Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Salinity

  • different salinity
  • dryland salinity
  • environmental salinity
  • high salinity
  • increased salinity
  • increasing salinity
  • low salinity
  • lower salinity
  • ppt salinity
  • reduced salinity
  • soil salinity
  • surface salinity
  • various salinity
  • water salinity

  • Terms modified by Salinity

  • salinity change
  • salinity concentration
  • salinity condition
  • salinity effects
  • salinity fluctuation
  • salinity gradient
  • salinity level
  • salinity range
  • salinity regime
  • salinity stress
  • salinity tolerance
  • salinity treatment
  • salinity water

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Fernando Garza-Sánchez
    The growth of microalgae in hypersaline conditions requires that cells accumulate osmoprotectants. In many instances, these are polyols. We isolated the diatom Nitzschia ovalis H. J. Arn. from the saline and alkaline water body Mono Lake (CA, USA). This isolate can grow in salinities ranging from 5 to 120 parts per thousand (ppt) of salt but normally at 90 ppt salinity. In this report, we identified the major polyol osmoprotectant as 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol by electron ionization-mass spectrometry (EI,MS), 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and infrared (IR) and showed an increase in cellular concentration in response to rising salinity. This increase in the cyclitol concentration was evaluated by gas chromatography of the derived tetraacetylated cyclohexanetetrol obtaining an average of 0.7 fmol · cell,1 at 5 ppt and rising to 22.5 fmol · cell,1 at 120 ppt. The 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol was also detected in the red alga Porphyridium purpureum. Analysis of the free amino acid content in N. ovalis cultures exposed to changes in salinity showed that proline and lysine also accumulate with increased salinity, but the cellular concentration of these amino acids is about 10-fold lower than the concentration of 1,4/2,5 cyclohexanetetrol. The comparison of amino acid concentration per cell with cyclitol suggests that this polyol is important in compensating the cellular osmotic pressure due to increased salinity, but other physiological functions could also be considered. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    A new species of Gonyaulax, here named Gonyaulax baltica sp. nov., has been isolated from sediment samples from the southeastern Baltic. Culture strains were established from individually isolated cysts, and cyst formation was induced in a nitrogen-depleted medium. Although G. baltica cysts are similar to some forms attributed to Spiniferites bulloideus and the motile stage of G. baltica has affinities with G. spinifera, the combination of features of cyst and motile stage of G. baltica is unique. The culture strains were able to grow at salinity levels from 5 to 55 psu and formed cysts from 10 to 50 psu. Cultures at each salinity level were grown at 12, 16, and 20° C. Temperature- and salinity-controlled morphological variability was found in the resting cysts. Central body size varied with temperature and salinity, and process length varied with salinity. Cysts that formed at extreme salinity levels displayed lower average process length than cysts formed at intermediate salinity levels, and central body length and width were lowest at higher temperature and lower salinity. Models for the relationship between central body size and temperature/salinity and process length and salinity have been developed and may be used to determine relative paleosalinity and paleotemperature levels. Our results on salinity-dependent process length confirm earlier reports on short-spined cysts of this species found in low salinity environments, and the model makes it possible to attempt to quantify past salinity levels. [source]

    Sedimentation of Soils from Three Physiographic Regions of Alabama at Different Salinities

    Gulnihal Ozbay
    This study evaluated the rate of sedimentation from water under various salinities, over a time period of 72 h. The particles come from soils that are commonly found in shrimp growing areas of Alabama: Black Belt Prairie, Piedmont Plateau, and Upper Coastal Plain. Different salinity treatments and settling times resulted in significant differences (P, 0.05) in the reduction of turbidity and TSS for each soil type. Solutions containing 2 ppt salinity had a similar rate of turbidity reduction as the solutions with 5, 10, or greater ppt treatments. Concentrations of turbidity and TSS decreased rapidly between 1 and 12 h of sedimentation; very little decline was observed during the time intervals 12,72 h. Higher salinity treatments yielded settling patterns similar to the 2 ppt salinity treatment. After 1 h, turbidity was removed by 65% in the control compared with 85% salinity treated samples. Variations in turbidity and TSS among the three sediments suggest that finer particles, the Piedmont Plateau soils, settled at a slower rate than larger particles. This difference occurs because the percentage of turbidity and TSS removed was significantly higher in mineralized waters compared to freshwater. Therefore, a small amount of salt, 2 ppt, can be used in pond aquaculture treatments to reduce the turbidity and TSS concentrations in shrimp ponds. [source]

    Effects of Low Salinities on Oxygen Consumption of Selected Euryhaline and Stenohaline Freshwater Fish

    Ilhan Altinok
    The amount of energy required for osmoregulation depends on the difference between internal and external concentrations of ions (Rao 1968; Farmer and Beamish 1969), changes in corticosteroid hormone levels (Morgan and Iwama 1996), glomerular filtration rates (Furspan et al. 1984), gill and kidney Na+, K+ -ATPase activity (McCormick et al. 1989; Morgan and Iwama 1998), tissue permeability to water and ions, and gill ventilation, perfusion, and functional surface area (Rankin and Bolis 1984). Differences in the energetic cost of osmoregulation play a significant role in the difference in growth rate between seawater-and freshwater-adapted fish (Morgan and Iwama 1991; Ron et al. 1995; Wang et al. 1997). Oxygen consumption is an indirect indicator of metabolic rate in fish (Cech 1990) and can be used to determine effects of salinity changes on energy costs. [source]

    Growth and Feed Utilization of the Tilapia Hybrid Oreochromis mossambicus×O. niloticus Cultured at Different Salinities under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    Manuel García-Ulloa
    Fish (2.32 g mean initial weight) were grown in 113-L aquaria at salinities of 0.5, 17 and 32 ppt at a density of 20 fish per tank. Mean specific growth, food conversion, and food consumption were determined at each salinity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth among the treatments, although feed conversion and feed consumption were significantly improved (P , 0.05) when fish were grown at 17 and 32 ppt. [source]

    Laboratory simulation of the salt weathering of schist: II.

    Fragmentation of fine schist particles
    Abstract Recent developments in long term landform evolution modelling have created a new demand for quantitative salt weathering data, and in particular data describing the size distribution of the weathered rock fragments. To enable future development of rock breakdown models for use in landscape evolution and soil production models, laboratory work was undertaken to extend existing schist/salt weathering fragmentation studies to include an examination of the breakdown of sub-millimetre quartz chlorite schist particles in a seasonally wet tropical climate. Laser particle sizing was used to assess the impact of different experimental procedures on the resulting particle size distribution. The results reveal that salt weathering under a range of realistic simulated tropical wet season conditions produces a significant degree of schist particle breakdown. The fragmentation of the schist is characterized by splitting of the larger fragments into mid-sized product with finer material produced, possibly from the breakdown of mid-sized fragments when weathering is more advanced. Salinity, the salt addition method and temperature were all found to affect weathering rates. Subtle differences in mineralogy also produce variations in weathering patterns and rates. It is also shown that an increase in drying temperature leads to accelerated weathering rates, however, the geometry of the fracture process is not significantly affected. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Atlantic climatic factors control decadal dynamics of a Baltic Sea copepod Temora longicornis

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2003
    Jari Hänninen
    We discovered, using transfer functions, that climatic changes in the Atlantic control the abundance of Temora longicornis, a dominant pelagic copepod of the Baltic Sea. The seawater salinity was increasing and copepod numbers were high from 1960s up to 1970s. Then the freshwater runoff started to increase, which resulted in decreasing salinities and abundance of the copepod. At the end of 1990s, runoffs remained at a high level, and the decrease of surface salinities and Temora leveled off. Due to time lags between variables studied, we also make predictions of changes expectable in early 2000s. The total freshwater runoff to the Baltic Sea followed the North Atlantic Oscillation with an immediate lag. Salinity followed the runoff non-linearly with a lag of 4,9 months. Temora longicornis followed the salinity with a lag of 1,3 months. Predicted abundance of T. longicornis will remain low implicating poor feeding conditions for planktivores. Our study points out the importance of physical factors in control of pelagic environments compared to ecological interactions, such as top-down and bottom-up. [source]

    Influence of salinity on the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to an estuarine shrimp and oligochaete

    John E. Weinstein
    Abstract The effect of salinity on the photoinduced toxicity of waterborne fluoranthene to larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugto) and tubificid oligochaete worms (Monopylephorus rubrontveus) was studied in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight. In the grass shrimp toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 3.6, 7.3, 13.8, and 29.0 ,g/L) and four salinities (6.9, 14.5, 21.2, and 28.6,) were achieved. In the oligochaete toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 0.8, 1.4, 3.3, and 7.7 ,g/L) and four salinities (7.1, 13.3, 20.5, and 27.6,) were achieved. Salinity had no effect on either the photoinduced toxicity or the bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in the grass shrimp. However, the highest level of salinity decreased the median lethal time for the oligochaete. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene was inversely related to salinity for the oligochaete. Additional experiments demonstrated an inverse relationship between salinity and short-term osmotic weight change in the oligochaete. Weight of the grass shrimp larvae was not affected by salinity. These findings show that salinity can influence the toxicity and bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in some estuarine organisms. The influence of salinity on these populations may be related to physiological responses associated with internal osmotic volume changes. Thus, salinity needs to be taken into account when assessing the risk of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to at least some estuarine species. [source]

    Assessing sediment contamination in estuaries

    Peter M. Chapman
    Abstract Historic and ongoing sediment contamination adversely affects estuaries, among the most productive marine ecosystems in the world. However, all estuaries are not the same, and estuarine sediments cannot be treated as either fresh or marine sediments or properly assessed without understanding both seasonal and spatial estuarine variability and processes, which are reviewed. Estuaries are physicochemically unique, primarily because of their variable salinity but also because of their strong gradients in other parameters, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, and amount and composition of particles. Salinity (overlying and interstitial) varies spatially (laterally, vertically) and temporally and is the controlling factor for partitioning of contaminants between sediments and overlying or interstitial water. Salinity also controls the distribution and types of estuarine biota. Benthic infauna are affected by interstitial salinities that can be very different than overlying salinities, resulting in large-scale seasonal species shifts in salt wedge estuaries. There are fewer estuarine species than fresh or marine species (the paradox of brackish water). Chemical, toxicological, and community-level assessment techniques for estuarine sediment are reviewed and assessed, including chemistry (grain size effects, background enrichment, bioavailability, sediment quality values, interstitial water chemistry), biological surveys, and whole sediment toxicity testing (single-species tests, potential confounding factors, community level tests, laboratory-to-field comparisons). Based on this review, there is a clear need to tailor such assessment techniques specifically for estuarine environments. For instance, bioavailability models including equilibrium partitioning may have little applicability to estuarine sediments, appropriate reference comparisons are difficult in biological surveys, and there are too few full-gradient estuarine sediment toxicity tests available. Specific recommendations are made to address these and other issues. [source]

    Salinity as a structuring factor for the composition and performance of bacterioplankton degrading riverine DOC

    Silke Langenheder
    Abstract The impact of salinity on the composition and functional performance (biomass production, growth efficiency and growth rates) of bacterial communities was investigated using batch cultures growing on dissolved organic carbon from a river draining into the Northern Baltic Sea. The cultures were adjusted to riverine or estuarine salinity levels and inoculated with bacteria from these two environments. Bacterial growth efficiencies differed in response to salinity and the origin of the inoculum. When salinity was adjusted to correspond to the salinity at the site where the inoculum was retrieved, growth efficiency was relatively high (11.5±2.6%). However, when bacteria were confronted with a shift in salinity, growth efficiency was lower (7.5±2.0%) and more of the utilized carbon was respired. In contrast, growth rates were higher when bacteria were exposed to a change in salinity. The composition of the bacterial communities developing in the batch cultures differed, as shown by 16S rDNA DGGE, depending on the origin of the inoculum and salinity. Reverse and direct DNA,DNA hybridization revealed salinity optima in the growth of specific bacterial strains as well as broader phylogenetic groups. Strains belonging to the ,- and ,- Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and ,- Proteobacteria other than the genus Pseudomonas showed higher relative abundance under freshwater conditions, whereas strains of the genus Pseudomonas and the Cytophaga,Flavobacterium,Bacteroides group were favored by estuarine conditions. Generally, our results demonstrate functional changes associated with changes in community composition. We suggest that even moderate changes in salinity affect bacterial community composition, which subsequently leads to altered growth characteristics. [source]

    The effects of salinity on aquatic plant germination and zooplankton hatching from two wetland sediments

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    Daryl L. Nielsen
    Summary 1. The effect of increasing salinity on the emergence of zooplankton eggs and the germination of aquatic plant seeds from the sediment of two wetlands was examined. Salinity was found to cause reductions in species richness and abundance of aquatic plants and zooplankton at salinities between 1000 and 5000 mg L,1. Aquatic plants also had an associated decrease in above ground biomass. 2. Individual taxa showed different responses to salinity, and four response patterns were identified: (i) increased number of organisms emerging at 1000 mg L,1; (ii) decreased number of organisms emerging above 1000 mg L,1; (iii) decreased number of organisms emerging between 300 and 1000 mg L,1; (iv) no difference in number of organisms emerging across the range of salinities. Response patterns (iii) and (iv) were common to both plants and zooplankton, whereas response patterns (i) and (ii) were only identified for zooplankton. 3. Results indicate that there is potential for the increasing salinity in Australian rivers and wetlands to decrease the species richness of aquatic communities resulting in loss of wetland biodiversity. [source]

    Hydraulic observations from a 1 year fluid production test in the 4000 m deep KTB pilot borehole

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2006
    Abstract A long-term pump test was conducted in the KTB pilot borehole (KTB-VB), located in the Oberpfalz area, Germany. It produced 22 300 m3 of formation fluid. Initially, fluid production rate was 29 l min,1 for 4 months, but was then raised to an average of 57 l min,1 for eight more months. The aim of this study was to examine the fluid parameters and hydraulic properties of fractured, crystalline crusts as part of the new KTB programme ,Energy and Fluid Transport in Continental Fault Systems'. KTB-VB has an open-hole section from 3850 to 4000 m depth that is in hydraulic contact with a prominent continental fault system in the area, called SE2. Salinity and temperature of the fluid inside the borehole, and consequently hydrostatic pressure, changed significantly throughout the test. Influence of these quantities on variations in fluid density had to be taken into account for interpretation of the pump test. Modelling of the pressure response related to the pumping was achieved assuming the validity of linear Darcy flow and permeability to be independent of the flow rate. Following the principle ,minimum in model dimension', we first examined whether the pressure response can be explained by an equivalent model where rock properties around the borehole are axially symmetric. Calculations show that the observed pressure data in KTB-VB can in fact be reproduced through such a configuration. For the period of high pumping rate (57 l min,1) and the following recovery phase, the resulting parameters are 2.4 × 10,13 m3 in hydraulic transmissivity and 3.7 × 10,9 m Pa,1 in storativity for radial distances up to 187 m, and 4.7 × 10,14 m3 and 6.0 × 10,9 m Pa,1, respectively, for radial distances between 187 and 1200 m. The former pair of values mainly reflect the hydraulic properties of the fault zone SE2. For a more realistic hydraulic study on a greater scale, program FEFLOW was used. Parameter values were obtained by matching the calculated induced pressure signal to fluid-level variations observed in the KTB main hole (KTB-HB) located at 200 m radial distance from KTB-VB. KTB-HB is uncased from 9031 to 9100 m and shows indications of leakage in the casing at depths 5200,5600 m. Analysis of the pressure record and hydraulic modelling suggest the existence of a weak hydraulic communication between the two boreholes, probably at depths around the leakage. Hydraulic modelling of a major slug-test in KTB-HB that was run during the pumping in KTB-VB reveals the effective transmissivity of the connected formation to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than the one determined for the SE2 fault zone. [source]

    Density-dependent surface water,groundwater interaction and nutrient discharge in the Swan,Canning Estuary

    Anthony J. Smith
    Abstract Salinity in the Swan,Canning Estuary, Western Australia, varies seasonally from freshwater conditions in winter up to the salinity of seawater in summer. Field observations show that the resulting seasonal density contrasts between the estuary and the adjacent fresh groundwater system are sufficient to drive mixed-convection cells that give rise to circulation of river water in the aquifer. In this study, we examine the role of steady density-driven convection as a mechanism that contributes to the exchange of dissolved nutrients, particularly ammonium, between the Swan,Canning Estuary and the local groundwater system. We present results from two-dimensional (section) and three-dimensional density-coupled flow and mass transport modelling, in comparison with Glover's abrupt-interface solution for saltwater intrusion. The modelling is focused on developing an understanding of the physical processes that influence the long-term or mean convective behaviour of groundwater beneath the estuary. It is shown that the convective stability depends fundamentally on the interplay between two factors: (1) the downward destabilizing buoyancy effect of density contrasts between the estuary and aquifer; and (2) the upward stabilizing influence of regional groundwater discharge. The structure of convection cells beneath the estuary and recirculation rates of estuary water within the groundwater system are shown to be related to a flow-modified Rayleigh number that depends critically on the aquifer anisotropy and estuary meander pattern. The recirculation of estuary water by these mechanisms is responsible for transport of high concentrations of ammonium, observed in pore fluids in the estuary bed sediments, into groundwater and its eventual return to the estuary. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of Deficit Irrigation and Salinity Stress on Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) and Mungbean (Vigna Radiata (L.) Wilczek) Grown in a Controlled Environment

    M. Bourgault
    Abstract As water for irrigation purposes becomes increasingly scarce because of climate change and population growth, there is growing interest in regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) as a way to improve efficiency of water usage and farm productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Salinity is also becoming an important problem in these same regions. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of RDI and salt stress on two legumes crops, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek); previous work showed contrasting responses to RDI by these two crops under field conditions. The seed and biomass yields of both crops were reduced as a result of increasing water deficit stress; however, mungbean was able to maintain the same proportion of its biomass in reproductive structures and maintain its harvest index under stress, whereas common bean's decreased. In addition, photosynthesis in mungbean was higher than in common bean and higher at the same levels of transpiration. Finally, salinity stress did not affect the water potential, harvest index or the specific leaf weight of either crop. There were no interactions between salinity and crops or RDI levels, which suggest that the two crops do not differ in their response to salinity stress, and that RDI levels do not modify this response. [source]

    Germination of Salicornia bigelovii Ecotypes under Stressing Conditions of Temperature and Salinity and Ameliorative Effects of Plant Growth-promoting Bacteria

    E. O. Rueda-Puente
    Abstract Salinity is a major stress condition. Salicornia bigelovii is a valuable edible halophyte, considered to be a promising resource for cultivation in arid coastal zones. Its productivity depends on the supplementary provision of nitrogen, for which an option is chemical fertilization. Nevertheless, indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers contributes to the problem of increased salinity. The inoculation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represents an alternative. Seed ecotypes from four coastal areas [Santa Rosa Chica, Santa Rosa Grande, Santa Cruz and Cerro Prieto (CP), Sonora, México] were collected, in order to inoculate them with two species of PGPB (Azospirillum halopraeferens and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length and biomass produced (fresh and dry matter). In the first test, all four ecotypes were considered, whereas in the second test only the CP ecotype was involved because it was found to be the outstanding ecotype in the previous test. Results showed inhibition of germination when salinity was higher in all ecotypes except CP. The CP ecotype showed a decrease of seed germination with an increase in NaCl concentrations at all temperatures tested. However, when it was inoculated with both PGPB, the germination percentage was influenced. [source]

    Effect of Sodium Chloride Salinity on Seedling Emergence in Chickpea

    H. A. Esechie
    Although laboratory (Petri dish) germination as an estimate of seed viability is a standard practice, it may not give an accurate prediction of seedling emergence in the field, especially when saline irrigation water is used. Experiments were conducted to investigate seedling emergence in two chickpea cultivars (ILC 482 and Barka local) in response to varied salinity levels and sowing depths. Seeds were sown in potted soil at a depth of 2, 4 or 6 cm. The salinity treatments were 4.6, 8.4 and 12.2 dS m,1. Tap water (0.8 dS m,1) served as the control. Depth of sowing had a significant effect on seedling emergence. Seeds sown 6 cm deep showed the lowest seedling emergence. Similarly, salinity had an adverse effect on seedling emergence. The lowest seedling emergence percentages were obtained at the highest salinity treatment (12.2 dS m,1). The interaction between salinity treatment and seeding depth was significant. Hypocotyl injury was implicated as a possible cause of poor seedling emergence in chickpea under saline water irrigation and was less severe when pre-germinated seeds were used. ILC 482 appeared to be more tolerant to salinity than Barka local, suggesting that breeding programmes involving regional exchange of germplasm may be helpful. Einfluss einer Natriumchloridversalzung auf den Sämlingsaufgang von Kichererbse Obwohl im Laboratorium (Petrischale) die Keimung an Hand einer Abschätzung der Samenkeimkraft als Standard beurteilt wird, kann dies eine nicht zuverlässige Voraussage des Sämlingsaufganges im Feld sein, insbesondere wenn versalztes Bewässerungswasser verwendet wird. Die Experimente wurden durchgeführt, um das Sämlingsauflaufen von zwei Kichererbsenkultivaren (ILC 482 und Barka local) in der Reaktion gegenüber variierten Versalzungskonzentrationen und Aussaattiefen zu untersuchen. Die Samen wurden in Gefäßkulturen mit einer Tiefe von 2, 4 oder 6 cm angesät. Die Versalzungsbehandlungen betrugen 4.6, 8.4 und 12.2 dS m,1. Unversalztes Wasser (0.8 dS m,1) diente als Kontrolle. Die Aussaattiefe hatte einen signifikanten Einfluss auf das Auflaufen der Sämlinge. Samen mit einer 6 cm Tiefe Ansaat hatten den schlechtesten Auflauf. Entsprechend zeigte auch die Versalzung einen ungünstigen Einfluss auf den Sämlingsaufgang. Die schlechteste Keimlingsaufgangsrate wurde bei der höchsten Versalzungsbehandlung (12.2 dS m,1) gefunden. Die Interaktion zwischen Versalzungsbehandlungen und Saattiefe war signifikant. Die Hypokotytbeschädigung wird als eine mögliche Ursache der schwachen Auflaufraten bei Kichererbse unter dem Einfluss versalzten Bewässerungswassers erklärt; die Wirkung war weniger schwer, wenn vorgekeimte Samen verwendet wurden. ILC 482 scheint toleranter gegenüber Versalzung zu sein als Barka local; es erscheint zweckmäßig, Zuchtprogramme unter Verwendung regionaler Genotypen durchzuführen. [source]

    Plant,Water Relations of Kidney Bean Plants Treated with NaCl and Foliarly Applied Glycinebetaine

    C. M. L. Lopez
    Salinity is at present one of the most serious environmental problems influencing crop growth. It has been extensively demonstrated that salinity affects several physiological processes in the plant, including the plant,water relations of most salt-sensitive crops species. In this study, the effects of salinity on the plant,water relations of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the possibility that foliarly applied glycinebetaine improves these water relations are examined. Kidney bean plants were grown in a greenhouse and treated with 0, 30, 50 and 100 mM NaCl, combined with 0, 10 and 30 mM glycinebetaine in foliar applications. Increased salinity levels decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, transpiration and leaf relative water content in the 30, 50 and 100 mM treatments relative to the control treatment. Glycinebetaine applications of 10 mM increased stomatal conductance at 50 mM NaCl, ameliorating significantly the effect of salinity on water relations through increases in the leaf relative water content. At 100 mM NaCl, 30 mM glycinebetaine applications in particular contributed to osmotic stress, and had an adverse effect on plants. Our experiment suggests that glycinebetaine can be used as an alternative treatment to reduce the effects of salt stress on the water relations of salt-sensitive plants, but only to limited salinity levels. Furthermore, the improvement in the water status of kidney beans was dose dependent, suggesting that the concentration of glycinebetaine essential for the survival of salt-sensitive plants is species specific and must be determined individually for each plant species. Pflanzen,Wasser-Beziehungen von NaCl-behandelten und mit Glycinbetain besprühten Blättern von Gartenbohnenpflanzen Versalzung ist zur Zeit eine der am meisten wirksamen Umweltprobleme im Hinblick auf das Wachstum von Kulturpflanzen. Es hat umfangreiche Untersuchungen gegeben, die Versalzungswirkungen in ihrem Einfluss auf zahlreiche physiologische Vorgänge in der Pflanze zu untersuchen; hierbei wurden auch die Pflanzen,Wasser-Beziehungen von hochsalzempfindlichen Pflanzenarten berück-sichtigt. In dieser Untersuchung wurden die Einflüsse der Versalzung auf die Pflanzen,Wasser-Beziehungen bei Buschbohnen (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) und die Möglichkeit über Blattbesprühungen mit Glycinbetain die Wasser-Beziehungen zu verbessern, untersucht. Die Buschbohnen wurden im Gewächshaus angezogen und mit 0, 30, 50 mM NaCl in Kombination mit 0, 10, 30 mM Glycinbetain Blattbehandlungen angezogen. Eine Erhöhung der Versalzung führte zu einer Abnahme der stomatären Konduktanz, der Photosyntheserate, der Transpiration und des relativen Blattwassergehaltes bei den Behandlungen mit 30, 50 und 100 mM im Vergleich zur Kontrolle. Glysinbetainanwendungen von 10mM erhöhten die stomatäre Konduktanz bei 50 mM NaCl und verbesserten signifikant den ungünstigen Einfluss der Versalzung auf die Wasser-Beziehungen über eine Erhöhung des relativen Blattwassergehaltes. Verwendung von 100 mM NaCl und 30 mM GB trug zu dem osmotischen Streß durch Versalzung bei und hatten einen ungünstigen Einfluss auf die Pflanzen. Unser Experiment weist darauf hin, dass Glycinbetain eine alternative Möglichkeit ist, um die Einflüsse des Salzstresses auf die Wasser-Beziehungen von salzempfindlichen Pflanzen abzuschwächen; es bestehen aber Begrenzungen bezüglich des Versalzungsgrades, bei denen eine günstige Wirkung nachgewiesen werden kann. Ausserdem ist die Verbesserung im Wasserzustand der Buschbohnen von der Anwendungsstärke abhängig, so dass die Konzentration von GB wesentlich für das Überleben der salzempfindlichen Pflanzenart spezifisch ist und für jede Pflanzenart untersucht werden. [source]

    Effects of Salinity and Mixed Ammonium and Nitrate Nutrition on the Growth and Nitrogen Utilization of Barley

    A. Ali
    The absorption and utilization of nitrogen (N) by plants are affected by salinity and the form of N in the root medium. A hydroponic study was conducted under controlled conditions to investigate growth and N uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) supplied with five different NH4+ -N/NO3, -N ratios at electrical conductivity of 0 and 8 dS m,1. The five NH4+ -N/NO3 -N ratios were 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0, each giving a total N supply of 100 mg N l,1 in the root medium. A mixed N supply of NH4+ and NO3, resulted in greater accumulation of N in plants than either NO3, or NH4+ as the sole N source. Plants produced a significantly higher dry matter yield when grown with mixed N nutrition than with NH4+ or NO3, alone. Total dry matter production and root and shoot N contents decreased with increasing salinity in the root medium. The interaction between salinity and N nutrition was found to be significant for all the variables. A significant positive correlation (r=0.97) was found between nitrogen level in the plant shoot and its dry matter yield. Wachstum und Stickstoffausnutzung bei Gerste in Abhängigkeit von Versalzung und Michungen von Ammonium und Nitrat Aufnahme und Nutzung von N durch Pflanzen wird von der Versalzung und N-Form im Wurzelbereich bestimmt. Es wurde in Hydrokultur unter kontrollierten Bedingungen Wachstum und N-Aufnahme durch Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.) bei Anwendung von fünf unterschiedlichen NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnissen bei einer elektrischen Konduktivität von 0 und 8 dS m,1 untersucht. Die Gesamtmenge von 100 mg N l,1 im Wurzelmedium wies NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnisse von 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 und 100/0 auf. Mischungen von NH4+ und NO3, führten zu einer größeren Aufnahme durch die Pflanzen als bei alleiniger Anwendung von NO3, oder NH4+. Die Pflanzen produzierten signifikant mehr Gesamttrockenmasse mit Mischungen der beiden N-Formen im Vergleich zu alleiniger Anwendung von NH4+ oder NO3,. Die Gesamttrockenmasse sowie die N-Gehalte von Wurzel und Sproß nahmen mit steigender Versalzung ab. Versalzungs- und N-Versorgungs-Interaktion war signifikant in allen Versuchsbedingungen. Eine signifikante positive Korrelation (r=0,97) wurde zwischen Stickstoffkonzentration und der Trockenmasseproduktion der Pflanze gefunden. [source]

    Predicting and managing the effects of hypersalinity on the fish community in solar salt fields in north-western Australia

    B. W. Molony
    Summary Five concentrator ponds (CPs) of a solar salt field in Port Hedland, Western Australia were sampled by seine and gill nets over a 12-month period in order to describe the fish community and examine relationships between diversity, abundance and catch per unit effort (CPUE) with salinity. Salinity varied between 40.2 and 113.7, during the sampling period. Forty-one species of fishes were recorded from the CPs, with fewer species recorded from CPs of higher salinity. A significant inverse relationship was identified between salinity and the number of species (diversity) captured in gill nets, indicating that one species is lost with every 16, increase in salinity. A significant relationship between salinity and CPUE was also identified with gill-net samples, indicating a reduction of 1 kg h,1 with every increase in salinity of 5.5,. As CPs are connected by one-way flaps, fish movements are only possible into CPs of higher salinity. Thus, reductions in diversity, abundance and CPUE suggested fish mortalities, likely as a result of maximum or rapidly changing salinities exceeding the tolerance ability of individual species. As fish kills are not infrequent events in solar salt fields and result in economic losses due to loss of production and clean-up costs, the results may allow managers to identify high risk species and times of year of fish kills by using salinity measurements. Commercial, indigenous and/or recreational fishing opportunities are viable options for reducing fish biomasses within the CPs and are discussed. Although absolute salinity values were higher than those recorded from tropical Australian estuaries, salinity deviations within each CP are similar to other estuaries and the effect on the ichthyo-community is likely to be similar. [source]

    The effects of salinity and other factors on nitrite reduction by Ochrobactrum anthropi 49187

    Margaret B. Causey
    The nitrite reductase (NIR) gene was cloned from Ochrobactrum anthropi 49187 and found to contain an open reading frame of 1131 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 376 amino acids. The O. anthropi NIR gene encodes a copper-type dissimilatory reductase based on sequence homology with other genes. The polypeptide product is predicted to form a trimeric holoenzyme of 37 kDa subunits based on molecular weight estimates of extracts in activity gels. Expression of the enzyme is up-regulated by nitrate, presumably through the intermediate nitrite, and its activity is influenced by inhibitors. Salinity enhances the activity of existing NIR enzyme, but appears to decrease the expression of new enzyme. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Positive and negative consequences of salinity stress for the growth and reproduction of the clonal plant, Iris hexagona

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Peter A. Van Zandt
    Summary 1Salinization is a growing environmental stress in wetland ecosystems world-wide. Several models have been proposed that predict clonal plant responses to stress, including that environmental stress stimulates sexual reproduction. 2We conducted a common-garden experiment to investigate the effects of salinity on 10 natural populations of Iris hexagona, a clonal perennial endemic to freshwater and brackish wetlands of the North American Gulf Coast. 3Salinity reduced vegetative growth but either increased or had neutral effects on sexual reproduction, consistent with the clonal stress hypothesis. Salinity of 4 µg g,1 more than doubled the number of seeds produced compared with freshwater controls, but flower number and seed mass were unaffected. 4Salinity reduced total below-ground mass by nearly 50% compared with controls, with no significant change in rhizome numbers. 5Plants from 10 randomly selected I. hexagona populations differed dramatically in growth and reproduction, independent of salinity. Total biomass that accumulated over the 20-month experiment ranged across all treatments from 52 to 892 g, and flower numbers varied from 2.3 to 11.3 per replicate. 6Populations did not respond differently to salinity, except with respect to above- : below-ground ratios, thus providing no conclusive evidence for local adaptation to salinity stress. 7Our results concur with published models of plant reproductive strategies in variable environments, in that environmental stress stimulated sexual reproduction at the expense of growth. However, these models do not predict the observed sharp decline in seed production at near lethal salinity levels. [source]

    Effects of reduced salinities on growth, food conversion efficiency and osmoregulatory status in the spotted wolffish

    A. Foss
    No significant differences in mean mass between groups were found at any time in spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor, mean (±S.D.) initial mass 76 (±21) g, reared at salinities of 12, 17, 25 and 34, for 12 weeks at 8° C. Salinity did not have a significant effect on daily feeding rates, total food consumption, food conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Growth trajectories varied between groups, but no overall difference in growth was found. Plasma osmolality and plasma chloride levels decreased with salinity in a 48 h abrupt exposure trial, and in the growth experiment the low salinity groups (12 and 17,) exhibited significantly lower values compared with 25 and 34,. The decrease was moderate and concentrations were well within the range described for other marine species. The results indicate that the spotted wolffish is a strong osmoregulator which could be reared at various salinity levels. [source]

    Effect of Conductivity, pH, and Elution Buffer Salinity on Glycomacropeptide Recovery from Whey Using Anion Exchange Chromatography

    Hatice N. Tek
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of whey conductivity, pH, and the salt concentration of the elution buffer on glycomacropeptide recovery and its extent of contamination using anion exchange chromatography. Glycomacropeptide was isolated from Mozzarella whey. Samples were analyzed for glycomacropeptide and contaminating whey proteins. Mass balances and percent recoveries were calculated from these data. Glycomacropeptide recovery increased substantially with decreasing conductivity and increasing pH of the whey feed stream. Increasing the pH, but not increasing the conductivity, increased contamination of the glycomacropeptide by primarily beta-lactoglobulin. Salt concentration of at least 0.1 M was required for complete elution of bound glycomacropeptide. These data define conditions needed for glycomacropeptide recovery by a process chromatography system that uses food-grade buffers, operates at industrially relevant flow rates, and achieves up to 98% recovery. [source]

    The Influence Of Salinity On Verticillium dahliae In Stem Cuttings Of Five Olive Cultivars

    A. G. Levin
    Abstract Verticillium dahliae represents one of the main limiting factors in olive production in the Mediterranean countries. Increasing shortage of fresh water and land, increase the pressure on using alternative sources of marginal or saline water, and land previously cropped with V. dahliae host plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of salinity on V. dahliae expression in olive stem cuttings. V. dahliae- inoculated cuttings of cvs. Picual, Frantoio, Mansanillo and Barnea, showed higher senescence symptoms than their non-inoculated controls. Colonization levels obtained in cv. Picual were significantly higher than in cv. Frantoio. Manzanillo was the most sensitive cultivar to salinity alone, with significant senescence symptoms in 4 and 6 dS/m NaCl treatments. When cv. Manzanillo was exposed to both salinity and V. dahliae, significantly higher senescence symptoms were obtained as compared with each of them separately. Senescence symptoms of cv. Picual exposed to V. dahliae, whether or not in combination with saline solutions, were significantly higher than those when cuttings were exposed to a saline solution alone. In cv. Frantoio, which is more resistant to salinity than the other cultivars, significantly high senescence symptoms were observed only in combination of V. dahliae and high saline concentration (8 dS/m). The fungal colonization index in cv. Manzanillo in high salinity (8 dS/m) was significantly higher than in the treatment without salt. In cv. Barnea, colonization index in 8 dS/m salinity was significantly higher than in the 4 dS/m concentration or control (fresh water). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the interaction between V. dahliae and saline irrigation in various cultivars. Thus, stem cuttings could serve as an effective screening method in breeding olive clones for V. dahliae resistance, salt tolerance and their interaction. [source]

    Interaction Effects of Citrus Rootstocks, Salinity and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Parasitism on Osmotically Active Ions

    High densities of Tylenchulus semipenetrans and slow decline symptoms are dominant in citrus-producing areas with high salinity. Currently, no commercial citrus rootstock is both nematode-resistant and salt-tolerant. Interaction effects of citrus rootstocks, salinity and T. semipenetrans were evaluated for the partitioning of salinity ions (Cl and Na) and K in microplots. Treatments comprised six citrus rootstocks with wide ranges of salt tolerance, 0 and 3 mols NaCl + 0.25 mols CaCl2 l,1 water and 0 and 856 300 nematodes. At harvest, eight months after salinity treatments, the three,factor interaction was significant (P=0.05) for the alteration in the partitioning of salinity ions and K. Nematodes generally increased salinity ions in leaves and reduced salinity ions in roots and K in both leaves and roots. Thus, management of nematodes is critical in areas with salinity problems. [source]

    Salt-resistant and salt-sensitive wheat genotypes show similar biochemical reaction at protein level in the first phase of salt stress

    Muhammad Saqib
    Abstract Salinity has a two-phase effect on plant growth, an osmotic effect due to salts in the outside solution and ion toxicity in a second phase due to salt build-up in transpiring leaves. To elucidate salt-resistance mechanisms in the first phase of salt stress, we studied the biochemical reaction of salt-resistant and salt-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes at protein level after 10 d exposure to 125 mM,NaCl salinity (first phase of salt stress) and the variation of salt resistance among the genotypes after 30 d exposure to 125 mM,NaCl salinity (second phase of salt stress) in solution culture experiments in a growth chamber. The three genotypes differed significantly in absolute and relative shoot and root dry weights after 30 d exposure to NaCl salinity. SARC-1 produced the maximum and 7-Cerros the minimum shoot dry weights under salinity relative to control. A highly significant negative correlation (r2 = ,0.99) was observed between salt resistance (% shoot dry weight under salinity relative to control) and shoot Na+ concentration of the wheat genotypes studied. However, the salt-resistant and salt-sensitive genotypes showed a similar biochemical reaction at the level of proteins after 10 d exposure to 125 mM NaCl. In both genotypes, the expression of more than 50% proteins was changed, but the difference between the genotypes in various categories of protein change (up-regulated, down-regulated, disappeared, and new-appeared) was only 1%,8%. It is concluded that the initial biochemical reaction to salinity at protein level in wheat is an unspecific response and not a specific adaptation to salinity. [source]

    Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants

    Yuncai Hu
    Abstract The increasing frequency of dry periods in many regions of the world and the problems associated with salinity in irrigated areas frequently result in the consecutive occurrence of drought and salinity on cultivated land. Currently, 50% of all irrigation schemes are affected by salinity. Nutrient disturbances under both drought and salinity reduce plant growth by affecting the availability, transport, and partitioning of nutrients. However, drought and salinity can differentially affect the mineral nutrition of plants. Salinity may cause nutrient deficiencies or imbalances, due to the competition of Na+ and Cl, with nutrients such as K+, Ca2+, and NO. Drought, on the other hand, can affect nutrient uptake and impair acropetal translocation of some nutrients. Despite contradictory reports on the effects of nutrient supply on plant growth under saline or drought conditions, it is generally accepted that an increased nutrient supply will not improve plant growth when the nutrient is already present in sufficient amounts in the soil and when the drought or salt stress is severe. A better understanding of the role of mineral nutrients in plant resistance to drought and salinity will contribute to an improved fertilizer management in arid and semi-arid areas and in regions suffering from temporary drought. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on plant nutrition under drought and salinity conditions. Specific topics include: (1) the effects of drought and salt stress on nutrient availability, uptake, transport, and accumulation in plants, (2) the interactions between nutrient supply and drought- or salt-stress response, and (3) means to increase nutrient availability under drought and salinity by breeding and molecular approaches. Trockenstress und Salzstress , Vergleich der Auswirkungen auf die mineralische Ernährung von Pflanzen Eine Zunahme von Trockenperioden in vielen Ländern der Welt und assoziierte Probleme der Versalzung in bewässerten Gebieten führen häufig zu gleichzeitigem Auftreten von Trockenheit und Salinität. Gegenwärtig sind weltweit ungefähr 50 % aller Bewässerungsflächen durch Salinität beeinträchtigt. Nährstoffstörungen bei Trocken- und Salzstress beeinträchtigen die Verfügbarkeit, den Transport und die Verteilung von Nährelementen in der Pflanze und reduzieren somit das Pflanzenwachstum. Trocken- und Salzstress können sich jedoch unterschiedlich auf die Nährstoffversorgung der Pflanzen auswirken. Salinität kann aufgrund der Konkurrenz zwischen Na+ bzw. Cl, und Nährelementen wie K+, Ca2+ und NO Nährstoffmängel oder -ungleichgewichte in den Pflanzen verursachen. Trockenstress kann sowohl die Nährstoffaufnahme als auch den akropetalen Transport einiger Elemente beeinträchtigen. Trotz kontroverser Schlussfolgerungen in der Literatur hinsichtlich der Wechselbeziehungen von Nährstoffangebot und Trocken- bzw. Salzstress auf das Pflanzenwachstum ist allgemein akzeptiert, dass Nährstoffzufuhr das Pflanzenwachstum nicht verbessert, wenn ausreichend Nährstoffe im Boden verfügbar sind oder bei stark ausgeprägter Trockenheit oder Salinität. Ein besseres Verständnis der Rolle von Mineralstoffen in der Toleranz von Pflanzen gegenüber Trocken- oder Salzstress dürfte gerade in ariden und semi-ariden Gebieten sowie in Regionen, die unter periodischer Trockenheit leiden, zu verbesserten Düngestrategien beitragen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der gegenwärtige Kenntnisstand der mineralischen Ernährung bei Trockenheit und Salinität diskutiert. Schwerpunkte der Betrachtungen sind (1) die Auswirkungen von Trockenheit und Salzstress auf die Verfügbarkeit, die Aufnahme, den Transport und die Anreicherung von Nährelementen in der Pflanze, (2) Wechselbeziehungen zwischen dem Nährstoffangebot und Trockenheit oder Salinität sowie (3) Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Nährstoffverfügbarkeit bei Trockenheit und Salzstress mittels züchterischer und molekularbiologischer Ansätze. [source]

    Modern distribution of saltmarsh testate amoebae: regional variability of zonation and response to environmental variables

    Dan J. Charman
    Abstract Sea-level reconstruction from biological indicators in saltmarsh sediments requires an understanding of the modern ecology of the organisms concerned. Previous work suggested that testate amoebae are a potential new group of organisms to use for sea-level reconstruction, especially combined with diatoms and foraminifera. This paper analyses data from three saltmarshes on the Taf estuary, South Wales, the River Erme, Devon, and at Brancaster, Norfolk (UK) to (i) test for the presence and zonation of testate amoebae in relation to elevation; (ii) examine the similarity of zonation patterns between marshes; and (iii) explore the relationship between assemblage composition and a wider range of environmental variables. In addition we provide an update on the identification of testate amoebae on saltmarshes. Our results confirm that at all sites the primary environmental gradient is tidal inundation. Major changes in taxa along the tidal gradient are similar except for the lowest elevations, where different taxa become dominant at different sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) shows that assemblage composition is also strongly related to other variables, independent of the tidal position. Salinity, particle size and organic matter content are particularly important, and there is a statistically significant geographical effect on assemblages. Relationships between sea-level and assemblage composition are often stronger for individual sites, suggesting that local data sets should be used for quantitative sea-level reconstructions. However, the combined data set would provide more robust estimates of past sea-level change from fossil data. Other environmental variables explain as much of the variability in species assemblages as tidal parameters and should be considered more often in sea-level reconstructions based on microfossil indicators. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of salinity on the growth, yield and essential oils of turnip-rooted and leaf parsley cultivated within the Mediterranean region

    Spiridon A Petropoulos
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Turnip-rooted parsley, a field-crop of northern Europe, has recently been introduced to the Mediterranean region for fresh consumption or production of essential oil. Because of soil salinity within this area, the sensitivity of turnip-rooted and two other parsley subspecies (plain- and curly-leafed) to salt was studied. RESULTS: NaCl or CaCl2 additions to the irrigation water raised the electrical conductivity (EC) in increments from 0.5 dS m,1 to 4.5 dS m,1 (year 1) or 6.0 dS m,1 (year 2), reducing parsley foliage weight in year 2, but increasing the root weight of turnip-rooted parsley in year 1. Raising the EC with NaCl increased the yield of foliar essential oil from curly-leafed parsley (both years), but not from the other cultivars. CaCl2 had less effect on oil yield. The relative concentrations of the principal aroma constituents (,-phellandrene, myristicin, ,-myrcene and apiole) of the foliar essential oil were affected by NaCl or CaCl2 in a way that differed between cultivars. Oil yield from parsley roots was very low and apparently unaffected by salinity. CONCLUSION: All three parsley subspecies are moderately sensitive to salinity, but may be cultivated at <4.5 dS m,1 EC. Salinity may assist oil production by increasing oil yield (curly-leafed parsley) and positively affecting certain aroma constituents. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    The Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Growth and Survival of Hatchery-Reared Juvenile Spotted Babylon, Babylonia areolata (Link 1807)

    Ming Xue
    The effects of temperature and salinity on growth and survival of juvenile spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, were investigated by rearing snails at combinations of temperatures (20, 24, 28, and 32 C) and salinity (16, 22, 28, and 34 g/L) for 42 d. Groups of 20 animals were used in triplicate in each combination of conditions. Survival was significantly different among treatments due to temperatures but not due to salinities. The mean survival values for the various temperatures were 87.5, 92.5, 94.2, and 71.7% at 20, 24, 28, and 32 C, respectively. Growth, as measured by daily body weight and shell length gain, was influenced significantly by temperature, salinity, and the temperature,salinity interaction. The optimal status for culture snails was obtained at temperatures from 26 to 30 C and salinity from 26 to 30 g/L. The total production was shown to be best in these conditions and this coincided highly with the prevailing conditions in the natural habitat from which the animals originated. [source]