Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Salmon

  • adult atlantic salmon
  • atlantic salmon
  • chinook salmon
  • chum salmon
  • coho salmon
  • cold-smoked salmon
  • farmed salmon
  • juvenile atlantic salmon
  • juvenile pink salmon
  • juvenile salmon
  • landlocked salmon
  • pacific salmon
  • pink salmon
  • post-smolt atlantic salmon
  • sockeye salmon
  • wild atlantic salmon
  • wild salmon

  • Terms modified by Salmon

  • salmon calcitonin
  • salmon carcass
  • salmon density
  • salmon diet
  • salmon farm
  • salmon farming
  • salmon fillet
  • salmon fry
  • salmon parr
  • salmon population
  • salmon products
  • salmon salmo salar
  • salmon salmo salar l.
  • salmon shark
  • salmon smolt
  • salmon spawning
  • salmon species
  • salmon stock

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2010
    Mathieu Buoro
    Evolutionary trade-offs among demographic parameters are important determinants of life-history evolution. Investigating such trade-offs under natural conditions has been limited by inappropriate analytical methods that fail to address the bias in demographic estimates that can result when issues of detection (uncertain detection of individual) are ignored. We propose a new statistical approach to quantify evolutionary trade-offs in wild populations. Our method is based on a state-space modeling framework that focuses on both the demographic process of interest as well as the observation process. As a case study, we used individual mark,recapture data for stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon juveniles in the Scorff River (Southern Brittany, France). In freshwater, juveniles face two life-history choices: migration to the ocean and sexual maturation (for males). Trade-offs may appear with these life-history choices and survival, because all are energy dependent. We found a cost of reproduction on survival for fish staying in freshwater and a survival advantage associated with the "decision" to migrate. Our modeling framework opens up promising prospects for the study of evolutionary trade-offs when some life-history traits are not, or only partially, observable. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2010
    Scott A. Pavey
    Ecological divergence may result when populations experience different selection regimes, but there is considerable discussion about the role of migration at the beginning stages of divergence before reproductive isolating mechanisms have evolved. However, detection of past migration is difficult in current populations and tools to differentiate genetic similarities due to migration versus recent common ancestry are only recently available. Using past volcanic eruption times as a framework, we combine morphological analyses of traits important to reproduction with a coalescent-based genetic analysis of two proximate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. We find that this is the most recent (,500 years, 100 generations) natural ecological divergence recorded in a fish species, and report that this divergence is occurring despite migration. Although studies of fish divergence following the retreat of glaciers (10,000,15,000 years ago) have contributed extensively to our understanding of speciation, the Aniakchak system of sockeye salmon provides a rare example of the initial stages of ecological divergence following natural colonization. Our results show that even in the face of continued migration, populations may diverge in the absence of a physical barrier. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2009
    Stephanie M. Carlson
    Few studies have determined whether formal estimates of selection explain patterns of trait divergence among populations, yet this is one approach for evaluating whether the populations are in equilibria. If adaptive divergence is complete, directional selection should be absent and stabilizing selection should prevail. We estimated natural selection, due to bear predation, acting on the body size and shape of male salmon in three breeding populations that experience differing predation regimes. Our approach was to (1) estimate selection acting within each population on each trait based on an empirical estimate of reproductive activity, (2) test for trait divergence among populations, and (3) test whether selection coefficients were correlated with trait divergence among populations. Stabilizing selection was never significant, indicating that these populations have yet to attain equilibria. Directional selection varied among populations in a manner consistent with trait divergence, indicating ongoing population differentiation. Specifically, the rank order of the creeks in terms of patterns of selection paralleled the rank order in terms of size and shape. The shortest and least deep-bodied males had the highest reproductive activity in the creek with the most intense predation and longer and deeper-bodied males were favored in the creeks with lower predation risk. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Sigurd Einum
    Abstract., Timing of breeding and offspring size are maternal traits that may influence offspring competitive ability, dispersal, foraging, and vulnerability to predation and climatic conditions. To quantify the extent to which these maternal traits may ultimately affect an organism's fitness, we undertook laboratory and field experiments with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To control for confounding effects caused by correlated traits, manipulations of the timing of fertilization combined with intraclutch comparisons were used. In the wild, a total of 1462 juveniles were marked at emergence from gravel nests. Recapture rates suggest that up to 83.5% mortality occurred during the first four months after emergence from the gravel nests, with the majority (67.5%) occurring during the initial period ending 17 days after median emergence. Moreover, the mortality was selective during this initial period, resulting in a significant phenotypic shift toward an earlier date of and an increased length at emergence. However, no significant selection differentials were detected thereafter, indicating that the critical episode of selection had occurred at emergence. Furthermore, standardized selection gradients indicated that selection was more intense on date of than on body size at emergence. Timing of emergence had additional consequences in terms of juvenile body size. Late-emerging juveniles were smaller than early-emerging ones at subsequent samplings, both in the wild and in parallel experiments conducted in seminatural stream channels, and this may affect success at subsequent size-selective episodes, such as winter mortality and reproduction. Finally, our findings also suggest that egg size had fitness consequences independent of the effects of emergence time that directly affected body size at emergence and, in turn, survival and size at later life stages. The causality of the maternal effects observed in the present study supports the hypothesis that selection on juvenile traits may play an important role in the evolution of maternal traits in natural populations. [source]


    ABSTRACT Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating low exopeptidase activity. During storage, SDS PAGE analysis of myofibrils showed an increase in density of bands at 16, 37, 60, 64, 67, 76 and 130 kDa, a decrease of a 32 kDa band and the appearance of four new bands of 30, 90, 95 and 113 kDa. These results indicate proteolytic degradation. A little change of myosin and no change of ,-actinin and actin were observed. The smoking process itself enhances the intensity of bands, but does not change the pattern markedly except for the appearance of a 25 and 70 kDa band. Degradation pattern after smoking was not affected by storage time. [source]


    Individual fish processing waste stream components can be used to make feed ingredients or other products. Waste stream components obtained from commercial fish processing plants included heads, viscera, frames, and skins from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus); and heads, and viscera from pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The protein content of heads from all three species ranged from 13.9 to 16.4%; and the fat content ranged from 0.9 to 10.9%. Viscera protein content ranged from 13.0 to 15.3%, and the fat content from 2.0 to 19.1%. After heating to 85C the percent soluble protein in salmon heads was different (P < 0.05) from pollock or cod heads. Percent soluble protein of pollock and cod skin increased 8fold (P<0.05) after the 85C heat treatment. Connective tissue content was calculated from chemical determination of hydroxyproline content, and large differences in percent connective tissue content were found (1% for pollock viscera to 46% for skin). Estimated rat PER values ranged from a low of 2.1 for skin to a high of 3.1 for viscera and fillet samples (P<0.05). [source]

    The Interplay between Climate Variability and Density Dependence in the Population Viability of Chinook Salmon

    análisis de viabilidad poblacional; especies en peligro; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Abstract:,The viability of populations is influenced by driving forces such as density dependence and climate variability, but most population viability analyses (PVAs) ignore these factors because of data limitations. Additionally, simplified PVAs produce limited measures of population viability such as annual population growth rate (,) or extinction risk. Here we developed a "mechanistic" PVA of threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in which, based on 40 years of detailed data, we related freshwater recruitment of juveniles to density of spawners, and third-year survival in the ocean to monthly indices of broad-scale ocean and climate conditions. Including climate variability in the model produced important effects: estimated population viability was very sensitive to assumptions of future climate conditions and the autocorrelation contained in the climate signal increased mean population abundance while increasing probability of quasi extinction. Because of the presence of density dependence in the model, however, we could not distinguish among alternative climate scenarios through mean , values, emphasizing the importance of considering multiple measures to elucidate population viability. Our sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the importance of particular parameters varied across models and depended on which viability measure was the response variable. The density-dependent parameter associated with freshwater recruitment was consistently the most important, regardless of viability measure, suggesting that increasing juvenile carrying capacity is important for recovery. Resumen:,La viabilidad de poblaciones esta influida por fuerzas conductoras como la denso dependencia y la variabilidad climática, pero la mayoría de los análisis de viabilidad poblacional (AVP) ignoran estos factores debido a limitaciones en la disponibilidad de datos. Adicionalmente, los AVP simplificados producen medidas limitadas de la viabilidad poblacional tales como la tasa anual de crecimiento poblacional (,) o el riesgo de extinción. Aquí desarrollamos un AVP "mecanicista" de Oncorhynchus tshawytscha en el que, con base en datos detallados de 40 años, relacionamos el reclutamiento de juveniles en agua dulce con la densidad de reproductores, y la supervivencia en el océano al tercer año con índices mensuales de condiciones oceánicas y climáticas a amplia escala. La inclusión de la variabilidad climática en el modelo produjo efectos importantes: la viabilidad poblacional estimada fue muy sensible a las suposiciones de condiciones climáticas futuras y la autocorrelación contenida en la señal climática aumentó la abundancia poblacional promedio al mismo tiempo que incrementó la probabilidad de cuasi extinción. Sin embargo, debido a la presencia de denso densidad en el modelo no pudimos distinguir entre escenarios climáticos alternativos a través de los valores promedio de ,, lo que enfatiza la importancia de considerar medidas múltiples para dilucidar la viabilidad poblacional. Nuestros análisis de sensibilidad demostraron que la importancia de parámetros particulares varió en los modelos y dependió de la medida de viabilidad utilizada como variable de respuesta. El parámetro de denso dependencia asociada con el reclutamiento en agua dulce consistentemente fue el más importante, independientemente de la medida de viabilidad, lo que sugiere que el incremento en la capacidad de carga de juveniles es importante para la recuperación. [source]

    Interspecific Effects of Artifically Propagated Fish: an Additional Conservation Risk for Salmon

    Phillip S. Levin
    We tested the hypothesis that hatchery-reared steelhead salmon ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) released into the Snake River Basin negatively affect the survival of wild Snake River steelhead and chinook ( O. tshawytscha) salmon. Because climatic conditions can influence salmon survival, we included an index of the El Niño,Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) as a covariate in our analyses. Based on time series of hatchery releases and rates of smolt-to-adult survival, we demonstrate that the survival of wild chinook salmon is negatively associated with hatchery releases of steelhead. The state of the ( ENSO) did not affect the strength of this relationship. We observed no relationship between survival of wild steelhead and steelhead hatchery releases. Our results suggest that industrial-scale production of hatchery fish may hinder the recovery of some threatened salmonids and that the potential interspecific impact of hatcheries must be considered as agencies begin the process of hatchery reform. Resumen: Por más de 120 años, las granjas han liberado números enormes de salmones del Pacífico para compensar las numerosas agresiones humanos a sus poblaciones, sin embargo, los impactos ecológicos de este esfuerzo masivo son poco entendidos. Evaluamos la hipótesis de que la trucha cabeza de acero ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) criada en granjas y liberada en la cuenca del Río Snake afecta negativamente la supervivencia de truchas cabeza de acero y salmones chinook ( O. tshawytscha) silvestres. Puesto que las condiciones climáticas pueden influir sobre la supervivencia del salmón, incluimos un índice de la Oscilación del Niño del Sur como covariable del análisis. En base a series de tiempo de las liberaciones de las granjas y las tasas de supervivencia hasta adulto de peces migrantes al mar, demostramos que la supervivencia del salmón chinook silvestre está negativamente correlacionada con las liberaciones de truchas cabeza de acero de las granjas. El estado de la Oscilación del Niño del Sur no afectó el grado de correlación. No observamos relación alguna entre la supervivencia de las truchas silvestres y las liberaciones de las granjas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la producción a escala industrial de peces de granja puede obstaculizar la recuperación de algunos salmónidos amenazados y que el impacto interespecífico potencial de las granjas debería ser considerado en cuanto las agencias inicien el proceso de reforma de las granjas. [source]

    Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl congener distribution in an aquatic predator-prey, host-parasite system

    Maria E. Persson
    Abstract Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener distribution was examined in a predator-prey, hostparasite system, in which Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preyed upon sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Eubothrium crassum was an intestinal parasite in salmon that also "preyed upon" sprat, because the parasites gained access to foodstuffs via the host (salmon) gut. Salmon contained significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs compared to both parasites and prey (sprat), but no difference in PCB concentration was found between sprat and E. crassum. Salmon biomagnified several PCB congeners from their diet (sprat), whereas parasites did not, despite the fact that both salmon and their parasites ingested the same prey. Differences in nutrient uptake mechanisms between the host and their parasites, in addition to the lack of a gastrointestinal tract in the cestode, may explain the lack of biomagnification in E. crassum. No difference was found in PCB congener distribution between parasites, salmon, and sprat, and none of the animal types showed a preference for accumulating more or less lipophilic congeners (congeners with a high or low octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW]). Biomagnification factors for individual congeners in salmon did not increase with KOW; rather, they were constant, as shown by a linear relationship for congener concentration in prey and predator. [source]

    SYNTHESIS: Evolutionary consequences of fishing and their implications for salmon

    Jeffrey J. Hard
    Abstract We review the evidence for fisheries-induced evolution in anadromous salmonids. Salmon are exposed to a variety of fishing gears and intensities as immature or maturing individuals. We evaluate the evidence that fishing is causing evolutionary changes to traits including body size, migration timing and age of maturation, and we discuss the implications for fisheries and conservation. Few studies have fully evaluated the ingredients of fisheries-induced evolution: selection intensity, genetic variability, correlation among traits under selection, and response to selection. Most studies are limited in their ability to separate genetic responses from phenotypic plasticity, and environmental change complicates interpretation. However, strong evidence for selection intensity and for genetic variability in salmon fitness traits indicates that fishing can cause detectable evolution within ten or fewer generations. Evolutionary issues are therefore meaningful considerations in salmon fishery management. Evolutionary biologists have rarely been involved in the development of salmon fishing policy, yet evolutionary biology is relevant to the long-term success of fisheries. Future management might consider fishing policy to (i) allow experimental testing of evolutionary responses to exploitation and (ii) improve the long-term sustainability of the fishery by mitigating unfavorable evolutionary responses to fishing. We provide suggestions for how this might be done. [source]

    A metapopulation perspective for salmon and other anadromous fish

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2007
    Nicolas Schtickzelle
    Abstract Salmonids are an important component of biodiversity, culture and economy in several regions, particularly the North Pacific Rim. Given this importance, they have been intensively studied for about a century, and the pioneering scientists recognized the critical link between population structure and conservation. Spatial structure is indeed of prime importance for salmon conservation and management. At first glance, the essence of the metapopulation concept, i.e. a population of populations, widely used on other organisms like butterflies, seems to be particularly relevant to salmon, and more generally to anadromous fish. Nevertheless, the concept is rarely used, and barely tested. Here, we present a metapopulation perspective for anadromous fish, assessing in terms of processes rather than of patterns the set of necessary conditions for metapopulation dynamics to exist. Salmon, and particularly sockeye salmon in Alaska, are used as an illustrative case study. A review of life history traits indicates that the three basic conditions are likely to be fulfilled by anadromous salmon: (i) the spawning habitat is discrete and populations are spatially separated by unsuitable habitat; (ii) some asynchrony is present in the dynamics of more or less distant populations and (iii) dispersal links populations because some salmon stray from their natal population. The implications of some peculiarities of salmon life history traits, unusual in classical metapopulations, are also discussed. Deeper understanding of the population structure of anadromous fish will be advanced by future studies on specific topics: (i) criteria must be defined for the delineation of suitable habitats that are based on features of the biotope and not on the presence of fish; (ii) the collection of long-term data and the development of improved methods to determine age structure are essential for correctly estimating levels of asynchrony between populations and (iii) several key aspects of dispersal are still poorly understood and need to be examined in detail: the spatial and temporal scales of dispersal movements, the origin and destination populations instead of simple straying rates, and the relative reproductive success of immigrants and residents. [source]

    Upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at a power station on the River Nidelva, Southern Norway

    E. B. Thorstad
    Abstract The upstream migration of 17 radio-tagged adult Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., past hydroelectric developments on the River Nidelva, Southern Norway, was examined. Salmon migrated quickly from the site of release in the lower part of the river up to the tunnel outlet of Rygene power station, but were substantially delayed at the outlet. The salmon stayed in the outlet area for 0,71 days (median = 20), and mainly took up a position inside the dark power station tunnel. Water discharge in the tunnel was 57,176 m3 s,1, while residual flow in the river between the outlet and the dam 2.5 km further upstream was 3 m3 s,1. Ten salmon passed the outlet and entered the residual flow stretch, but none passed the dam. Six of the 10 salmon returned to the tunnel outlet. No major migration barriers were identified in the residual flow stretch, suggesting lack of motivation among the salmon to migrate due to either low water discharge compared with the main river, or several minor migration barriers along the river stretch. [source]

    Thermal performance of juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    Summary 1,Experimental data for maximum growth and food consumption of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr from five Norwegian rivers situated between 59 and 70°N were analysed and modelled. The growth and feeding models were also applied to groups of Atlantic Salmon growing and feeding at rates below the maximum. The data were fitted to the Ratkowsky model, originally developed for bacterial growth. 2,The rates of growth and food consumption varied significantly among populations but the variation appeared unrelated to thermal conditions in the river of population origins. No correlation was found between the thermal conditions and limits for growth, thermal growth optima or maximum growth, and hypotheses of population-specific thermal adaptation were not supported. Estimated optimum temperatures for growth were between 16 and 20 °C. 3, Model parameter estimates differed among growth-groups in that maximum growth and the performance breadth decreased from fast to slow growing individuals. The optimum temperature for growth did not change with growth rate. 4, The model for food consumption (expressed in energy terms) peaked at 19,21 °C, which is only slightly higher than the optimal temperature for growth. Growth appeared directly related to food consumption. Consumption was initiated ,2 °C below the lower temperature for growth and terminated ,1·5 °C above the upper critical temperature for growth. Model parameter estimates for consumption differed among growth-groups in a manner similar to the growth models. 5,By combining the growth and consumption models, growth efficiencies were estimated. The maximum efficiencies were high, 42,58%, and higher in rivers offering hostile than benign feeding and growth opportunities. [source]

    Climate warming causes phenological shift in Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, behavior at Auke Creek, Alaska

    SIDNEY G. TAYLORArticle first published online: 23 NOV 200
    Abstract Thirty-four years (1972,2005) of water temperature data and extensive biological observations at Auke Creek, Alaska indicate a general warming trend that affected the native pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) population. Serial environmental records at nearby Auke Bay, Alaska over 46 years show trends of increasing air and sea surface temperatures. Trends of increased total precipitation and earlier date of ice out on nearby Auke Lake also occurred, but not at significant rates. Average water temperatures during the incubation of pink salmon in Auke Creek increased at a rate of 0.03 °C yr,1 over the 34-year period. For the 1972,2005 broods, midpoints of fry migrations from Auke Creek ranged between April 2 and May 7, and there was a trend of earlier migration of pink salmon fry at a rate of , 0.5 days yr,1. The migration timing of adult salmon into Auke Creek also showed a trend toward earlier timing. The earlier adult migration combined with warmer incubation temperatures are related to earlier migration of pink salmon fry. If the observed warming trend continues, Auke Creek may become unsuitable habitat for pink salmon. Given the trend for salmon fry to migrate earlier, a larger portion of the population may become mismatched with optimum environmental conditions during their early marine life history. If salmon adults continue to migrate into the creek earlier when water temperatures are commonly high, it will result in increased prespawning mortality. [source]

    Ifosamide, epirubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: a regimen for successful mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with multiple myeloma

    M. Arland
    Abstract In general, the mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is poor and is achieved in most cases by combined cyclophosphamide and G-CSF. This study was performed to examine the efficacy of combined ifosfamide/epirubicine and G-CSF for PBPC mobilization and purging. Sixteen patients suffering from multiple myeloma in stage II/A and III/A according to Durie and Salmon underwent chemotherapy consisting of a total of three cycles of ifosfamide (3,g/m2 on days 1 and 2 and epirubicine 80,mg/m2 on day 1) and G-CSF (10 or 20,µg/kg body weight (BW) daily until harvesting). PBPC harvesting was performed after the first and third cycle of chemotherapy. The median number of PBPC after the first cycle of chemotherapy was 7.79×106 CD34+ cells/kg BW (ranging from 0.94,26.36×106) and 6.38×106 CD34+ cells/kg BW (ranging from 0.79,29.31×106) after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Clinical re-evaluation after three cycles of chemotherapy showed 13 (81 per cent) patients in partial remission (PR), two (12 per cent) in complete remission (CR) and one (6.25 per cent) in stable disease (SD). No major side-effects were observed, six patients developed hematological toxicity stage IV WHO for a median of 3.9 days but no serious infection episodes occurred. Combined ifosfamide/epirubicin and standard G-CSF is able to mobilize sufficient PBPC without serious side-effects for patients with MM and for purging procedures resulting in a high proportion of complete remissions after tandem high-dose melphalan chemotherapy. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Seasonal changes in the lower jaw skeleton in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): remodelling and regression of the kype after spawning

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 5 2003
    P. Eckhard Witten
    Abstract The return of Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar) to their home river for spawning coincides with drastic skeletal alterations in both sexes. Most prominent is the development of a kype (hook) at the tip of the lower jaw in males. Salmon that survive spawning have to cope with the kype throughout their life, unless it disappears after spawning, as was suggested in the early literature. To understand the fate of the kype skeleton, we compared morphological and histological features of kypes from pre-spawned mature anadromous males (grilse) with post-spawned males (kelts). The kype of male grilse is supported by fast-growing skeletal needles that differ from regular dentary bone. In kelts, growth of the kype skeleton has stopped and skeletal needles are resorbed apically by osteoclasts. Simultaneously, and despite the critical physiological condition of the animals, proximal parts of the kype skeleton are remodelled and converted into regular dentary bone. Apical resorption of the skeleton explains reports of a decrease of the kype in kelts. The conversion of basal kype skeleton into regular dentary bone contributes to the elongation of the dentary and probably also to the development of a larger kype in repetitive spawning males. [source]

    Inductive reasoning in medicine: lessons from Carl Gustav Hempel's ,inductive-statistical' model

    Afschin Gandjour MD PhD
    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the fundamental requirements of sound scientific explanations and predictions and common fallacies that occur in explaining and predicting medical problems. To this end, the paper presents Carl Gustav Hempel's ,covering-law' model (1948 and 1962) and reviews some of the criticism of the model. The strength of Hempel's model is that it shows that inductive arguments, when applied with the requirement of maximal specificity, can serve as explanations as well as predictions. The major weakness of the ,covering-law' model, its inability to portray causal relatedness, has been addressed by philosophers such as Wesley Salmon. While few philosophers today agree with the ,covering-law' model in its original formulation, there is widespread consensus that the law has made a central contribution to describing the fundamental requirements of sound scientific explanations. Applying this model and its revisions in the medical context may help uncover potentially undetected fallacies in reasoning when explaining and predicting medical problems. [source]

    Stabilizing Smoked Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Tissue after Extraction of Oil

    Cindy Bower
    ABSTRACT:, Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are highly valued by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Discarded pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) tissues were preserved using a combination of smoke-processing and acidification with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). All samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, ash, and lipid contents. Bacterial cell counts, pH, and lactic acid concentrations were recorded as a measure of LAB viability. Neither raw nor smoked salmon were free from spoilage during 60 d of storage. Only fermented samples successfully stabilized below pH 4.7, while retaining lactic acid concentrations over 15 g/L during storage. When smoked, fermented salmon head tissues were dried, the pH of the resulting high-protein "cracker" was significantly lower than when crackers were prepared only from the smoked (but not fermented) salmon material. Both cracker varieties retained valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids. This research suggests that salmon-head tissues discarded after oil extraction represent a good source of protein and high-value fatty acids in a shelf-stable form. Practical Application: Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are highly valued by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Material produced from salmon tissue discarded after oil extraction may represent a valuable resource for preparing high-protein crackers and other fish-based food products. In addition to providing a unique smoke-flavoring, the smoked, fermented fish material may also impart antioxidant factors thereby extending the shelf life of the product. [source]

    Effect of Water Phase Salt Content and Storage Temperature on Listeria monocytogenes Survival in Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Roe and Caviar (Ikura)

    Joong-Han Shin
    ABSTRACT:, Salmon caviar, or ikura, is a ready-to-eat food prepared by curing the salmon roe in a brine solution. Other seasonings or flavorants may be added, depending upon the characteristics of the product desired. Listeria monocytogenes growth is a potential risk, since it can grow at high salt concentrations (>10%) and in some products at temperatures as low as 3 °C. Ikura was prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe by adding food-grade NaCl to yield water phase salt contents (WPS) of 0.22% (no added salt), 2.39%± 0.18%, 3.50%± 0.19%, and 4.36%± 0.36%. A cocktail containing L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113) was incorporated into the ikura at 2 inoculum levels (log 2.4 and 4.2 CFU/g), and stored at 3 or 7 °C for up to 30 d. L. monocytogenes was recovered by plating onto modified Oxford media. Aerobic microflora were analyzed on plate count agar. Samples were tested at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 d. L. monocytogenes did not grow in chum salmon ikura held at 3 °C during 30 d at any salt level tested; however, the addition of salt at these levels did little to inhibit Listeria growth at 7 °C and counts reached 5 to 6 logs CFU/g. Components in the salmon egg intracellular fluid appear to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. Total aerobic microflora levels were slightly lower in products with higher salt contents. These results indicate that temperature control is critical for ikura and similar products, but that products with lower salt contents can be safe, as long as good refrigeration is maintained. [source]

    Injection-Salting of pre rigor Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Sveinung Birkeland
    ABSTRACT:, The effects of temperature (,1, 4, and 10 °C), brine concentration (12% and 25% NaCl), injection volumes, and needle densities were investigated on fillet weight gain (%), salt content (%), fillet contraction (%), and muscle gaping in pre rigor brine-injected fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Increased brine concentration (12% to 25%) significantly increased the initial (< 5 min after injection) and final contraction (24 h after injection) of pre rigor fillets. Increased brine concentration significantly reduced weight gain and increased salt content but had no significant effect on muscle gaping. The temperatures tested did not significantly affect weight gain, fillet contraction, or gaping score. Significant regressions (P < 0.01) between the injection volume and weight gain (range: 2.5% to 15.5%) and salt content (range: 1.7% to 6.5%) were observed for injections of pre rigor fillets. Double injections significantly increased the weight gain and salt content compared to single injections. Initial fillet contraction measured 30 min after brine injection increased significantly (P < 0.01) with increasing brine injection volume but no significant difference in the fillet contraction was observed 12 h after brine injection (range: 7.9% to 8.9%). Brine-injected post rigor control fillets obtained higher weight gain, higher salt content, more muscle gaping, and significantly lower fillet contraction compared to the pre rigor injected fillets. Injection-salting is an applicable technology as a means to obtain satisfactory salt contents and homogenously distribute the salt into the muscle of pre rigor fillets of Atlantic salmon before further processing steps such as drying and smoking. [source]

    Prediction of Microbial and Sensory Quality of Cold Smoked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) by Electronic Nose

    Gudrun Olafsdottir
    ABSTRACT: Quality changes of cold smoked salmon from 4 different smokehouses in Europe were monitored by a prototype gas-sensor array system, the FishNose. Samples were stored in different packaging (vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging [MAP]) for up to 4 wk under controlled storage conditions at 5 °C and 10 °C. Quality criteria based on sensory attributes (sweet/sour, off, and rancid odor), and total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria counts were established and used for classification of samples based on the responses of the FishNose. The responses of the gas-sensors correlated well with sensory analysis of spoilage odor and microbial counts suggesting that they can detect volatile microbially produced compounds causing spoilage odors in cold-smoked salmon during storage. The system is therefore ideal for fast quality control related to freshness evaluation of smoked salmon products. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models based on samples from single producer showed better performance than a global model based on products from different producers to classify samples of different quality. [source]

    Product Yield and Gaping in Cold-smoked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets as Influenced by Different Injection-salting Techniques

    S. Birkeland
    ABSTRACT Product yield and fillet gaping severity were determined in cold-smoked Atlantic salmon fillets subjected to injection-salting. Effects of process parameter settings (brine injection pressure, number of repeated injections, needle speed, injection of brine in 1 or 2 directions, and chilled fillet resting before smoking) were tested. Repeated injections increased the yield up to 5.3% (wt/wt). Increasing injection pressure significantly increased the severity of fillet gaping in smoked fillets by 18%. Brine injection directions or needle speed did not affect smoking yield. The stability of the injection system was high. The results show that choice of process parameter settings during injection-salting affects product yield after smoking. [source]

    The Effects of Irradiation, High Hydrostatic Pressure, and Temperature during Pressurization on the Characteristics of Cooked-reheated Salmon and Catfish Fillets

    D.R. McKenna
    ABSTRACT: Fully-cooked salmon and catfish fillets were treated by ionizing radiation (0, 3, or 6 kGy), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (0, 414, or 690 MPa), 2 different temperatures during pressurization (ambient-HHP approximately equal to 21 °C, or heated-HHP = 70 °C), and combinations of the treatments. Kramer shear values increased for salmon and catfish fillets treated by HHP, heated-HHP, and a combination treatment. Tenderness and juiciness scores of salmon and catfish fillets were lower with HHP, heated-HHP, and a combination treatment. Irradiation decreased CIE a* values of salmon, and CIE b* values of salmon and catfish. Irradiation increased tenderness and juiciness scores of salmon and increased flavor intensity of catfish. [source]

    Development of a Steam Treatment to Eliminate Listeria monocytogenes From King Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    P.J. Bremer
    ABSTRACT: A pilot plant steam treatment system was developed to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on exterior surfaces of King Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha prior to processing. Numbers of surviving L. monocytogenes cells on the surface were determined using an enrichment-based Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Inoculated L. monocytogenes cells were not recovered from the surface of salmon after exposure to the steam treatment for 8 sec. A 4-log reduction in L. monocytogenes numbers was obtained. Treated salmon could be processed into a high-yielding, high-quality cold smoked product. An in-plant system was subsequently shown to reduce "naturally" occurring L. monocytogenes numbers and produce a high quality final product. [source]

    Optimum Postmortem Chilled Storage Temperature for Summer and Winter Acclimated, Rested, Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) White Muscle

    A.R. Jerrett
    ABSTRACT Chemical anaesthesia (AQUI-STM) was used to harvest 2 groups of tank-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), naturally acclimated to summer (18.8 °C) and winter (10.7 and 12.4 °C) temperatures, in a "rested"state. Carcasses were stored in 35% seawater at temperatures between approximately 2 and 19 °C to investigate the effects of acclimation and storage temperature on the postmortem metabolic rate of rested epaxial white muscle tissue. Muscle pH, [lactate], and adenosine triphosphate/inosine monophosphate measurements made 20 h postharvest indicated that winter acclimated fish were 2.2 times more sensitive to temperature than summer fish. A 3rd group of winter acclimated fish, stored between ,1.2 and 6 °C, indicated that significant cold injury only occurred on freezing. [source]

    Protective effect of a marine oligopeptide preparation from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) on radiation-induced immune suppression in mice

    Ruiyue Yang
    Abstract BACKGROUND: A marine oligopeptide preparation (MOP) obtained from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) by the method of enzymatic hydrolysis, has been found to enhance the innate and adaptive immunities through stimulation of the secretion of cytokines in mice. The current study aimed to further investigate the protective effect of MOP on radiation-induced immune suppression in mice. RESULTS: Female ICR mice (6,8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. blank control, irradiation control and MOP (1.350 g kg,1 body weight) plus irradiation-treated group. MOP significantly increased the survival rate and prolonged the survival times for 30 days after irradiation, and lessened the radiation-induced suppression of T- or B-lymphocyte proliferation, resulting in the recovery of cell-mediated and humoral immune functions. This effect may be produced by augmentation of the relative numbers of radioresistant CD4+ T cells, enhancement of the level of immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12, reduction of the level of total cellular NF-,B through the induction of I,B in spleen and inhibition of the apoptosis of splenocytes. CONCLUSION: We propose that MOP be used as an ideal adjuvant therapy to alleviate radiation-induced injuries in cancer patients. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Sources of Phenotypic and Genetic Variation for Seawater Growth in Five North American Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, Stocks

    William R. Wolters
    In 2003, pedigreed families were obtained from two St. John's River sources, Penobscot River, Gaspè, and landlocked salmon stocks. Eyed eggs were disinfected upon arrival, and incubated in separate hatching jars. Fry were transferred prior to first feeding into individual 0.1-m3 tanks receiving 8 L/min of oxygen-saturated freshwater from a recirculating biological filtration system. At approximately 30 d after the initiation of feeding, fish densities were equalized to 250 fish/tank, fed 5% of the tank's total biomass in 3,4 daily feedings. When the fish were approximately 40 g, approximately 30 fish from each family were pit tagged and stocked communally into three replicated 10-m3 smolt tanks. Approximately 1 mo prior to stocking into sea cages for performance evaluations, evaluations of serum chloride levels and gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity were measured on subsamples from all stocks in freshwater and following seawater challenge. Smolts were stocked into sea cages in June 2005, harvested in February 2007, and evaluated for carcass weight, sex, and stage of sexual maturity. Data were analyzed by the mixed model ANOVA to determine the random effects of sire and dam (sire), and the fixed effects of sex, salmon stock, ploidy level, and replicate smolt tank on carcass weight with smolt weight as a covariate. Sire and dam variance components were significantly different from zero, and the fixed effects of salmon stock, sex × stock interaction, and smolt weight at stocking were significant (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among sexes, replicate smolt tank, or ploidy level for carcass weight. Overall, St. John's River fish had the fastest growth with a carcass weight >4.1 kg compared with the slowest growth in landlocked fish at 1.7 kg. Grilsing was also highest in St. John's River fish (ca. 4,6%) and lowest in Penobscot River fish (0%). The sire heritability for carcass weight calculated from the sire variance component using the mixed model ANOVA or MTDFREML was 0.26 ± 0.14. Data were used to calculate breeding values on captive sibling adult brood fish, and a line selected for carcass weight was spawned in the fall of 2007, and eggs from these fish were released to industry. [source]

    Dhiava: The Autumn Journey.

    Peter S. Allen
    Dhiava: The Autumn Journey. 1997 (U.S. release date: 1999). 50 minutes, color. film by David Hope and Tim Salmon. For more information, please contact Documentary Educational Resources. 101 Morse Street. Watertown. MA 02472, (617) 926- 0491, (617) 926-9519 (fax). [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Abstract:, Brachiopods from the late Ordovician (late Caradoc) Dulankara Formation of the Chu-Ili Range, Kazakhstan, are reviewed. Those from the upper two members of the formation, the Degeres and Akkol members, are systematically described. New genera from the Dulankara Formation are Nikitinamena (Plectambonitoidea: Leptellinidae), with type species Nikitinamena bicostata sp. nov., and Weberorthis (Orthoidea: Plectorthidae), with type species Mimella brevis Rukavishnikova. Another new genus is Glyptomenoides (Strophomenoidea: Glyptomenidae), with type species Rafinesquina girvanensis Salmon from the Caradoc of Girvan, Scotland. Other new species from the Dulankara Formation are Holtedahlina orientalis, Platymena tersa, Christiania proclivis, Leangella (Leangella) paletsae, Metambonites subcarinatus, Ogmoplecia nesca and Plectorthis licta. The ecology and assemblages of all three members of the Dulankara Formation are identified or reviewed, and their palaeogeographical significance assessed: the Chu-Ili Terrane (on which the Dulankara Formation was situated during the Ordovician) formed part of the relatively low-latitude peri-Gondwanan complex of terranes, and was probably not far from North and South China. The faunal links suggested between the Dulankara brachiopods and contemporary faunas from Australia are now perceived to be weaker than previously thought. [source]

    Wittgenstein on The Standard Metre

    W. J. Pollock
    In this paper I argue that Wittgenstein is correct when he says of the Standard Metre stick that we can neither say that it is or is not a metre in length , despite what our intuitions may tell us to the contrary. Specifically, the paper deals with Kripke's criticism of Wittgenstein's claim in Naming And Necessity and with Salmon's attempt to arbitrate between the two views. I conclude that, not only is Wittgenstein correct, but that both Kripke and Salmon (and possibly the majority of philosophers) simply do not understand the concept of measurement. [source]