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## Score Test (score + test)
## Selected Abstracts## Score Test for Conditional Independence Between Longitudinal Outcome and Time to Event Given the Classes in the Joint Latent Class Model BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010Hélène Jacqmin-GaddaSummary Latent class models have been recently developed for the joint analysis of a longitudinal quantitative outcome and a time to event. These models assume that the population is divided in,G,latent classes characterized by different risk functions for the event, and different profiles of evolution for the markers that are described by a mixed model for each class. However, the key assumption of conditional independence between the marker and the event given the latent classes is difficult to evaluate because the latent classes are not observed. Using a joint model with latent classes and shared random effects, we propose a score test for the null hypothesis of independence between the marker and the outcome given the latent classes versus the alternative hypothesis that the risk of event depends on one or several random effects from the mixed model in addition to the latent classes. A simulation study was performed to compare the behavior of the score test to other previously proposed tests, including situations where the alternative hypothesis or the baseline risk function are misspecified. In all the investigated situations, the score test was the most powerful. The methodology was applied to develop a prognostic model for recurrence of prostate cancer given the evolution of prostate-specific antigen in a cohort of patients treated by radiation therapy. [source] ## Score Tests for Exploring Complex Models: Application to HIV Dynamics Models BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010Julia DrylewiczAbstract In biostatistics, more and more complex models are being developed. This is particularly the case in system biology. Fitting complex models can be very time-consuming, since many models often have to be explored. Among the possibilities are the introduction of explanatory variables and the determination of random effects. The particularity of this use of the score test is that the null hypothesis is not itself very simple; typically, some random effects may be present under the null hypothesis. Moreover, the information matrix cannot be computed, but only an approximation based on the score. This article examines this situation with the specific example of HIV dynamics models. We examine the score test statistics for testing the effect of explanatory variables and the variance of random effect in this complex situation. We study type I errors and the statistical powers of this score test statistics and we apply the score test approach to a real data set of HIV-infected patients. [source] ## Smoothing Spline-Based Score Tests for Proportional Hazards Models BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2006Jiang LinSummary We propose "score-type" tests for the proportional hazards assumption and for covariate effects in the Cox model using the natural smoothing spline representation of the corresponding nonparametric functions of time or covariate. The tests are based on the penalized partial likelihood and are derived by viewing the inverse of the smoothing parameter as a variance component and testing an equivalent null hypothesis that the variance component is zero. We show that the tests have a size close to the nominal level and good power against general alternatives, and we apply them to data from a cancer clinical trial. [source] ## P Wave Duration and Morphology Predict Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence in Patients with Sinus Node Dysfunction and Atrial-Based Pacemaker PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 11 2002ANTONIO DE SISTIDE SISTI, A., et al.: P Wave Duration and Morphology Predict Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence in Patients with Sinus Node Dysfunction and Atrial-Based Pacemaker. P wave duration and morphology have never been systematically evaluated as markers of AF in patients with a conventional indication to pacing. This study correlated sinus P wave duration and morphology and the incidence of AF in patients with sinus node dysfunction (SND), previous history of AF before implant, and atrial-based pacemaker. Included were 140 patients (86 men, 54 women; mean age 71.8 ± 10.4 years) with recurrent paroxysmal AF and who received a DDD (128 patients) or AAI (12 patients) pacemaker for SND. Forty-nine patients had structural heart disease. Sinus P wave duration and morphology was evaluated in leads II, III. Twenty-two patients had an abnormal P wave morphology, diphasic (+/-) in 5 and notched (+/+) in 17. The basic pacemaker rate was programmed between 60 and 70 beats/min. Rate responsive function was activated in 65 patients. During a follow-up of 27.6 ± 17.8 months, AF was documented in 87 patients. Forty-four patients developed permanent AF, following at least one episode of paroxysmal AF in 26 cases. Statistical analysis used Cox model regression. Univariate predictors of AF (P < 0.10) were drugs (mean: 2 ± 1.4) and DC shock before pacing (16/140 patients), P wave duration (mean 112.5 ± 24.6 ms), basic pacemaker rate (mean 68 ± 5 beats/min), and drugs in the follow-up (mean 1.2 ± 0.94). Multivariate analysis showed that P wave duration (b = 0.013, s.e. = 0.004; P = 0.003), and drugs before pacing (b = 0.2; s.e.= 0.08; P < 0.01) resulted in a significant independent predictor of AF. Actuarial incidence of patients free of AF at 30 months was 35%: 56% in patients with a P wave < 120 ms, and 13% in those with P wave , 120 ms (P < 0.01 by Score test). Univariate predictors of permanent AF were drugs and DC shock before pacing, left atrial size (mean 39 ± 6 mm), P wave duration, abnormal P wave morphology (22/140 patients), and drugs in the follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that P wave morphology was the most important predictor of permanent AF (b = - 0.56, s.e.= 0.2; P = 0.008). Incidence of patients free of permanent AF at 30 months was 69%: 74% in patients with normal P wave, compared to 28% in the case of abnormal P wave morphology (P < 0.01). P wave duration and morphology are good markers of postpacing AF recurrence in patients with SND and an atrial-based pacemaker. This observation suggests that intra- and interatrial conduction disturbances be extensively evaluated before implantation, and the indication for atrial resynchronization procedures be reevaluated. [source] ## Statistical Inference For Risk Difference in an Incomplete Correlated 2 × 2 Table BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003Nian-Sheng TangAbstract In some infectious disease studies and 2-step treatment studies, 2 × 2 table with structural zero could arise in situations where it is theoretically impossible for a particular cell to contain observations or structural void is introduced by design. In this article, we propose a score test of hypotheses pertaining to the marginal and conditional probabilities in a 2 × 2 table with structural zero via the risk/rate difference measure. Score test-based confidence interval will also be outlined. We evaluate the performance of the score test and the existing likelihood ratio test. Our empirical results evince the similar and satisfactory performance of the two tests (with appropriate adjustments) in terms of coverage probability and expected interval width. Both tests consistently perform well from small- to moderate-sample designs. The score test however has the advantage that it is only undefined in one scenario while the likelihood ratio test can be undefined in many scenarios. We illustrate our method by a real example from a two-step tuberculosis skin test study. [source] ## Score tests for heterogeneity and overdispersion in zero-inflated Poisson and binomial regression models THE CANADIAN JOURNAL OF STATISTICS, Issue 3 2002Daniel B. HallAbstract Hall (2000) has described zero-inflated Poisson and binomial regression models that include random effects to account for excess zeros and additional sources of heterogeneity in the data. The authors of the present paper propose a general score test for the null hypothesis that variance components associated with these random effects are zero. For a zero-inflated Poisson model with random intercept, the new test reduces to an alternative to the overdispersion test of Ridout, Demério & Hinde (2001). The authors also examine their general test in the special case of the zero-inflated binomial model with random intercept and propose an overdispersion test in that context which is based on a beta-binomial alternative. Tests scores d'hétérogénéité et de surdispersion dans des modéles de régression binomiaux et de Poisson avec surplus de zéros Hall (2000) a décrit des modèles de régression binomiaux et de Poisson dans lesquels des effets aléatoires servent à expliquer certaines sources d' hétérogénéité dans les données, dont un surplus de zéros. Les auteurs du présent article proposent un test score général permettant de vérifier si les composantes de la variance associées à ces effets aléatoires sont nulles. Pour un modèle de Poisson à surplus de zéros et à ordonnée aléatoire, le nouveau test se compare au test de surdispersion de Ridout, Demétrio & Hinde (2001). Les auteurs étudient en outre leur test général dans le cadre du modèle binomial à surplus de zéros et à ordonnée aléatoire, pour lequel ils proposent un test de surdispersion adapté à des contre-hypothèses de type b,ta-binomial. [source] ## Relationships Among Tests for Censored Data BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005Emilio LetónAbstract In this paper we will give the relationships of several Score tests and Weighted tests for right censoring data with other classical tests. Special care will be taken with the case of ties and with the kind of estimation of the variance used. After the description of ten tests, a comparative study will be made among them. Finally, an application with a real example will be included. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## A Conditional Likelihood Ratio Test for Structural Models ECONOMETRICA, Issue 4 2003Marcelo J. MoreiraThis paper develops a general method for constructing exactly similar tests based on the conditional distribution of nonpivotal statistics in a simultaneous equations model with normal errors and known reduced-form covariance matrix. These tests are shown to be similar under weak-instrument asymptotics when the reduced-form covariance matrix is estimated and the errors are non-normal. The conditional test based on the likelihood ratio statistic is particularly simple and has good power properties. Like the score test, it is optimal under the usual local-to-null asymptotics, but it has better power when identification is weak. [source] ## Asymptotic tests of association with multiple SNPs in linkage disequilibrium GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009Wei PanAbstract We consider detecting associations between a trait and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium (LD). To maximize the use of information contained in multiple SNPs while minimizing the cost of large degrees of freedom (DF) in testing multiple parameters, we first theoretically explore the sum test derived under a working assumption of a common association strength between the trait and each SNP, testing on the corresponding parameter with only one DF. Under the scenarios that the association strengths between the trait and the SNPs are close to each other (and in the same direction), as considered by Wang and Elston [Am. J. Hum. Genet. [2007] 80:353,360], we show with simulated data that the sum test was powerful as compared to several existing tests; otherwise, the sum test might have much reduced power. To overcome the limitation of the sum test, based on our theoretical analysis of the sum test, we propose five new tests that are closely related to each other and are shown to consistently perform similarly well across a wide range of scenarios. We point out the close connection of the proposed tests to the Goeman test. Furthermore, we derive the asymptotic distributions of the proposed tests so that P -values can be easily calculated, in contrast to the use of computationally demanding permutations or simulations for the Goeman test. A distinguishing feature of the five new tests is their use of a diagonal working covariance matrix, rather than a full covariance matrix as used in the usual Wald or score test. We recommend the routine use of two of the new tests, along with several other tests, to detect disease associations with multiple linked SNPs. Genet. Epidemiol. 33:497,507, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## A unified framework for transmission-disequilibrium test analysis of discrete and continuous traits GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002Ying LiuAbstract This paper presents a unified framework for transmission-disequilibrium tests for discrete and continuous traits. A conditional score test is derived that maximizes power to detect small effects for any exponential family distribution, which includes binary and normal distributions, and distributions that are skewed or have non-normal kurtosis. The specific distributional form need not be specified, and the method applies to sibships of arbitrary size. Formulas for the distribution of the test statistic are given for models including complex genetic effects (additive, dominant, and recessive gene action), covariates, multiple gene models including gene-gene interactions or heterogeneity, and gene-environment interactions. We develop refinements of our method for trait-based sampling designs and multiple siblings that can have dramatic effects on power. Genet. Epidemiol. 22:26,40, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## Power and robustness of a score test for linkage analysis of quantitative traits using identity by descent data on sib pairs GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 4 2001Darlene R. GoldsteinAbstract Identification of genes involved in complex traits by traditional (lod score) linkage analysis is difficult due to many complicating factors. An unfortunate drawback of non-parametric procedures in general, though, is their low power to detect genetic effects. Recently, Dudoit and Speed [2000] proposed using a (likelihood-based) score test for detecting linkage with IBD data on sib pairs. This method uses the likelihood for ,, the recombination fraction between a trait locus and a marker locus, conditional on the phenotypes of the two sibs to test the null hypothesis of no linkage (, = ½). Although a genetic model must be specified, the approach offers several advantages. This paper presents results of simulation studies characterizing the power and robustness properties of this score test for linkage, and compares the power of the test to the Haseman-Elston and modified Haseman-Elston tests. The score test is seen to have impressively high power across a broad range of true and assumed models, particularly under multiple ascertainment. Assuming an additive model with a moderate allele frequency, in the range of p = 0.2 to 0.5, along with heritability H = 0.3 and a moderate residual correlation , = 0.2 resulted in a very good overall performance across a wide range of trait-generating models. Generally, our results indicate that this score test for linkage offers a high degree of protection against wrong assumptions due to its strong robustness when used with the recommended additive model. Genet. Epidemiol. 20:415,431, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## A score test for non-nested hypotheses with applications to discrete data models JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMETRICS, Issue 5 2001J. M. C. Santos SilvaIn this paper it is shown that a convenient score test against non-nested alternatives can be constructed from the linear combination of the likelihood functions of the competing models. This is essentially a test for the correct specification of the conditional distribution of the variable of interest. Given its characteristics, the proposed test is particularly attractive to check the distributional assumptions in models for discrete data. The usefulness of the test is illustrated with an application to models for recreational boating trips. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Semiparametric inference on a class of Wiener processes JOURNAL OF TIME SERIES ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2009Xiao WangAbstract., This article studies the estimation of a nonhomogeneous Wiener process model for degradation data. A pseudo-likelihood method is proposed to estimate the unknown parameters. An attractive algorithm is established to compute the estimator under this pseudo-likelihood formulation. We establish the asymptotic properties of the estimator, including consistency, convergence rate and asymptotic distribution. Random effects can be incorporated into the model to represent the heterogeneity of degradation paths by letting the mean function be random. The Wiener process model is extended naturally to a normal inverse Gaussian process model and similar pseudo-likelihood inference is developed. A score test is used to test the presence of the random effects. Simulation studies are conducted to validate the method and we apply our method to a real data set in the area of health structure monitoring. [source] ## Score tests for heterogeneity and overdispersion in zero-inflated Poisson and binomial regression models THE CANADIAN JOURNAL OF STATISTICS, Issue 3 2002Daniel B. HallAbstract Hall (2000) has described zero-inflated Poisson and binomial regression models that include random effects to account for excess zeros and additional sources of heterogeneity in the data. The authors of the present paper propose a general score test for the null hypothesis that variance components associated with these random effects are zero. For a zero-inflated Poisson model with random intercept, the new test reduces to an alternative to the overdispersion test of Ridout, Demério & Hinde (2001). The authors also examine their general test in the special case of the zero-inflated binomial model with random intercept and propose an overdispersion test in that context which is based on a beta-binomial alternative. Tests scores d'hétérogénéité et de surdispersion dans des modéles de régression binomiaux et de Poisson avec surplus de zéros Hall (2000) a décrit des modèles de régression binomiaux et de Poisson dans lesquels des effets aléatoires servent à expliquer certaines sources d' hétérogénéité dans les données, dont un surplus de zéros. Les auteurs du présent article proposent un test score général permettant de vérifier si les composantes de la variance associées à ces effets aléatoires sont nulles. Pour un modèle de Poisson à surplus de zéros et à ordonnée aléatoire, le nouveau test se compare au test de surdispersion de Ridout, Demétrio & Hinde (2001). Les auteurs étudient en outre leur test général dans le cadre du modèle binomial à surplus de zéros et à ordonnée aléatoire, pour lequel ils proposent un test de surdispersion adapté à des contre-hypothèses de type b,ta-binomial. [source] ## A Regression-based Association Test for Case-control Studies that Uses Inferred Ancestral Haplotype Similarity ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 5 2009Youfang LiuSummary Association methods based on haplotype similarity (HS) can overcome power and stability issues encountered in standard haplotype analyses. Current HS methods can be generally classified into evolutionary and two-sample approaches. We propose a new regression-based HS association method for case-control studies that incorporates covariate information and combines the advantages of the two classes of approaches by using inferred ancestral haplotypes. We first estimate the ancestral haplotypes of case individuals and then, for each individual, an ancestral-haplotype-based similarity score is computed by comparing that individual's observed genotype with the estimated ancestral haplotypes. Trait values are then regressed on the similarity scores. Covariates can easily be incorporated into this regression framework. To account for the bias in the raw p-values due to the use of case data in constructing ancestral haplotypes, as well as to account for variation in ancestral haplotype estimation, a permutation procedure is adopted to obtain empirical p-values. Compared with the standard haplotype score test and the multilocus T2 test, our method improves power when neither the allele frequency nor linkage disequilibrium between the disease locus and its neighboring SNPs is too low and is comparable in other scenarios. We applied our method to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 simulated SNP data and successfully pinpointed a stretch of SNPs that covers the fine-scale region where the causal locus is located. [source] ## European Mathematical Genetics Meeting, Heidelberg, Germany, 12th,13th April 2007 ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 4 2007Article first published online: 28 MAY 200Saurabh Ghosh 11 Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India High correlations between two quantitative traits may be either due to common genetic factors or common environmental factors or a combination of both. In this study, we develop statistical methods to extract the contribution of a common QTL to the total correlation between the components of a bivariate phenotype. Using data on bivariate phenotypes and marker genotypes for sib-pairs, we propose a test for linkage between a common QTL and a marker locus based on the conditional cross-sib trait correlations (trait 1 of sib 1 , trait 2 of sib 2 and conversely) given the identity-by-descent sharing at the marker locus. The null hypothesis cannot be rejected unless there exists a common QTL. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed test under different trait parameters and quantitative trait distributions. An application of the method is illustrated using data on two alcohol-related phenotypes from the Collaborative Study On The Genetics Of Alcoholism project. Rémi Kazma 1 , Catherine Bonaïti-Pellié 1 , Emmanuelle Génin 12 INSERM UMR-S535 and Université Paris Sud, Villejuif, 94817, France Keywords: Gene-environment interaction, sibling recurrence risk, exposure correlation Gene-environment interactions may play important roles in complex disease susceptibility but their detection is often difficult. Here we show how gene-environment interactions can be detected by investigating the degree of familial aggregation according to the exposure of the probands. In case of gene-environment interaction, the distribution of genotypes of affected individuals, and consequently the risk in relatives, depends on their exposure. We developed a test comparing the risks in sibs according to the proband exposure. To evaluate the properties of this new test, we derived the formulas for calculating the expected risks in sibs according to the exposure of probands for various values of exposure frequency, relative risk due to exposure alone, frequencies of latent susceptibility genotypes, genetic relative risks and interaction coefficients. We find that the ratio of risks when the proband is exposed and not exposed is a good indicator of the interaction effect. We evaluate the power of the test for various sample sizes of affected individuals. We conclude that this test is valuable for diseases with moderate familial aggregation, only when the role of the exposure has been clearly evidenced. Since a correlation for exposure among sibs might lead to a difference in risks among sibs in the different proband exposure strata, we also add an exposure correlation coefficient in the model. Interestingly, we find that when this correlation is correctly accounted for, the power of the test is not decreased and might even be significantly increased. Andrea Callegaro 1 , Hans J.C. Van Houwelingen 1 , Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat 13 Dept. of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands Keywords: Survival analysis, age at onset, score test, linkage analysis Non parametric linkage (NPL) analysis compares the identical by descent (IBD) sharing in sibling pairs to the expected IBD sharing under the hypothesis of no linkage. Often information is available on the marginal cumulative hazards (for example breast cancer incidence curves). Our aim is to extend the NPL methods by taking into account the age at onset of selected sibling pairs using these known marginal hazards. Li and Zhong (2002) proposed a (retrospective) likelihood ratio test based on an additive frailty model for genetic linkage analysis. From their model we derive a score statistic for selected samples which turns out to be a weighed NPL method. The weights depend on the marginal cumulative hazards and on the frailty parameter. A second approach is based on a simple gamma shared frailty model. Here, we simply test whether the score function of the frailty parameter depends on the excess IBD. We compare the performance of these methods using simulated data. Céline Bellenguez 1 , Carole Ober 2 , Catherine Bourgain 14 INSERM U535 and University Paris Sud, Villejuif, France 5 Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, USA Keywords: Linkage analysis, linkage disequilibrium, high density SNP data Compared with microsatellite markers, high density SNP maps should be more informative for linkage analyses. However, because they are much closer, SNPs present important linkage disequilibrium (LD), which biases classical nonparametric multipoint analyses. This problem is even stronger in population isolates where LD extends over larger regions with a more stochastic pattern. We investigate the issue of linkage analysis with a 500K SNP map in a large and inbred 1840-member Hutterite pedigree, phenotyped for asthma. Using an efficient pedigree breaking strategy, we first identified linked regions with a 5cM microsatellite map, on which we focused to evaluate the SNP map. The only method that models LD in the NPL analysis is limited in both the pedigree size and the number of markers (Abecasis and Wigginton, 2005) and therefore could not be used. Instead, we studied methods that identify sets of SNPs with maximum linkage information content in our pedigree and no LD-driven bias. Both algorithms that directly remove pairs of SNPs in high LD and clustering methods were evaluated. Null simulations were performed to control that Zlr calculated with the SNP sets were not falsely inflated. Preliminary results suggest that although LD is strong in such populations, linkage information content slightly better than that of microsatellite maps can be extracted from dense SNP maps, provided that a careful marker selection is conducted. In particular, we show that the specific LD pattern requires considering LD between a wide range of marker pairs rather than only in predefined blocks. Peter Van Loo 1,2,3 , Stein Aerts 1,2 , Diether Lambrechts 4,5 , Bernard Thienpont 2 , Sunit Maity 4,5 , Bert Coessens 3 , Frederik De Smet 4,5 , Leon-Charles Tranchevent 3 , Bart De Moor 2 , Koen Devriendt 3 , Peter Marynen 1,2 , Bassem Hassan 1,2 , Peter Carmeliet 4,5 , Yves Moreau 36 Department of Molecular and Developmental Genetics, VIB, Belgium 7 Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven, Belgium 8 Bioinformatics group, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Leuven, Belgium 9 Department of Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, VIB, Belgium 10 Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, University of Leuven, Belgium Keywords: Bioinformatics, gene prioritization, data fusion The identification of genes involved in health and disease remains a formidable challenge. Here, we describe a novel bioinformatics method to prioritize candidate genes underlying pathways or diseases, based on their similarity to genes known to be involved in these processes. It is freely accessible as an interactive software tool, ENDEAVOUR, at http://www.esat.kuleuven.be/endeavour. Unlike previous methods, ENDEAVOUR generates distinct prioritizations from multiple heterogeneous data sources, which are then integrated, or fused, into one global ranking using order statistics. ENDEAVOUR prioritizes candidate genes in a three-step process. First, information about a disease or pathway is gathered from a set of known "training" genes by consulting multiple data sources. Next, the candidate genes are ranked based on similarity with the training properties obtained in the first step, resulting in one prioritized list for each data source. Finally, ENDEAVOUR fuses each of these rankings into a single global ranking, providing an overall prioritization of the candidate genes. Validation of ENDEAVOUR revealed it was able to efficiently prioritize 627 genes in disease data sets and 76 genes in biological pathway sets, identify candidates of 16 mono- or polygenic diseases, and discover regulatory genes of myeloid differentiation. Furthermore, the approach identified YPEL1 as a novel gene involved in craniofacial development from a 2-Mb chromosomal region, deleted in some patients with DiGeorge-like birth defects. Finally, we are currently evaluating a pipeline combining array-CGH, ENDEAVOUR and in vivo validation in zebrafish to identify novel genes involved in congenital heart defects. Mark Broom 1 , Graeme Ruxton 2 , Rebecca Kilner 311 Mathematics Dept., University of Sussex, UK 12 Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Glasgow, UK 13 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK Keywords: Evolutionarily stable strategy, parasitism, asymmetric game Brood parasites chicks vary in the harm that they do to their companions in the nest. In this presentation we use game-theoretic methods to model this variation. Our model considers hosts which potentially abandon single nestlings and instead choose to re-allocate their reproductive effort to future breeding, irrespective of whether the abandoned chick is the host's young or a brood parasite's. The parasite chick must decide whether or not to kill host young by balancing the benefits from reduced competition in the nest against the risk of desertion by host parents. The model predicts that three different types of evolutionarily stable strategies can exist. (1) Hosts routinely rear depleted broods, the brood parasite always kills host young and the host never then abandons the nest. (2) When adult survival after deserting single offspring is very high, hosts always abandon broods of a single nestling and the parasite never kills host offspring, effectively holding them as hostages to prevent nest desertion. (3) Intermediate strategies, in which parasites sometimes kill their nest-mates and host parents sometimes desert nests that contain only a single chick, can also be evolutionarily stable. We provide quantitative descriptions of how the values given to ecological and behavioral parameters of the host-parasite system influence the likelihood of each strategy and compare our results with real host-brood parasite associations in nature. Martin Harrison 114 Mathematics Dept, University of Sussex, UK Keywords: Brood parasitism, games, host, parasite The interaction between hosts and parasites in bird populations has been studied extensively. Game theoretical methods have been used to model this interaction previously, but this has not been studied extensively taking into account the sequential nature of this game. We consider a model allowing the host and parasite to make a number of decisions, which depend on a number of natural factors. The host lays an egg, a parasite bird will arrive at the nest with a certain probability and then chooses to destroy a number of the host eggs and lay one of it's own. With some destruction occurring, either natural or through the actions of the parasite, the host chooses to continue, eject an egg (hoping to eject the parasite) or abandon the nest. Once the eggs have hatched the game then falls to the parasite chick versus the host. The chick chooses to destroy or eject a number of eggs. The final decision is made by the host, choosing whether to raise or abandon the chicks that are in the nest. We consider various natural parameters and probabilities which influence these decisions. We then use this model to look at real-world situations of the interactions of the Reed Warbler and two different parasites, the Common Cuckoo and the Brown-Headed Cowbird. These two parasites have different methods in the way that they parasitize the nests of their hosts. The hosts in turn have a different reaction to these parasites. Arne Jochens 1 , Amke Caliebe 2 , Uwe Roesler 1 , Michael Krawczak 215 Mathematical Seminar, University of Kiel, Germany 16 Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, University of Kiel, Germany Keywords: Stepwise mutation model, microsatellite, recursion equation, temporal behaviour We consider the stepwise mutation model which occurs, e.g., in microsatellite loci. Let X(t,i) denote the allelic state of individual i at time t. We compute expectation, variance and covariance of X(t,i), i=1,,,N, and provide a recursion equation for P(X(t,i)=z). Because the variance of X(t,i) goes to infinity as t grows, for the description of the temporal behaviour, we regard the scaled process X(t,i)-X(t,1). The results furnish a better understanding of the behaviour of the stepwise mutation model and may in future be used to derive tests for neutrality under this model. Paul O'Reilly 1 , Ewan Birney 2 , David Balding 117 Statistical Genetics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial, College London, UK 18 European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL, Cambridge, UK Keywords: Positive selection, Recombination rate, LD, Genome-wide, Natural Selection In recent years efforts to develop population genetics methods that estimate rates of recombination and levels of natural selection in the human genome have intensified. However, since the two processes have an intimately related impact on genetic variation their inference is vulnerable to confounding. Genomic regions subject to recent selection are likely to have a relatively recent common ancestor and consequently less opportunity for historical recombinations that are detectable in contemporary populations. Here we show that selection can reduce the population-based recombination rate estimate substantially. In genome-wide studies for detecting selection we observe a tendency to highlight loci that are subject to low levels of recombination. We find that the outlier approach commonly adopted in such studies may have low power unless variable recombination is accounted for. We introduce a new genome-wide method for detecting selection that exploits the sensitivity to recent selection of methods for estimating recombination rates, while accounting for variable recombination using pedigree data. Through simulations we demonstrate the high power of the Ped/Pop approach to discriminate between neutral and adaptive evolution, particularly in the context of choosing outliers from a genome-wide distribution. Although methods have been developed showing good power to detect selection ,in action', the corresponding window of opportunity is small. In contrast, the power of the Ped/Pop method is maintained for many generations after the fixation of an advantageous variant Sarah Griffiths 1 , Frank Dudbridge 120 MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK Keywords: Genetic association, multimarker tag, haplotype, likelihood analysis In association studies it is generally too expensive to genotype all variants in all subjects. We can exploit linkage disequilibrium between SNPs to select a subset that captures the variation in a training data set obtained either through direct resequencing or a public resource such as the HapMap. These ,tag SNPs' are then genotyped in the whole sample. Multimarker tagging is a more aggressive adaptation of pairwise tagging that allows for combinations of two or more tag SNPs to predict an untyped SNP. Here we describe a new method for directly testing the association of an untyped SNP using a multimarker tag. Previously, other investigators have suggested testing a specific tag haplotype, or performing a weighted analysis using weights derived from the training data. However these approaches do not properly account for the imperfect correlation between the tag haplotype and the untyped SNP. Here we describe a straightforward approach to testing untyped SNPs using a missing-data likelihood analysis, including the tag markers as nuisance parameters. The training data is stacked on top of the main body of genotype data so there is information on how the tag markers predict the genotype of the untyped SNP. The uncertainty in this prediction is automatically taken into account in the likelihood analysis. This approach yields more power and also a more accurate prediction of the odds ratio of the untyped SNP. Anke Schulz 1 , Christine Fischer 2 , Jenny Chang-Claude 1 , Lars Beckmann 121 Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany 22 Institute of Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Germany Keywords: Haplotype, haplotype sharing, entropy, Mantel statistics, marker selection We previously introduced a new method to map genes involved in complex diseases, using haplotype sharing-based Mantel statistics to correlate genetic and phenotypic similarity. Although the Mantel statistic is powerful in narrowing down candidate regions, the precise localization of a gene is hampered in genomic regions where linkage disequilibrium is so high that neighboring markers are found to be significant at similar magnitude and we are not able to discriminate between them. Here, we present a new approach to localize susceptibility genes by combining haplotype sharing-based Mantel statistics with an iterative entropy-based marker selection algorithm. For each marker at which the Mantel statistic is evaluated, the algorithm selects a subset of surrounding markers. The subset is chosen to maximize multilocus linkage disequilibrium, which is measured by the normalized entropy difference introduced by Nothnagel et al. (2002). We evaluated the algorithm with respect to type I error and power. Its ability to localize the disease variant was compared to the localization (i) without marker selection and (ii) considering haplotype block structure. Case-control samples were simulated from a set of 18 haplotypes, consisting of 15 SNPs in two haplotype blocks. The new algorithm gave correct type I error and yielded similar power to detect the disease locus compared to the alternative approaches. The neighboring markers were clearly less often significant than the causal locus, and also less often significant compared to the alternative approaches. Thus the new algorithm improved the precision of the localization of susceptibility genes. Mark M. Iles 123 Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, LIMM, University of Leeds, UK Keywords: tSNP, tagging, association, HapMap Tagging SNPs (tSNPs) are commonly used to capture genetic diversity cost-effectively. However, it is important that the efficacy of tSNPs is correctly estimated, otherwise coverage may be insufficient. If the pilot sample from which tSNPs are chosen is too small or the initial marker map too sparse, tSNP efficacy may be overestimated. An existing estimation method based on bootstrapping goes some way to correct for insufficient sample size and overfitting, but does not completely solve the problem. We describe a novel method, based on exclusion of haplotypes, that improves on the bootstrap approach. Using simulated data, the extent of the sample size problem is investigated and the performance of the bootstrap and the novel method are compared. We incorporate an existing method adjusting for marker density by ,SNP-dropping'. We find that insufficient sample size can cause large overestimates in tSNP efficacy, even with as many as 100 individuals, and the problem worsens as the region studied increases in size. Both the bootstrap and novel method correct much of this overestimate, with our novel method consistently outperforming the bootstrap method. We conclude that a combination of insufficient sample size and overfitting may lead to overestimation of tSNP efficacy and underpowering of studies based on tSNPs. Our novel approach corrects for much of this bias and is superior to the previous method. Sample sizes larger than previously suggested may still be required for accurate estimation of tSNP efficacy. This has obvious ramifications for the selection of tSNPs from HapMap data. Claudio Verzilli 1 , Juliet Chapman 1 , Aroon Hingorani 2 , Juan Pablo-Casas 1 , Tina Shah 2 , Liam Smeeth 1 , John Whittaker 124 Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK 25 Division of Medicine, University College London, UK Keywords: Meta-analysis, Genetic association studies We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for the meta-analysis of candidate gene studies with a continuous outcome. Such studies often report results from association tests for different, possibly study-specific and non-overlapping markers (typically SNPs) in the same genetic region. Meta analyses of the results at each marker in isolation are seldom appropriate as they ignore the correlation that may exist between markers due to linkage disequlibrium (LD) and cannot assess the relative importance of variants at each marker. Also such marker-wise meta analyses are restricted to only those studies that have typed the marker in question, with a potential loss of power. A better strategy is one which incorporates information about the LD between markers so that any combined estimate of the effect of each variant is corrected for the effect of other variants, as in multiple regression. Here we develop a Bayesian hierarchical linear regression that models the observed genotype group means and uses pairwise LD measurements between markers as prior information to make posterior inference on adjusted effects. The approach is applied to the meta analysis of 24 studies assessing the effect of 7 variants in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene region on plasma CRP levels, an inflammatory biomarker shown in observational studies to be positively associated with cardiovascular disease. Cathryn M. Lewis 1 , Christopher G. Mathew 1 , Theresa M. Marteau 226 Dept. of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, UK 27 Department of Psychology, King's College London, UK Keywords: Risk, genetics, CARD15, smoking, model Recently progress has been made in identifying mutations that confer susceptibility to complex diseases, with the potential to use these mutations in determining disease risk. We developed methods to estimate disease risk based on genotype relative risks (for a gene G), exposure to an environmental factor (E), and family history (with recurrence risk ,R for a relative of type R). ,R must be partitioned into the risk due to G (which is modelled independently) and the residual risk. The risk model was then applied to Crohn's disease (CD), a severe gastrointestinal disease for which smoking increases disease risk approximately 2-fold, and mutations in CARD15 confer increased risks of 2.25 (for carriers of a single mutation) and 9.3 (for carriers of two mutations). CARD15 accounts for only a small proportion of the genetic component of CD, with a gene-specific ,S, CARD15 of 1.16, from a total sibling relative risk of ,S= 27. CD risks were estimated for high-risk individuals who are siblings of a CD case, and who also smoke. The CD risk to such individuals who carry two CARD15 mutations is approximately 0.34, and for those carrying a single CARD15 mutation the risk is 0.08, compared to a population prevalence of approximately 0.001. These results imply that complex disease genes may be valuable in estimating with greater precision than has hitherto been possible disease risks in specific, easily identified subgroups of the population with a view to prevention. Yurii Aulchenko 128 Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands Keywords: Compression, information, bzip2, genome-wide SNP data, statistical genetics With advances in molecular technology, studies accessing millions of genetic polymorphisms in thousands of study subjects will soon become common. Such studies generate large amounts of data, whose effective storage and management is a challenge to the modern statistical genetics. Standard file compression utilities, such as Zip, Gzip and Bzip2, may be helpful to minimise the storage requirements. Less obvious is the fact that the data compression techniques may be also used in the analysis of genetic data. It is known that the efficiency of a particular compression algorithm depends on the probability structure of the data. In this work, we compared different standard and customised tools using the data from human HapMap project. Secondly, we investigate the potential uses of data compression techniques for the analysis of linkage, association and linkage disequilibrium Suzanne Leal 1 , Bingshan Li 129 Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA Keywords: Consanguineous pedigrees, missing genotype data Missing genotype data can increase false-positive evidence for linkage when either parametric or nonparametric analysis is carried out ignoring intermarker linkage disequilibrium (LD). Previously it was demonstrated by Huang et al (2005) that no bias occurs in this situation for affected sib-pairs with unrelated parents when either both parents are genotyped or genotype data is available for two additional unaffected siblings when parental genotypes are missing. However, this is not the case for consanguineous pedigrees, where missing genotype data for any pedigree member within a consanguinity loop can increase false-positive evidence of linkage. The false-positive evidence for linkage is further increased when cryptic consanguinity is present. The amount of false-positive evidence for linkage is highly dependent on which family members are genotyped. When parental genotype data is available, the false-positive evidence for linkage is usually not as strong as when parental genotype data is unavailable. Which family members will aid in the reduction of false-positive evidence of linkage is highly dependent on which other family members are genotyped. For a pedigree with an affected proband whose first-cousin parents have been genotyped, further reduction in the false-positive evidence of linkage can be obtained by including genotype data from additional affected siblings of the proband or genotype data from the proband's sibling-grandparents. When parental genotypes are not available, false-positive evidence for linkage can be reduced by including in the analysis genotype data from either unaffected siblings of the proband or the proband's married-in-grandparents. Najaf Amin 1 , Yurii Aulchenko 130 Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands Keywords: Genomic Control, pedigree structure, quantitative traits The Genomic Control (GC) method was originally developed to control for population stratification and cryptic relatedness in association studies. This method assumes that the effect of population substructure on the test statistics is essentially constant across the genome, and therefore unassociated markers can be used to estimate the effect of confounding onto the test statistic. The properties of GC method were extensively investigated for different stratification scenarios, and compared to alternative methods, such as the transmission-disequilibrium test. The potential of this method to correct not for occasional cryptic relations, but for regular pedigree structure, however, was not investigated before. In this work we investigate the potential of the GC method for pedigree-based association analysis of quantitative traits. The power and type one error of the method was compared to standard methods, such as the measured genotype (MG) approach and quantitative trait transmission-disequilibrium test. In human pedigrees, with trait heritability varying from 30 to 80%, the power of MG and GC approach was always higher than that of TDT. GC had correct type 1 error and its power was close to that of MG under moderate heritability (30%), but decreased with higher heritability. William Astle 1 , Chris Holmes 2 , David Balding 131 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK 32 Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, UK Keywords: Population structure, association studies, genetic epidemiology, statistical genetics In the analysis of population association studies, Genomic Control (Devlin & Roeder, 1999) (GC) adjusts the Armitage test statistic to correct the type I error for the effects of population substructure, but its power is often sub-optimal. Turbo Genomic Control (TGC) generalises GC to incorporate co-variation of relatedness and phenotype, retaining control over type I error while improving power. TGC is similar to the method of Yu et al. (2006), but we extend it to binary (case-control) in addition to quantitative phenotypes, we implement improved estimation of relatedness coefficients, and we derive an explicit statistic that generalizes the Armitage test statistic and is fast to compute. TGC also has similarities to EIGENSTRAT (Price et al., 2006) which is a new method based on principle components analysis. The problems of population structure(Clayton et al., 2005) and cryptic relatedness (Voight & Pritchard, 2005) are essentially the same: if patterns of shared ancestry differ between cases and controls, whether distant (coancestry) or recent (cryptic relatedness), false positives can arise and power can be diminished. With large numbers of widely-spaced genetic markers, coancestry can now be measured accurately for each pair of individuals via patterns of allele-sharing. Instead of modelling subpopulations, we work instead with a coancestry coefficient for each pair of individuals in the study. We explain the relationships between TGC, GC and EIGENSTRAT. We present simulation studies and real data analyses to illustrate the power advantage of TGC in a range of scenarios incorporating both substructure and cryptic relatedness. References Clayton, D. G.et al. (2005) Population structure, differential bias and genomic control in a large-scale case-control association study. Nature Genetics37(11) November 2005. Devlin, B. & Roeder, K. (1999) Genomic control for association studies. Biometics55(4) December 1999. Price, A. L.et al. (2006) Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies. Nature Genetics38(8) (August 2006). Voight, B. J. & Pritchard, J. K. (2005) Confounding from cryptic relatedness in case-control association studies. Public Library of Science Genetics1(3) September 2005. Yu, J.et al. (2006) A unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. Nature Genetics38(2) February 2006. Hervé Perdry 1 , Marie-Claude Babron 1 , Françoise Clerget-Darpoux 133 INSERM U535 and Univ. Paris Sud, UMR-S 535, Villejuif, France Keywords: Modifier genes, case-parents trios, ordered transmission disequilibrium test A modifying locus is a polymorphic locus, distinct from the disease locus, which leads to differences in the disease phenotype, either by modifying the penetrance of the disease allele, or by modifying the expression of the disease. The effect of such a locus is a clinical heterogeneity that can be reflected by the values of an appropriate covariate, such as the age of onset, or the severity of the disease. We designed the Ordered Transmission Disequilibrium Test (OTDT) to test for a relation between the clinical heterogeneity, expressed by the covariate, and marker genotypes of a candidate gene. The method applies to trio families with one affected child and his parents. Each family member is genotyped at a bi-allelic marker M of a candidate gene. To each of the families is associated a covariate value; the families are ordered on the values of this covariate. As the TDT (Spielman et al. 1993), the OTDT is based on the observation of the transmission rate T of a given allele at M. The OTDT aims to find a critical value of the covariate which separates the sample of families in two subsamples in which the transmission rates are significantly different. We investigate the power of the method by simulations under various genetic models and covariate distributions. Acknowledgments H Perdry is funded by ARSEP. Pascal Croiseau 1 , Heather Cordell 2 , Emmanuelle Génin 134 INSERM U535 and University Paris Sud, UMR-S535, Villejuif, France 35 Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle University, UK Keywords: Association, missing data, conditionnal logistic regression Missing data is an important problem in association studies. Several methods used to test for association need that individuals be genotyped at the full set of markers. Individuals with missing data need to be excluded from the analysis. This could involve an important decrease in sample size and a loss of information. If the disease susceptibility locus (DSL) is poorly typed, it is also possible that a marker in linkage disequilibrium gives a stronger association signal than the DSL. One may then falsely conclude that the marker is more likely to be the DSL. We recently developed a Multiple Imputation method to infer missing data on case-parent trios Starting from the observed data, a few number of complete data sets are generated by Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach. These complete datasets are analysed using standard statistical package and the results are combined as described in Little & Rubin (2002). Here we report the results of simulations performed to examine, for different patterns of missing data, how often the true DSL gives the highest association score among different loci in LD. We found that multiple imputation usually correctly detect the DSL site even if the percentage of missing data is high. This is not the case for the naïve approach that consists in discarding trios with missing data. In conclusion, Multiple imputation presents the advantage of being easy to use and flexible and is therefore a promising tool in the search for DSL involved in complex diseases. Salma Kotti 1 , Heike Bickeböller 2 , Françoise Clerget-Darpoux 136 University Paris Sud, UMR-S535, Villejuif, France 37 Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Göttingen, Germany Keywords: Genotype relative risk, internal controls, Family based analyses Family based analyses using internal controls are very popular both for detecting the effect of a genetic factor and for estimating the relative disease risk on the corresponding genotypes. Two different procedures are often applied to reconstitute internal controls. The first one considers one pseudocontrol genotype formed by the parental non-transmitted alleles called also 1:1 matching of alleles, while the second corresponds to three pseudocontrols corresponding to all genotypes formed by the parental alleles except the one of the case (1:3 matching). Many studies have compared between the two procedures in terms of the power and have concluded that the difference depends on the underlying genetic model and the allele frequencies. However, the estimation of the Genotype Relative Risk (GRR) under the two procedures has not been studied. Based on the fact that on the 1:1 matching, the control group is composed of the alleles untransmitted to the affected child and on the 1:3 matching, the control group is composed amongst alleles already transmitted to the affected child, we expect a difference on the GRR estimation. In fact, we suspect that the second procedure leads to biased estimation of the GRRs. We will analytically derive the GRR estimators for the 1:1 and 1:3 matching and will present the results at the meeting. Family based analyses using internal controls are very popular both for detecting the effect of a genetic factor and for estimating the relative disease risk on the corresponding genotypes. Two different procedures are often applied to reconstitute internal controls. The first one considers one pseudocontrol genotype formed by the parental non-transmitted alleles called also 1:1 matching of alleles, while the second corresponds to three pseudocontrols corresponding to all genotypes formed by the parental alleles except the one of the case (1:3 matching). Many studies have compared between the two procedures in terms of the power and have concluded that the difference depends on the underlying genetic model and the allele frequencies. However, the estimation of the Genotype Relative Risk (GRR) under the two procedures has not been studied. Based on the fact that on the 1:1 matching, the control group is composed of the alleles untransmitted to the affected child and on the 1:3 matching, the control group is composed amongst alleles already transmitted to the affected child, we expect a difference on the GRR estimation. In fact, we suspect that the second procedure leads to biased estimation of the GRR. We will analytically derive the GRR estimator for the 1:1 and 1:3 matching and will present the results at the meeting. Luigi Palla 1 , David Siegmund 239 Department of Mathematics,Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands 40 Department of Statistics, Stanford University, California, USA Keywords: TDT, assortative mating, inbreeding, statistical power A substantial amount of Assortative Mating (AM) is often recorded on physical and psychological, dichotomous as well as quantitative traits that are supposed to have a multifactorial genetic component. In particular AM has the effect of increasing the genetic variance, even more than inbreeding because it acts across loci beside within loci, when the trait has a multifactorial origin. Under the assumption of a polygenic model for AM dating back to Wright (1921) and refined by Crow and Felsenstein (1968,1982), the effect of assortative mating on the power to detect genetic association in the Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) is explored as parameters, such as the effective number of genes and the allelic frequency vary. The power is reflected by the non centrality parameter of the TDT and is expressed as a function of the number of trios, the relative risk of the heterozygous genotype and the allele frequency (Siegmund and Yakir, 2007). The noncentrality parameter of the relevant score statistic is updated considering the effect of AM which is expressed in terms of an ,effective' inbreeding coefficient. In particular, for dichotomous traits it is apparent that the higher the number of genes involved in the trait, the lower the loss in power due to AM. Finally an attempt is made to extend this relation to the Q-TDT (Rabinowitz, 1997), which involves considering the effect of AM also on the phenotypic variance of the trait of interest, under the assumption that AM affects only its additive genetic component. References Crow, & Felsenstein, (1968). The effect of assortative mating on the genetic composition of a population. Eugen.Quart.15, 87,97. Rabinowitz,, 1997. A Transmission Disequilibrium Test for Quantitative Trait Loci. Human Heredity47, 342,350. Siegmund, & Yakir, (2007) Statistics of gene mapping, Springer. Wright, (1921). System of mating.III. Assortative mating based on somatic resemblance. Genetics6, 144,161. Jérémie Nsengimana 1 , Ben D Brown 2 , Alistair S Hall 2 , Jenny H Barrett 141 Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, UK 42 Leeds Institute for Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, UK Keywords: Inflammatory genes, haplotype, coronary artery disease Genetic Risk of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) is an initiative to collect cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) and their unaffected siblings in the UK and to use them to map genetic variants increasing disease risk. The aim of the present study was to test the association between CAD and 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes from 35 inflammatory genes. Genotype data were available for 1154 persons affected before age 66 (including 48% before age 50) and their 1545 unaffected siblings (891 discordant families). Each SNP was tested for association to CAD, and haplotypes within genes or gene clusters were tested using FBAT (Rabinowitz & Laird, 2000). For the most significant results, genetic effect size was estimated using conditional logistic regression (CLR) within STATA adjusting for other risk factors. Haplotypes were assigned using HAPLORE (Zhang et al., 2005), which considers all parental mating types consistent with offspring genotypes and assigns them a probability of occurence. This probability was used in CLR to weight the haplotypes. In the single SNP analysis, several SNPs showed some evidence for association, including one SNP in the interleukin-1A gene. Analysing haplotypes in the interleukin-1 gene cluster, a common 3-SNP haplotype was found to increase the risk of CAD (P = 0.009). In an additive genetic model adjusting for covariates the odds ratio (OR) for this haplotype is 1.56 (95% CI: 1.16-2.10, p = 0.004) for early-onset CAD (before age 50). This study illustrates the utility of haplotype analysis in family-based association studies to investigate candidate genes. References Rabinowitz, D. & Laird, N. M. (2000) Hum Hered50, 211,223. Zhang, K., Sun, F. & Zhao, H. (2005) Bioinformatics21, 90,103. Andrea Foulkes 1 , Recai Yucel 1 , Xiaohong Li 143 Division of Biostatistics, University of Massachusetts, USA Keywords: Haploytpe, high-dimensional, mixed modeling The explosion of molecular level information coupled with large epidemiological studies presents an exciting opportunity to uncover the genetic underpinnings of complex diseases; however, several analytical challenges remain to be addressed. Characterizing the components to complex diseases inevitably requires consideration of synergies across multiple genetic loci and environmental and demographic factors. In addition, it is critical to capture information on allelic phase, that is whether alleles within a gene are in cis (on the same chromosome) or in trans (on different chromosomes.) In associations studies of unrelated individuals, this alignment of alleles within a chromosomal copy is generally not observed. We address the potential ambiguity in allelic phase in this high dimensional data setting using mixed effects models. Both a semi-parametric and fully likelihood-based approach to estimation are considered to account for missingness in cluster identifiers. In the first case, we apply a multiple imputation procedure coupled with a first stage expectation maximization algorithm for parameter estimation. A bootstrap approach is employed to assess sensitivity to variability induced by parameter estimation. Secondly, a fully likelihood-based approach using an expectation conditional maximization algorithm is described. Notably, these models allow for characterizing high-order gene-gene interactions while providing a flexible statistical framework to account for the confounding or mediating role of person specific covariates. The proposed method is applied to data arising from a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals at risk for therapy associated dyslipidemia. Simulation studies demonstrate reasonable power and control of family-wise type 1 error rates. Vivien Marquard 1 , Lars Beckmann 1 , Jenny Chang-Claude 144 Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany Keywords: Genotyping errors, type I error, haplotype-based association methods It has been shown in several simulation studies that genotyping errors may have a great impact on the type I error of statistical methods used in genetic association analysis of complex diseases. Our aim was to investigate type I error rates in a case-control study, when differential and non-differential genotyping errors were introduced in realistic scenarios. We simulated case-control data sets, where individual genotypes were drawn from a haplotype distribution of 18 haplotypes with 15 markers in the APM1 gene. Genotyping errors were introduced following the unrestricted and symmetric with 0 edges error models described by Heid et al. (2006). In six scenarios, errors resulted from changes of one allele to another with predefined probabilities of 1%, 2.5% or 10%, respectively. A multiple number of errors per haplotype was possible and could vary between 0 and 15, the number of markers investigated. We examined three association methods: Mantel statistics using haplotype-sharing; a haplotype-specific score test; and Armitage trend test for single markers. The type I error rates were not influenced for any of all the three methods for a genotyping error rate of less than 1%. For higher error rates and differential errors, the type I error of the Mantel statistic was only slightly and of the Armitage trend test moderately increased. The type I error rates of the score test were highly increased. The type I error rates were correct for all three methods for non-differential errors. Further investigations will be carried out with different frequencies of differential error rates and focus on power. Arne Neumann 1 , Dörthe Malzahn 1 , Martina Müller 2 , Heike Bickeböller 145 Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Göttingen, Germany 46 GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg & IBE-Institute of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University München, Germany Keywords: Interaction, longitudinal, nonparametric Longitudinal data show the time dependent course of phenotypic traits. In this contribution, we consider longitudinal cohort studies and investigate the association between two candidate genes and a dependent quantitative longitudinal phenotype. The set-up defines a factorial design which allows us to test simultaneously for the overall gene effect of the loci as well as for possible gene-gene and gene time interaction. The latter would induce genetically based time-profile differences in the longitudinal phenotype. We adopt a non-parametric statistical test to genetic epidemiological cohort studies and investigate its performance by simulation studies. The statistical test was originally developed for longitudinal clinical studies (Brunner, Munzel, Puri, 1999 J Multivariate Anal 70:286-317). It is non-parametric in the sense that no assumptions are made about the underlying distribution of the quantitative phenotype. Longitudinal observations belonging to the same individual can be arbitrarily dependent on one another for the different time points whereas trait observations of different individuals are independent. The two loci are assumed to be statistically independent. Our simulations show that the nonparametric test is comparable with ANOVA in terms of power of detecting gene-gene and gene-time interaction in an ANOVA favourable setting. Rebecca Hein 1 , Lars Beckmann 1 , Jenny Chang-Claude 147 Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany Keywords: Indirect association studies, interaction effects, linkage disequilibrium, marker allele frequency Association studies accounting for gene-environment interactions (GxE) may be useful for detecting genetic effects and identifying important environmental effect modifiers. Current technology facilitates very dense marker spacing in genetic association studies; however, the true disease variant(s) may not be genotyped. In this situation, an association between a gene and a phenotype may still be detectable, using genetic markers associated with the true disease variant(s) (indirect association). Zondervan and Cardon [2004] showed that the odds ratios (OR) of markers which are associated with the disease variant depend highly on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the variant and the markers, and whether the allele frequencies match and thereby influence the sample size needed to detect genetic association. We examined the influence of LD and allele frequencies on the sample size needed to detect GxE in indirect association studies, and provide tables for sample size estimation. For discordant allele frequencies and incomplete LD, sample sizes can be unfeasibly large. The influence of both factors is stronger for disease loci with small rather than moderate to high disease allele frequencies. A decline in D' of e.g. 5% has less impact on sample size than increasing the difference in allele frequencies by the same percentage. Assuming 80% power, large interaction effects can be detected using smaller sample sizes than those needed for the detection of main effects. The detection of interaction effects involving rare alleles may not be possible. Focussing only on marker density can be a limited strategy in indirect association studies for GxE. Cyril Dalmasso 1 , Emmanuelle Génin 2 , Catherine Bourgain 2 , Philippe Broët 148 JE 2492 , Univ. Paris-Sud, France 49 INSERM UMR-S 535 and University Paris Sud, Villejuif, France Keywords: Linkage analysis, Multiple testing, False Discovery Rate, Mixture model In the context of genome-wide linkage analyses, where a large number of statistical tests are simultaneously performed, the False Discovery Rate (FDR) that is defined as the expected proportion of false discoveries among all discoveries is nowadays widely used for taking into account the multiple testing problem. Other related criteria have been considered such as the local False Discovery Rate (lFDR) that is a variant of the FDR giving to each test its own measure of significance. The lFDR is defined as the posterior probability that a null hypothesis is true. Most of the proposed methods for estimating the lFDR or the FDR rely on distributional assumption under the null hypothesis. However, in observational studies, the empirical null distribution may be very different from the theoretical one. In this work, we propose a mixture model based approach that provides estimates of the lFDR and the FDR in the context of large-scale variance component linkage analyses. In particular, this approach allows estimating the empirical null distribution, this latter being a key quantity for any simultaneous inference procedure. The proposed method is applied on a real dataset. Arief Gusnanto 1 , Frank Dudbridge 150 MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge UK Keywords: Significance, genome-wide, association, permutation, multiplicity Genome-wide association scans have introduced statistical challenges, mainly in the multiplicity of thousands of tests. The question of what constitutes a significant finding remains somewhat unresolved. Permutation testing is very time-consuming, whereas Bayesian arguments struggle to distinguish direct from indirect association. It seems attractive to summarise the multiplicity in a simple form that allows users to avoid time-consuming permutations. A standard significance level would facilitate reporting of results and reduce the need for permutation tests. This is potentially important because current scans do not have full coverage of the whole genome, and yet, the implicit multiplicity is genome-wide. We discuss some proposed summaries, with reference to the empirical null distribution of the multiple tests, approximated through a large number of random permutations. Using genome-wide data from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium, we use a sub-sampling approach with increasing density to estimate the nominal p-value to obtain family-wise significance of 5%. The results indicate that the significance level is converging to about 1e-7 as the marker spacing becomes infinitely dense. We considered the concept of an effective number of independent tests, and showed that when used in a Bonferroni correction, the number varies with the overall significance level, but is roughly constant in the region of interest. We compared several estimators of the effective number of tests, and showed that in the region of significance of interest, Patterson's eigenvalue based estimator gives approximately the right family-wise error rate. Michael Nothnagel 1 , Amke Caliebe 1 , Michael Krawczak 151 Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, University of Kiel, Germany Keywords: Association scans, Bayesian framework, posterior odds, genetic risk, multiplicative model Whole-genome association scans have been suggested to be a cost-efficient way to survey genetic variation and to map genetic disease factors. We used a Bayesian framework to investigate the posterior odds of a genuine association under multiplicative disease models. We demonstrate that the p value alone is not a sufficient means to evaluate the findings in association studies. We suggest that likelihood ratios should accompany p values in association reports. We argue, that, given the reported results of whole-genome scans, more associations should have been successfully replicated if the consistently made assumptions about considerable genetic risks were correct. We conclude that it is very likely that the vast majority of relative genetic risks are only of the order of 1.2 or lower. Clive Hoggart 1 , Maria De Iorio 1 , John Whittakker 2 , David Balding 152 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK 53 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK Keywords: Genome-wide association analyses, shrinkage priors, Lasso Testing one SNP at a time does not fully realise the potential of genome-wide association studies to identify multiple causal variants of small effect, which is a plausible scenario for many complex diseases. Moreover, many simulation studies assume a single causal variant and so more complex realities are ignored. Analysing large numbers of variants simultaneously is now becoming feasible, thanks to developments in Bayesian stochastic search methods. We pose the problem of SNP selection as variable selection in a regression model. In contrast to single SNP tests this approach simultaneously models the effect of all SNPs. SNPs are selected by a Bayesian interpretation of the lasso (Tibshirani, 1996); the maximum a posterior (MAP) estimate of the regression coefficients, which have been given independent, double exponential prior distributions. The double exponential distribution is an example of a shrinkage prior, MAP estimates with shrinkage priors can be zero, thus all SNPs with non zero regression coefficients are selected. In addition to the commonly-used double exponential (Laplace) prior, we also implement the normal exponential gamma prior distribution. We show that use of the Laplace prior improves SNP selection in comparison with single -SNP tests, and that the normal exponential gamma prior leads to a further improvement. Our method is fast and can handle very large numbers of SNPs: we demonstrate its performance using both simulated and real genome-wide data sets with 500 K SNPs, which can be analysed in 2 hours on a desktop workstation. Mickael Guedj 1,2 , Jerome Wojcik 2 , Gregory Nuel 154 Laboratoire Statistique et Génome, Université d'Evry, Evry France 55 Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland Keywords: Local Replication, Local Score, Association In gene-mapping, replication of initial findings has been put forwards as the approach of choice for filtering false-positives from true signals for underlying loci. In practice, such replications are however too poorly observed. Besides the statistical and technical-related factors (lack of power, multiple-testing, stratification, quality control,) inconsistent conclusions obtained from independent populations might result from real biological differences. In particular, the high degree of variation in the strength of LD among populations of different origins is a major challenge to the discovery of genes. Seeking for Local Replications (defined as the presence of a signal of association in a same genomic region among populations) instead of strict replications (same locus, same risk allele) may lead to more reliable results. Recently, a multi-markers approach based on the Local Score statistic has been proposed as a simple and efficient way to select candidate genomic regions at the first stage of genome-wide association studies. Here we propose an extension of this approach adapted to replicated association studies. Based on simulations, this method appears promising. In particular it outperforms classical simple-marker strategies to detect modest-effect genes. Additionally it constitutes, to our knowledge, a first framework dedicated to the detection of such Local Replications. Juliet Chapman 1 , Claudio Verzilli 1 , John Whittaker 156 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK Keywords: FDR, Association studies, Bayesian model selection As genomewide association studies become commonplace there is debate as to how such studies might be analysed and what we might hope to gain from the data. It is clear that standard single locus approaches are limited in that they do not adjust for the effects of other loci and problematic since it is not obvious how to adjust for multiple comparisons. False discovery rates have been suggested, but it is unclear how well these will cope with highly correlated genetic data. We consider the validity of standard false discovery rates in large scale association studies. We also show that a Bayesian procedure has advantages in detecting causal loci amongst a large number of dependant SNPs and investigate properties of a Bayesian FDR. Peter Kraft 157 Harvard School of Public Health, Boston USA Keywords: Gene-environment interaction, genome-wide association scans Appropriately analyzed two-stage designs,where a subset of available subjects are genotyped on a genome-wide panel of markers at the first stage and then a much smaller subset of the most promising markers are genotyped on the remaining subjects,can have nearly as much power as a single-stage study where all subjects are genotyped on the genome-wide panel yet can be much less expensive. Typically, the "most promising" markers are selected based on evidence for a marginal association between genotypes and disease. Subsequently, the few markers found to be associated with disease at the end of the second stage are interrogated for evidence of gene-environment interaction, mainly to understand their impact on disease etiology and public health impact. However, this approach may miss variants which have a sizeable effect restricted to one exposure stratum and therefore only a modest marginal effect. We have proposed to use information on the joint effects of genes and a discrete list of environmental exposures at the initial screening stage to select promising markers for the second stage [Kraft et al Hum Hered 2007]. This approach optimizes power to detect variants that have a sizeable marginal effect and variants that have a small marginal effect but a sizeable effect in a stratum defined by an environmental exposure. As an example, I discuss a proposed genome-wide association scan for Type II diabetes susceptibility variants based in several large nested case-control studies. Beate Glaser 1 , Peter Holmans 158 Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Unit, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK Keywords: Combined case-control and trios analysis, Power, False-positive rate, Simulation, Association studies The statistical power of genetic association studies can be enhanced by combining the analysis of case-control with parent-offspring trio samples. Various combined analysis techniques have been recently developed; as yet, there have been no comparisons of their power. This work was performed with the aim of identifying the most powerful method among available combined techniques including test statistics developed by Kazeem and Farrall (2005), Nagelkerke and colleagues (2004) and Dudbridge (2006), as well as a simple combination of ,2-statistics from single samples. Simulation studies were performed to investigate their power under different additive, multiplicative, dominant and recessive disease models. False-positive rates were determined by studying the type I error rates under null models including models with unequal allele frequencies between the single case-control and trios samples. We identified three techniques with equivalent power and false-positive rates, which included modifications of the three main approaches: 1) the unmodified combined Odds ratio estimate by Kazeem & Farrall (2005), 2) a modified approach of the combined risk ratio estimate by Nagelkerke & colleagues (2004) and 3) a modified technique for a combined risk ratio estimate by Dudbridge (2006). Our work highlights the importance of studies investigating test performance criteria of novel methods, as they will help users to select the optimal approach within a range of available analysis techniques. David Almorza 1 , M.V. Kandus 2 , Juan Carlos Salerno 2 , Rafael Boggio 359 Facultad de Ciencias del Trabajo, University of Cádiz, Spain 60 Instituto de Genética IGEAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina 61 Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina Keywords: Principal component analysis, maize, ear weight, inbred lines The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among different traits of the ear of maize inbred lines and to group genotypes according to its performance. Ten inbred lines developed at IGEAF (INTA Castelar) and five public inbred lines as checks were used. A field trial was carried out in Castelar, Buenos Aires (34° 36' S , 58° 39' W) using a complete randomize design with three replications. At harvest, individual weight (P.E.), diameter (D.E.), row number (N.H.) and length (L.E.) of the ear were assessed. A principal component analysis, PCA, (Infostat 2005) was used, and the variability of the data was depicted with a biplot. Principal components 1 and 2 (CP1 and CP2) explained 90% of the data variability. CP1 was correlated with P.E., L.E. and D.E., meanwhile CP2 was correlated with N.H. We found that individual weight (P.E.) was more correlated with diameter of the ear (D.E.) than with length (L.E). Five groups of inbred lines were distinguished: with high P.E. and mean N.H. (04-70, 04-73, 04-101 and MO17), with high P.E. but less N.H. (04-61 and B14), with mean P.E. and N.H. (B73, 04-123 and 04-96), with high N.H. but less P.E. (LP109, 04-8, 04-91 and 04-76) and with low P.E. and low N.H. (LP521 and 04-104). The use of PCA showed which variables had more incidence in ear weight and how is the correlation among them. Moreover, the different groups found with this analysis allow the evaluation of inbred lines by several traits simultaneously. Sven Knüppel 1 , Anja Bauerfeind 1 , Klaus Rohde 162 Department of Bioinformatics, MDC Berlin, Germany Keywords: Haplotypes, association studies, case-control, nuclear families The area of gene chip technology provides a plethora of phase-unknown SNP genotypes in order to find significant association to some genetic trait. To circumvent possibly low information content of a single SNP one groups successive SNPs and estimates haplotypes. Haplotype estimation, however, may reveal ambiguous haplotype pairs and bias the application of statistical methods. Zaykin et al. (Hum Hered, 53:79-91, 2002) proposed the construction of a design matrix to take this ambiguity into account. Here we present a set of functions written for the Statistical package R, which carries out haplotype estimation on the basis of the EM-algorithm for individuals (case-control) or nuclear families. The construction of a design matrix on basis of estimated haplotypes or haplotype pairs allows application of standard methods for association studies (linear, logistic regression), as well as statistical methods as haplotype sharing statistics and TDT-Test. Applications of these methods to genome-wide association screens will be demonstrated. Manuela Zucknick 1 , Chris Holmes 2 , Sylvia Richardson 163 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, UK 64 Department of Statistics, Oxford Center for Gene Function, University of Oxford, UK Keywords: Bayesian, variable selection, MCMC, large p, small n, structured dependence In large-scale genomic applications vast numbers of markers or genes are scanned to find a few candidates which are linked to a particular phenotype. Statistically, this is a variable selection problem in the "large p, small n" situation where many more variables than samples are available. An additional feature is the complex dependence structure which is often observed among the markers/genes due to linkage disequilibrium or their joint involvement in biological processes. Bayesian variable selection methods using indicator variables are well suited to the problem. Binary phenotypes like disease status are common and both Bayesian probit and logistic regression can be applied in this context. We argue that logistic regression models are both easier to tune and to interpret than probit models and implement the approach by Holmes & Held (2006). Because the model space is vast, MCMC methods are used as stochastic search algorithms with the aim to quickly find regions of high posterior probability. In a trade-off between fast-updating but slow-moving single-gene Metropolis-Hastings samplers and computationally expensive full Gibbs sampling, we propose to employ the dependence structure among the genes/markers to help decide which variables to update together. Also, parallel tempering methods are used to aid bold moves and help avoid getting trapped in local optima. Mixing and convergence of the resulting Markov chains are evaluated and compared to standard samplers in both a simulation study and in an application to a gene expression data set. Reference Holmes, C. C. & Held, L. (2006) Bayesian auxiliary variable models for binary and multinomial regression. Bayesian Analysis1, 145,168. Dawn Teare 165 MMGE, University of Sheffield, UK Keywords: CNP, family-based analysis, MCMC Evidence is accumulating that segmental copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) may represent a significant portion of human genetic variation. These highly polymorphic systems require handling as phenotypes rather than co-dominant markers, placing new demands on family-based analyses. We present an integrated approach to meet these challenges in the form of a graphical model, where the underlying discrete CNP phenotype is inferred from the (single or replicate) quantitative measure within the analysis, whilst assuming an allele based system segregating through the pedigree. [source] ## Score Tests for Exploring Complex Models: Application to HIV Dynamics Models BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010Julia DrylewiczAbstract In biostatistics, more and more complex models are being developed. This is particularly the case in system biology. Fitting complex models can be very time-consuming, since many models often have to be explored. Among the possibilities are the introduction of explanatory variables and the determination of random effects. The particularity of this use of the score test is that the null hypothesis is not itself very simple; typically, some random effects may be present under the null hypothesis. Moreover, the information matrix cannot be computed, but only an approximation based on the score. This article examines this situation with the specific example of HIV dynamics models. We examine the score test statistics for testing the effect of explanatory variables and the variance of random effect in this complex situation. We study type I errors and the statistical powers of this score test statistics and we apply the score test approach to a real data set of HIV-infected patients. [source] ## Global Tests for Linkage BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009Rachid el GaltaAbstract To test for global linkage along a genome or in a chromosomal region, the maximum over the marker locations of mean alleles shared identical by descent of affected relative pairs, Zmax, can be used. Feingold et al. (1993) derived a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of the Zmax. As an alternative we propose to sum over the observed marker locations along the chromosomal region of interest. Two test statistics can be derived. (1) The likelihood ratio statistic (LR) and (2) the corresponding score statistic. The score statistic appears to be the average mean IBD over all available marker locations. The null distribution of the LR and score tests are asymptotically a 50: 50 mixture of chi-square distributions of null and one degree of freedom and a normal distribution, respectively. We compared empirically the type I error and power of these two new test statistics and Zmax along a chromosome and in a candidate region. Two models were considered, namely (1) one disease locus and (2) two disease loci. The new test statistics appeared to have reasonable type I error. Along the chromosome, for both models we concluded that for very small effect sizes, the score test has slightly more power than the other test statistics. For large effect sizes, the likelihood ratio statistic was comparable to and sometimes performed better than Zmax and both test statistics performed much better than the score test. For candidate regions of about 30 cM, all test statistics were comparable when only one disease-locus existed and the score and likelihood ratio statistics had somewhat better power than Zmax when two disease loci existed (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## Statistical Inference For Risk Difference in an Incomplete Correlated 2 × 2 Table BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003Nian-Sheng TangAbstract In some infectious disease studies and 2-step treatment studies, 2 × 2 table with structural zero could arise in situations where it is theoretically impossible for a particular cell to contain observations or structural void is introduced by design. In this article, we propose a score test of hypotheses pertaining to the marginal and conditional probabilities in a 2 × 2 table with structural zero via the risk/rate difference measure. Score test-based confidence interval will also be outlined. We evaluate the performance of the score test and the existing likelihood ratio test. Our empirical results evince the similar and satisfactory performance of the two tests (with appropriate adjustments) in terms of coverage probability and expected interval width. Both tests consistently perform well from small- to moderate-sample designs. The score test however has the advantage that it is only undefined in one scenario while the likelihood ratio test can be undefined in many scenarios. We illustrate our method by a real example from a two-step tuberculosis skin test study. [source] ## Score Test for Conditional Independence Between Longitudinal Outcome and Time to Event Given the Classes in the Joint Latent Class Model BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010Hélène Jacqmin-GaddaSummary Latent class models have been recently developed for the joint analysis of a longitudinal quantitative outcome and a time to event. These models assume that the population is divided in,G,latent classes characterized by different risk functions for the event, and different profiles of evolution for the markers that are described by a mixed model for each class. However, the key assumption of conditional independence between the marker and the event given the latent classes is difficult to evaluate because the latent classes are not observed. Using a joint model with latent classes and shared random effects, we propose a score test for the null hypothesis of independence between the marker and the outcome given the latent classes versus the alternative hypothesis that the risk of event depends on one or several random effects from the mixed model in addition to the latent classes. A simulation study was performed to compare the behavior of the score test to other previously proposed tests, including situations where the alternative hypothesis or the baseline risk function are misspecified. In all the investigated situations, the score test was the most powerful. The methodology was applied to develop a prognostic model for recurrence of prostate cancer given the evolution of prostate-specific antigen in a cohort of patients treated by radiation therapy. [source] ## Gene-Trait Similarity Regression for Multimarker-Based Association Analysis BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009Jung-Ying TzengSummary We propose a similarity-based regression method to detect associations between traits and multimarker genotypes. The model regresses similarity in traits for pairs of "unrelated" individuals on their haplotype similarities, and detects the significance by a score test for which the limiting distribution is derived. The proposed method allows for covariates, uses phase-independent similarity measures to bypass the needs to impute phase information, and is applicable to traits of general types (e.g., quantitative and qualitative traits). We also show that the gene-trait similarity regression is closely connected with random effects haplotype analysis, although commonly they are considered as separate modeling tools. This connection unites the classic haplotype sharing methods with the variance-component approaches, which enables direct derivation of analytical properties of the sharing statistics even when the similarity regression model becomes analytically challenging. [source] ## Cox Regression Methods for Two-Stage Randomization Designs BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2007Yuliya LokhnyginaSummary Two-stage randomization designs (TSRD) are becoming increasingly common in oncology and AIDS clinical trials as they make more efficient use of study participants to examine therapeutic regimens. In these designs patients are initially randomized to an induction treatment, followed by randomization to a maintenance treatment conditional on their induction response and consent to further study treatment. Broader acceptance of TSRDs in drug development may hinge on the ability to make appropriate intent-to-treat type inference within this design framework as to whether an experimental induction regimen is better than a standard induction regimen when maintenance treatment is fixed. Recently Lunceford, Davidian, and Tsiatis (2002, Biometrics58, 48,57) introduced an inverse probability weighting based analytical framework for estimating survival distributions and mean restricted survival times, as well as for comparing treatment policies at landmarks in the TSRD setting. In practice Cox regression is widely used and in this article we extend the analytical framework of Lunceford et al. (2002) to derive a consistent estimator for the log hazard in the Cox model and a robust score test to compare treatment policies. Large sample properties of these methods are derived, illustrated via a simulation study, and applied to a TSRD clinical trial. [source] ## A Goodness-of-Fit Test for Multinomial Logistic Regression BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2006Jelle J. GoemanSummary This article presents a score test to check the fit of a logistic regression model with two or more outcome categories. The null hypothesis that the model fits well is tested against the alternative that residuals of samples close to each other in covariate space tend to deviate from the model in the same direction. We propose a test statistic that is a sum of squared smoothed residuals, and show that it can be interpreted as a score test in a random effects model. By specifying the distance metric in covariate space, users can choose the alternative against which the test is directed, making it either an omnibus goodness-of-fit test or a test for lack of fit of specific model variables or outcome categories. [source] ## Testing Trend for Count Data with Extra-Poisson Variability BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2002Erni Tri AstutiSummary. Trend tests for monotone trend or umbrella trend (monotone upward changing to monotone downward or vise versa) in count data are proposed when the data exhibit extra-Poisson variability. The proposed tests, which are called the GS1 test and the GS2 test, are constructed by applying an orthonormal score vector to a generalized score test under an rth-order log-linear model. These tests are compared by simulation with the Cochran-Armitage test and the quasi-likelihood test of Piegorsch and Bailer (1997, Statastics for Enuiron, mental Biology and Toxicology). It is shown that the Cochran-Armitage test should not be used under the existence of extra-Poisson variability; that, for detecting monotone trend, the GS1 test is superior to the others; and that the GS2 test has high power to detect an umbrella response. [source] ## Detecting Interaction Between Random Region and Fixed Age Effects in Disease Mapping BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2001C. B. DeanSummary. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the possible need for inclusion of interaction effects between regions and age groups in mapping studies. We propose a simple model for including such an interaction in order to develop a test for its significance. The assumption of an absence of such interaction effects is a helpful simplifying one. The measure of relative risk related to a particular region becomes easily and neatly summarized. Indeed, such a test seems warranted because it is anticipated that the simple model, which ignores such interaction, as is in common use, may at times be adequate. The test proposed is a score test and hence only requires fitting the simpler model. We illustrate our approaches using mortality data from British Columbia, Canada, over the 5-year period 1985,1989. For this data, the interaction effect between age groups and regions is quite large and significant. [source] ## Evaluation of putative hazard tests under background risk heterogeneity ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 3 2009Yuan LiuAbstract In this paper, an evaluation of some tests for adverse health effects around fixed locations (putative hazard sites) is made. We address the situation where a heterogeneous background is included both in terms of correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneity (UH). In addition, we examine a set of tests for case event data (residential case addresses) including both distance and directional effects. The tests include distance and directional score tests (DIR), integrated intensity tests, the Besag & Newell (BES) test, and Kulldorff's focus clustering scan test. Monte Carlo power of the tests is evaluated and power curves are finally presented. Interesting results from this work include the lack of power found when correlated heterogeneity (CH) is present. This is not found with UH. The BES and Scan tests have lower power than the integrated intensity tests and score tests in general. The integrated intensity test demonstrates its omnibus ability to detect either distance or directional effects. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Candidate-gene association studies with pedigree data: Controlling for environmental covariates GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003S.L. SlagerAbstract Case-control studies provide an important epidemiological tool to evaluate candidate genes. There are many different study designs available. We focus on a more recently proposed design, which we call a multiplex case-control (MCC) design. This design compares allele frequencies between related cases, each of whom are sampled from multiplex families, and unrelated controls. Since within-family genotype correlations will exist, statistical methods will need to take this into account. Moreover, there is a need to develop methods to simultaneously control for potential confounders in the analysis. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are one approach to analyze this type of data; however, this approach can have singularity problems when estimating the correlation matrix. To allow for modeling of other covariates, we extend our previously developed method to a more general model-based approach. Our proposed methods use the score statistic, derived from a composite likelihood. We propose three different approaches to estimate the variance of this statistic. Under random ascertainment of pedigrees, score tests have correct type I error rates; however, pedigrees are not randomly ascertained. Thus, through simulations, we test the validity and power of the score tests under different ascertainment schemes, and an illustration of our methods, applied to data from a prostate cancer study, is presented. We find that our robust score statistic has estimated type I error rates within the expected range for all situations we considered whereas the other two statistics have inflated type I error rates under nonrandom ascertainment schemes. We also find GEE to fail at least 5% of the time for each simulation configuration; at times, the failure rate reaches above 80%. In summary, our robust method may be the only current regression analysis method available for MCC data. Genet Epidemiol 24:273,283, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## Global Tests for Linkage BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009Rachid el GaltaAbstract To test for global linkage along a genome or in a chromosomal region, the maximum over the marker locations of mean alleles shared identical by descent of affected relative pairs, Zmax, can be used. Feingold et al. (1993) derived a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of the Zmax. As an alternative we propose to sum over the observed marker locations along the chromosomal region of interest. Two test statistics can be derived. (1) The likelihood ratio statistic (LR) and (2) the corresponding score statistic. The score statistic appears to be the average mean IBD over all available marker locations. The null distribution of the LR and score tests are asymptotically a 50: 50 mixture of chi-square distributions of null and one degree of freedom and a normal distribution, respectively. We compared empirically the type I error and power of these two new test statistics and Zmax along a chromosome and in a candidate region. Two models were considered, namely (1) one disease locus and (2) two disease loci. The new test statistics appeared to have reasonable type I error. Along the chromosome, for both models we concluded that for very small effect sizes, the score test has slightly more power than the other test statistics. For large effect sizes, the likelihood ratio statistic was comparable to and sometimes performed better than Zmax and both test statistics performed much better than the score test. For candidate regions of about 30 cM, all test statistics were comparable when only one disease-locus existed and the score and likelihood ratio statistics had somewhat better power than Zmax when two disease loci existed (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## Asymptotic Distribution of Score Statistics for Spatial Cluster Detection with Censored Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2008Daniel CommengesSummaryCook, Gold, and Li (2007, Biometrics 63, 540,549) extended the Kulldorff (1997, Communications in Statistics 26, 1481,1496) scan statistic for spatial cluster detection to survival-type observations. Their approach was based on the score statistic and they proposed a permutation distribution for the maximum of score tests. The score statistic makes it possible to apply the scan statistic idea to models including explanatory variables. However, we show that the permutation distribution requires strong assumptions of independence between potential cluster and both censoring and explanatory variables. In contrast, we present an approach using the asymptotic distribution of the maximum of score statistics in a manner not requiring these assumptions. [source] ## Tests of Proportional Hazards and Proportional Odds Models for Grouped Survival Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2000Enrico A. ColosimoSummary. In this paper, we derive score test statistics to discriminate between proportional hazards and proportional odds models for grouped survival data. These models are embedded within a power family transformation in order to obtain the score tests. In simple cases, some small-sample results are obtained for the score statistics using Monte Carlo simulations. Score statistics have distributions well approximated by the chi-squared distribution. Real examples illustrate the proposed tests. [source] |