicines: A review of the literature

    Mohamed A. A. Hassali
    Abstract Objectives To review the literature on consumers' knowledge, attitudes and opinions of the use of generic medicines. Method A narrative review of studies conducted from 1970 to 2008 on consumers' perceptions and views towards generic medicines was performed. An extensive literature search was undertaken using indexing services available at the authors' institution library. The following keywords were used for the search: brand, generic, multisource, medications, medicines, drugs, pharmaceuticals and consumers, customers, and patients. Electronic databases searched were Medline, Inside Web, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Springer Link, JSTOR, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. These electronic databases were searched for full text papers published in English from 1970 to October 2008. Key findings Twenty studies were identified. Eleven were from the USA, four were from Europe, two were from Canada and one each was from Australia, Brazil and Malaysia. In general, consumers showed mixed reactions towards the use of generic medicines. This was evident from the divergence of views observed by country development level, consumers' socioeconomic characteristics, drug product characteristics, pharmaceutical reimbursement system, policy environment, contact with health care professionals, past experience with medications, and knowledge of the seriousness of a medical condition. Conclusions Patient confidence and knowledge pertaining to generic medicines use have increased over the past four decades, especially in developed countries. Mass educational efforts, financial incentives, and greater communication among patients and health care professionals were seen as major drivers to the uptake of generic medicines among consumers. [source]

    Barriers to kidney transplants in Indonesia: a literature review

    P.N. Bennett rn
    Background:, People living with chronic kidney disease will require renal dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life. Although Indonesia has a developing healthcare industry, Indonesia's kidney transplant rates are lower than comparable nations. Purpose:, To explore the healthcare literature to identify barriers to kidney transplants in particular in relation to Indonesia. Methods:, Healthcare databases were searched (CINAHL, Medline, EBSCOhostEJS, Blackwell Synergy, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar and Proquest 5000) using the search terms: transplant, kidney disease, renal, dialysis, haemodialysis, Indonesia and nursing. The search was limited to English and Indonesian language data sources from 1997 to 2007. Reference lists of salient academic articles were hand searched. Results:, The results of our search identified six articles that met our criteria. Costs are the major barrier to kidney transplant in Indonesia, followed by cultural beliefs, perception of the law, lack of information and lack of infrastructure. In addition, kidney disease prevention strategies are required. Conclusions:, There are many complex socio-economic, geographical, legal, cultural and religious factors that contribute to low kidney transplant rates in Indonesia. Although an increase in transplantation rates will require strategies from various agencies, healthcare professionals, including nurses, can play a role in overcoming some barriers. Community education programmes, improving their own education levels and by increasing empowerment in nursing we may contribute to improved kidney transplant rates in Indonesia. [source]

    Learning for holistic care: addressing practical wisdom (phronesis) and the spiritual sphere

    Helen L. Leathard
    Abstract Title.,Learning for holistic care: addressing practical wisdom (phronesis) and the spiritual sphere. Aim., This paper is a discussion of practical wisdom (phronesis) and spirituality in holistic caring and strategies to facilitate their application in nurse education. Background.,Phronesis, with its inherent spiritual qualities, is an established aspect of the persona of excellent clinical leaders. There is a strong case for recognizing the value of this characteristic in all nurses, and a strategy is required for engendering the development of phronesis during nurse education. Data sources., Electronic searches of Google Scholar and CINAHL were conducted for English language publications in the period 1996,2008. Search terms included combinations of phronesis, spirituality, health, education, pharmacology, medicines and medication education, holistic care and spiritual care. Selection of items for inclusion was based on their pertinence to the arguments being developed and their value as leads to earlier material. Discussion., The links between the attributes of effective clinical leaders and those required for holistic caring are explicated and related to phronesis, the acquisition of which involves spiritual development. An explanatory account of phronesis and its applicability to nursing leads to an explanation of how its spiritual aspects in particular might be incorporated into learning for holistic care. Reference to research in medicines-related education illustrates how the principles can be applied in nurse education. Conclusion., Nursing quality could be enhanced if adequate opportunities for acquiring phronesis through experiential learning were provided in nursing curricula. Phronesis and spiritual care could be incorporated into existing models of nursing care or new models devised to use these critical concepts. [source]

    Managing Crises in the EU: Some Reflections of a Non-EU Scholar

    Boris Porfiriev
    In recent years the EU has been increasingly involved in development and implementation of crisis policy as a component of its development and security policy. This process is seriously complicated by the EU architects, who had never conceived it as a crisis management institute. Therefore they failed to design built-in organisational capacities into the Union to mitigate and respond to crises. In addition, the EU-agreed overarching concept of crisis as such and EU crisis in particular is missing. Both issues remain a primary question on research and policy agendas. Provided below are some of the author's considerations and comments on these issues. It is argued that, despite the existing divergence in crisis interpretations in the EU, coherent conceptualisation is possible and approaches to this are introduced. Practical implications of generic crisis conceptualisation for EU crisis management policy are analysed. Within this context three major lessons from international experience, including that from the USA and Russia, are emphasised. These concern the issues of organisational flexibility, learning from earlier major crises and comprehensive training of crisis decision units critical for efficient crisis management policy. [source]

    How are new citation-based journal indicators adding to the bibliometric toolbox?

    Loet Leydesdorff
    The launching of Scopus and Google Scholar, and methodological developments in social-network analysis have made many more indicators for evaluating journals available than the traditional impact factor, cited half-life, and immediacy index of the ISI. In this study, these new indicators are compared with one another and with the older ones. Do the various indicators measure new dimensions of the citation networks, or are they highly correlated among themselves? Are they robust and relatively stable over time? Two main dimensions are distinguished,size and impact,which together shape influence. The h-index combines the two dimensions and can also be considered as an indicator of reach (like Indegree). PageRank is mainly an indicator of size, but has important interactions with centrality measures. The Scimago Journal Ranking (SJR) indicator provides an alternative to the journal impact factor, but the computation is less easy. [source]

    Citation counting, citation ranking, and h -index of human-computer interaction researchers: A comparison of Scopus and Web of Science

    Lokman I. Meho
    This study examines the differences between Scopus and Web of Science in the citation counting, citation ranking, and h -index of 22 top human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers from EQUATOR,a large British Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration project. Results indicate that Scopus provides significantly more coverage of HCI literature than Web of Science, primarily due to coverage of relevant ACM and IEEE peer-reviewed conference proceedings. No significant differences exist between the two databases if citations in journals only are compared. Although broader coverage of the literature does not significantly alter the relative citation ranking of individual researchers, Scopus helps distinguish between the researchers in a more nuanced fashion than Web of Science in both citation counting and h -index. Scopus also generates significantly different maps of citation networks of individual scholars than those generated by Web of Science. The study also presents a comparison of h -index scores based on Google Scholar with those based on the union of Scopus and Web of Science. The study concludes that Scopus can be used as a sole data source for citation-based research and evaluation in HCI, especially when citations in conference proceedings are sought, and that researchers should manually calculate h scores instead of relying on system calculations. [source]

    James Heckman as a Law and Society Scholar: An Appreciation

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 1 2002
    Peter Siegelman
    First page of article [source]

    Is the prevalence of asthma declining?

    ALLERGY, Issue 2 2010
    Systematic review of epidemiological studies
    To cite this article: Anandan C, Nurmatov U, van Schayck OCP, Sheikh A. Is the prevalence of asthma declining? Systematic review of epidemiological studies. Allergy 2010; 65: 152,167. Abstract Asthma prevalence has increased very considerably in recent decades such that it is now one of the commonest chronic disorders in the world. Recent evidence from epidemiological studies, however, suggests that the prevalence of asthma may now be declining in many parts of the world, which, if true is important for health service planning and also because this offers the possibility of generating and testing new aetiological hypotheses. Our objective was to determine whether the prevalence of asthma is declining worldwide. We undertook a systematic search of EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science and Google Scholar, for high quality reports of cohort studies, repeat cross-sectional studies and analyses of routine healthcare datasets to examine international trends in asthma prevalence in children and adults for the period 1990,2008. There were 48 full reports of studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. The large volume of data identified clearly indicate that there are, at present, no overall signs of a declining trend in asthma prevalence; on the contrary, asthma prevalence is in many parts of the world still increasing. The reductions in emergency healthcare utilization being reported in some economically developed countries most probably reflect improvements in quality of care. There remain major gaps in the literature on asthma trends in relation to Africa and parts of Asia. There is no overall global downward trend in the prevalence of asthma. Healthcare planners will for the foreseeable future, therefore, need to continue with high levels of anticipated expenditure in relation to provision of asthma care. [source]

    Omega 3 and 6 oils for primary prevention of allergic disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2009
    C. Anandan
    Background:, There is conflicting evidence on the use of omega 3 and omega 6 supplementation for the prevention of allergic diseases. We conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of omega 3 and 6 oils for the primary prevention of sensitization and development of allergic disorders. Methods:, We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycInfo, AMED, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar for double-blind randomized controlled trials. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. Meta-analyses were undertaken using fixed effects modelling, or random effects modelling in the event of detecting significant heterogeneity. Results:, Of the 3129 articles identified, 10 reports (representing six unique studies) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Four studies compared omega 3 supplements with placebo and two studies compared omega 6 supplements with placebo. There was no clear evidence of benefit in relation to reduced risk of allergic sensitization or a favourable immunological profile. Meta-analyses failed to identify any consistent or clear benefits associated with use of omega 3 [atopic eczema: RR = 1.10 (95% CI 0.78,1.54); asthma: RR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.53,1.25); allergic rhinitis: RR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.34,1.89) or food allergy RR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.10,2.55)] or omega 6 oils [atopic eczema: RR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.56,1.16)] for the prevention of clinical disease. Conclusions:, Contrary to the evidence from basic science and epidemiological studies, our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with omega 3 and omega 6 oils is probably unlikely to play an important role as a strategy for the primary prevention of sensitization or allergic disease. [source]

    Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 10 2008
    Natalie Sinn
    An abundance of research has investigated causes and treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research includes identification of suboptimal levels of nutrients and sensitivities to certain foods and food additives. This review gives an overview of this research and provides an up-to-date account of clinical trials that have been conducted with zinc, iron, magnesium, Pycnogenol, omega-3 fatty acids, and food sensitivities. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar and included studies published before April 2008. Although further research is required, the current evidence supports indications of nutritional and dietary influences on behavior and learning in these children, with the strongest support to date reported for omega-3s and behavioral food reactions. [source]

    Cultivating Catallactics: Laurence Moss as Scholar and Mentor

    Peter J. Boettke
    First page of article [source]

    Laurence S. Moss as a Young Scholar

    Karen I. Vaughn
    First page of article [source]

    George J. Stigler (1911,1991): Scholar, Father, Dissertation Advisor, Referee, Textbook Writer and Policy Analyst

    Claire Friedland

    Harry G. Johnson (1923,1977): Scholar, Mentor, Editor, and Relentless World Traveler

    Max Corden
    First page of article [source]

    Professor Ludwig M. Lachmann (1906-1990): Scholar, Teacher, and Austrian School Critic of Late Classical Formalism in Economics

    Stephan Boehm
    Ludwig M. Lachmann was born in Berlin in 1906 and died in Johannesburg in 1990. For more than forty years, until his retirement in 1972, Lachmann established himself as a prominent South African economist and for a time served as head of the economics department at the University of Witwatersrand. From 1974 to 1987, he worked with Professor Israel Kirzner in New York City to give new shape and life to the older Austrian school of economics. Lachmann influenced a small army of modern Austrians to discard the elaborate formalisms of orthodox economics for a "radical subjectivism" that had its roots in the teachings of the founder of the Austrian school, Carl Menger. Here a small platoon of scholars offer their thoughts about Lachmann, his contributions to economic reasoning, and his eccentric but engaging character. First hand reports explain what their mentor taught and what his students took away. Lavoie makes the case that Lachmann's "radical subjectivism" took a rhetorical turn toward the end of Lachmann's career in New York City. In addition, Kirzner reports on his long and most productive relationship with Lachmann and provides additional insights about the seminal role of the Austrian Economics Seminar at New York University from 1985 to 1987 in giving shape to the modern Austrian revival. This article is the written version of a "Remembrance and Appreciation Session" held on June 28, 1999 at the History of Economics Society meeting at the University of North Carolina in Greensboro. It is one of an ongoing series that appears in the July issues of this journal. [source]

    A Gentleman and a Scholar

    Blair P. Grubb
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Policy Theory, Policy Theory Everywhere: Ravings of a Deranged Policy Scholar

    Kenneth J. Meier
    The field of policy theory abounds with numerous theories, with each theory having a set of practitioners that are working independently of the others. Resolving conflicts among policy theories as a result is difficult. This essay has a more modest goal of posing some questions and suggesting some avenues for future research. Key points include defining the purpose of policy theory, incorporating management into our theories, making strategic choices about areas of study, addressing the parsimony-comprehensiveness tradeoff, and providing a more nuanced role for institutions. [source]

    Pragmatic indicators for remote Aboriginal maternal and infant health care: why it matters and where to start

    Malinda Steenkamp
    Abstract Objective: There are challenges in delivering maternal and infant health (MIH) care to remote Northern Territory (NT) communities. These include fragmented care with birthing in regional hospitals resulting in cultural and geographical dislocation for Aboriginal women. Many NT initiatives are aimed at improving care. Indicators for evaluating these for remote Aboriginal mothers and infants need to be clearer. We reviewed existing indicators to inform a set of pragmatic indicators for reporting improvement in remote MIH care. Methods: Scientific databases and grey literature (organisational websites and Google Scholar) were searched using the terms ,Aboriginal/maternal/infant/remote health/monitoring performance'. Key stakeholders identified omitted indicators sets. Relevant sets were reviewed and organised by indicator type, stage of patient journey, topic and theme. Results: Forty-two indicators sets were found. Seven focused on Aboriginal health, 23 on reproductive/maternal health, eight on child/infant health and four on other aspects, e.g. remote health. We identified more than 1,000 individual indicators. Of these, 656 were relevant for our purpose and were subsequently organised into 300 topics and 16 themes for antenatal, birth and postpartum, and infant care by indicator type. Conclusion: There are many measures for monitoring health care delivery to mothers and infants. Few are framed around remote MIH services, despite poorer health outcomes of remote mothers and infants and the specific challenges with providing care in this setting. Establishing relevant indicators is vital to support relevant data collection and the development of appropriate policy for remote Aboriginal maternal and infant care. [source]

    Tribute to Thomas H. Shepard: Scholar, mentor, friend

    Alan G. Fantel
    First page of article [source]

    Google Scholar and more , Edited by William Miller & Rita Pellen

    Ramesh C Sharma
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A meta-analysis of the association between Caesarean section and childhood asthma

    S. Thavagnanam
    Summary Background Children born by Caesarean section have modified intestinal bacterial colonization and consequently may have an increased risk of developing asthma under the hygiene hypothesis. The results of previous studies that have investigated the association between Caesarean section and asthma have been conflicting. Objective To review published literature and perform a meta-analysis summarizing the evidence in support of an association between children born by Caesarean section and asthma. Methods MEDLINE, Web Science, Google Scholar and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each study from the reported prevalence of asthma in children born by Caesarean section and in control children. Meta-analysis was then used to derive a combined OR and test for heterogeneity in the findings between studies. Results Twenty-three studies were identified. The overall meta-analysis revealed an increase in the risk of asthma in children delivered by Caesarean section (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.14, 1.29). However, in this analysis, there was evidence of heterogeneity (I2=46%) that was statistically significant (P<0.001). Restricting the analysis to childhood studies, this heterogeneity was markedly decreased (I2=32%) and no longer attained statistical significance (P=0.08). In these studies, there was also evidence of an increase (P<0.001) in the risk of asthma after Caesarean section (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.14, 12.6). Conclusion In this meta-analysis, we found a 20% increase in the subsequent risk of asthma in children who had been delivered by Caesarean section. [source]

    Cold War Scholars and Thinking about Warfare

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2007
    David Mayers
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The historiography of French economic growth in the nineteenth century

    François Crouzet
    Summary There has been a long-standing debate about French nineteenth-century economic growth. After 1945 the ,retardation,stagnation' thesis dominated. From the 1960s ,revisionists' painted a more optimistic view. Recently, ,anti-revisionism' has revived gloomy ideas. New research has been primarily responsible for changes of view. National income estimates, and later cliometric studies, bolstered the revisionist argument. Work on the ,great depression' stimulated anti-revisionism. Scholars have also been influenced by the economic and political state of France at the time they were writing and the debate has been somewhat politicized. The article ends by surveying the ,moderate revisionism' which now prevails. [source]