Scophthalmus Maximus (scophthalmus + maximu)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Scophthalmus Maximus

  • scophthalmus maximu l.

  • Selected Abstracts

    Non-specific immune response of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), experimentally infected with a pathogenic Vibrio pelagius

    L Villamil
    Abstract The effect of a pathogenic Vibrio pelagius, isolated during a mass mortality of turbot larvae, on the non-specific immune response of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), macrophages was studied both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro treatment of head kidney (HK) macrophages with viable V. pelagius caused a significant inhibition of the chemiluminescence (CL) response in comparison with untreated macrophages, while incubation with heat-killed bacteria did not affect this response. In vivo, the intraperitoneal injection of V. pelagius resulted in a significant inhibition of the CL response in infected fish at days 1 and 4 post-infection compared with the control fish response. The HK macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production was enhanced by in vitro incubation with intermediate doses of viable V. pelagius (5 103 and 5 104 bacteria mL,1) and higher doses of the heat-killed bacteria (5 104,5 106 bacteria mL,1). In both cases, the NO inhibitorN- , -nitro-L-arginine was capable of down-regulating the specific NO induction caused by incubation with the bacterial treatments. In contrast, incubation with ECPs at higher doses caused a reduction in NO production. In vivo, a significant enhancement in NO production was also observed in macrophage supernatants at day 10 post-infection. Lysozyme concentration in the serum was also significantly increased in the experimentally infected fish at days 4 and 10 post-injection. In addition, viable V. pelagius and its ECPs significantly reduced HK macrophage viability in vitro, whereas no significant differences in viability were observed during the incubation with heat-killed bacteria. As NO production was enhanced in the experimentally infected fish, the inhibitory effect of the NO donor, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), was tested in vitro in a cell-free assay. The results showed that growth of V. pelagius was significantly inhibited using SNAP at a high concentration (1 mm). [source]

    A study of the susceptibility of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.)

    T J Bowden
    Abstract The susceptibility of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was tested. Juvenile halibut of approximately 5 g weight were subjected to challenge by intraperitoneal injection, cohabitation and immersion to a VHSV isolate from an outbreak of the disease in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). The intraperitoneal injection gave the highest mortality rate of 28% after 50 days. The cohabitee group suffered 19% mortality rate and the immersion group only 2%. Control groups included turbot exposed either by intraperitoneal injection or immersion which suffered mortality rates of 93 and 50%, respectively. The results suggest that halibut are markedly less susceptible to VHSV than turbot. [source]

    Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    A Irianto
    Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, on tryptone soya agar and De Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar, of which 11 of 177 (6% of the total) of the isolates were antagonistic to Aeromonas salmonicida. Four of these cultures, which were identified tentatively as A. hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis, Carnobacterium sp. and an unidentified Gram-positive coccus, were beneficial to fish when fed singly or as an equi-mixture. Feed supplemented with the putative probiotics indicated survival of the organisms in the gastrointestinal tract for 7 days. Feeding with the probiotics for 7 and 14 days led to better survival following challenge with A. salmonicida. There was no indication of serum or mucus antibodies to A. salmonicida, but there was an increased number of erythrocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and leucocytes, and enhanced lysozyme activity in the fish. [source]

    Gill disease of marine fish caused by infection with Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis

    B L Munday
    Amoebic gill disease (AGD) of maricultured salmonids, turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), and sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti), caused by Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis has been reported from Australia (Tasmania), Ireland, France, Chile, North America (Washington State and California) and Spain. Of the salmonids, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., appears to be the most susceptible with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), also suffering significant disease. Only minor outbreaks have been reported in coho, O. kisutch (Walbaum), and chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Walbaum). The disease now accounts for 10,20% of production costs of Atlantic salmon in Tasmania and has lead to temporary abandonment of culture of this species in parts of Spain. It is of lesser, but still significant, importance in other countries. Much is known about the pathology of AGD but the pathophysiology of the disease is poorly understood. There is evidence that non-specific immunity is involved in fish acquiring resistance to AGD, but no unequivocal evidence exists for protection as a result of specific immune responses. To date, for salmonids, the only effective treatment for AGD is a freshwater bath. Control procedures based on modification of management strategies have been minimal and virtually unresearched. [source]

    Molecular identification of five commercial flatfish species by PCR,RFLP analysis of a 12S rRNA gene fragment

    Angel S Comesaa
    Abstract Refrigerated or frozen fillets of commercial flatfish species are sometimes mislabelled, and identification of those products is needed to avoid fraudulent substitution. Molecular identification of five commercial flatfish species (order Pleuronectiformes), ie Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (megrim), Platichthys flesus (flounder), Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Greenland halibut), Scophthalmus maximus (turbot) and Solea vulgaris (= S solea) (sole), has been carried out on the basis of the amplification of an approximately 433 bp segment from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and universal primers. Direct DNA sequencing from two PCR products for each flatfish species was carried out, and sequences were used to select six restriction enzymes. PCR products of 15 individuals of each species were cut with each enzyme, resulting in species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The five flatfish species could be identified by application of the restriction enzyme AluI as well as by using different combinations of a pair of enzymes, ie DdeI and either AciI or MwoI. No intraspecific genetic polymorphism was found for any of the six enzymes. Results confirmed the usefulness of this technique to distinguish and genetically characterise refrigerated or frozen pieces of these five flatfish species. Copyright 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Commercial-scale Validation of Temperature-step Rearing on Growth Physiology in Turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    Albert K. Imsland
    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible benefit of "temperature-steps" (T-steps) rearing for juvenile turbot (initial weight 15.1 g) under realistic production scale and to determine whether initial growth advantage is maintained throughout the rearing period to market size. One group (called T-step 22-19-16) of juvenile turbot was reared at three different temperatures, that is, 22 C (from 17 to 60 g) followed by 19 C (from 60 to 100 g) and 16 C (>100 g); another group (called T-step 19-16) at two temperatures, that is, 19 C (from 17 to 100 g) and lowered to 16 C (>100 g); and the third group (called C16) at one constant temperature, that is, 16 C. Relative growth was significantly higher in the two T-step groups, with the T-step 19-16 showing the highest overall growth. Feed conversion efficiency was highest in the 19-16 group. Only minor effects of the experimental rearing on blood physiology were found, with one notable exception of inverse relationship between plasma glucose and growth. Overall, these findings indicate that a short interval of rearing fish at high temperature during the early juvenile phase may have a long-term effect on biomass increment in turbot. This is an important finding for the turbot industry. [source]

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of metomidate in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    M. K. Hansen
    Metomidate was administered to halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) intravenously at a dose of 3 mg/kg bodyweight, as a bath treatment at a dose of 9 mg/L water for 5 min to study the disposition of metomidate, and as bath treatment (9 mg/L) for 10 min to study the absorption and effect of metomidate on respiration and balance/motor control. Additionally, turbot were given metomidate orally at a dose of 7 mg/kg. The studies were performed in seawater at a temperature of 10.3 0.4 C (halibut) and 18.0 0.3 C (turbot). Pharmacokinetic modeling of the data showed that metomidate had shorter elimination half-life and higher plasma concentrations in turbot compared with halibut, both species displaying a rapid uptake, distribution and excretion. Following intravenous administration, the volumes of distribution at steady state (Vd(ss)) were 0.21 L/kg (halibut) and 0.44 L/kg (turbot). Plasma clearances (Cl) were 0.099 L/hkg in halibut and 0.26 L/hkg in turbot and the elimination half-lives (t,z) were calculated to be 5.8 h and 2.2 h in halibut and turbot, respectively. Mean residence times (MRT) were 2.2 h in halibut and 1.7 h in turbot. Following oral administration, the t,z was 3.5 h in turbot. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7.8 mg/L in turbot 1 h after administration. The oral bioavailability (F) was calculated to 100% in turbot. Following 5 min bath the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), which were observed immediately after end of the bath, were 9.5 mg/L and 13.3 mg/L in halibut and turbot, respectively. Metomidate rapidly immobilized the fish, with respiratory depression, reduced heart rate, and loss of balance/motor control within 1 min (mean). Recovery was slow, with resumed balance/motor control after 26.4 min. Opercular respiration movements were resumed more rapidly with a recorded mean of 1.7 min. Oral administration was demonstrated to be a way of immobilizing fish, for example in large aquariums, without exposing them to unwanted stress. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST library of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and cross-species amplification

    S. L. CHEN
    Abstract In the present study, we report 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci developed from a cDNA library from the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.20 to 1.00 and from 0.18 to 0.78, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was found, but two loci significantly deviated from Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. Cross-species amplifications of these microsatellites in five additional fish species revealed between five and 11 positive amplifications and between zero and four polymorphic loci per species. [source]

    Distribution of ,-tocopherol in fillets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), following dietary ,-tocopheryl acetate supplementation

    N. Ruff
    Abstract The present study investigated the distribution of , -tocopherol (vitamin E) in fillets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Turbot and Atlantic halibut were fed commercial diets, supplemented with different levels of , -tocopheryl acetate at the dietary target levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg , -tocopheryl acetate kg,1 diet. The actual levels were 72, 547 and 969 for turbot, while halibut received 189, 613 and 875 mg , -tocopheryl acetate kg,1 diet. Turbot were fed the diets for 24 weeks, while Atlantic halibut were fed for 20 weeks prior to slaughter. At the end of the feeding periods fish had reached a final weight of around 1 kg. Fish were slaughtered and filleted. From the four fillets obtained per fish, 22 samples were taken from designated areas and analysed for their , -tocopherol content. The average concentrations of , -tocopherol incorporated in turbot and Atlantic halibut increased with increasing levels of , -tocopheryl acetate in the diet. Atlantic halibut had significantly (P < 0.05) more , -tocopherol in positions 2/II and 1/I than in position 9/IX. Turbot had significantly (P < 0.05) more , -tocopherol in position 2/II than in positions 1/I, 4/IV and 11/XI. By mapping , -tocopherol concentrations in fish fillets, a high degree of quality prediction may be established. Moreover, this study may help scientists in their choice of sampling position, when investigating if , -tocopheryl acetate supplementation resulted in successful , -tocopherol incorporation. [source]

    Soybean protein concentrate as a protein source for turbot Scophthalmus maximus L.

    O.J. Day
    In the first of two experiments, the effect of a gradual substitution of dietary fish meal with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) on growth, feed consumption and protein digestibility was examined in 13 g turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (50% protein and 22 kJ g,1) containing SPC at protein replacement levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were offered by hand twice daily. Growth rates of fish fed diets with zero and 25% replacement were not significantly different, with SGRs of 2.47 and 2.28, respectively. At higher replacement levels, growth rates decreased significantly with SGRs of 2.00, 1.33 and 0.68, respectively. Feed conversion ratios increased with soya replacement, with values of 0.68, 0.75, 0.89, 1.27 and 2.32, respectively, although there was no significant difference between the first two. Feed consumption rates remained constant up to 50% replacement, above which they decreased significantly, possibly because of reduced diet palatability. Apparent protein digestibility (APD) was not affected by the incorporation of SPC and ranged from 82.8 to 87.5%. Results suggest that protein catabolism increases in SPC-rich diets, possibly because of rapid assimilation and utilization of the methionine supplement. In the second experiment, the importance of amino acid supplements and the beneficial effects of protecting these, either by coating them in protein or incorporating them in a protein,lipid emulsion, was investigated. Growth data provided some indication that the utilization of SPC may be improved by incorporating the methionine and lysine supplement in a protein,lipid emulsion prior to diet preparation, although this finding was not found to be statistically significant (0.1 < P < 0.2). [source]

    Growth, feed utilization and growth heterogeneity in juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Rafinesque) under different photoperiod regimes

    M Stefnsson
    Abstract Juvenile turbot (45 g, SE = 1.3) were reared under three photoperiods, 08L:16D, 12L:12D and 20L:04D at slightly elevated ambient temperature for Ireland. Over the 297-day experimental period, the overall growth rate of the 12L:12D (0.82% d,1) treatment was higher than for both 08L:16D (0.80% d,1) and 20L:04D (0.77% d,1). Overall relative feed intake (FI = % consumption*day,1) was higher for the 20L:04D (FI = 0.81% d,1, SE = 0.06) treatment than for the 08L:16D (0.63% d,1, 0.04) and 12L:12D (0.64% d,1 0.04) treatments, whereas feed conversion efficiency (FCE = weight gain* consumption,1) was lower in the 20L:04D (FCE = 0.67, SE = 0.08) group when compared with the 08L:16D (0.88, 0.06) and 12L:12D (0.88, 0.06) treatments. Present results show that the long-term extended fixed photoperiod may act as an irritant, inducing stress, suppressing growth and reducing feed utilization. It is hypothesized that the progression of size-dependent hierarchies over time can be divided into two distinct phases herein referred to as ,hierarchy resolution' and ,hierarchy stabilization' phases (or phases 1 and 2) characterized by increasing and decreasing growth heterogeneity respectively. Growth heterogeneity is measured as coefficient of variation of weight and rank correlation of initial weight of a phase and corresponding growth rate. [source]