Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of SAR

  • hong kong sar
  • kong sar

  • Terms modified by SAR

  • sar image
  • sar patient
  • sar studies
  • sar value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Influence of neurohumoral blockade on heart rate and blood pressure responses to haemorrhage in isoflurane anaesthetized rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2000
    UllmanArticle first published online: 24 DEC 200
    Four groups of Sprague,Dawley rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane (ISO) (1.7% end-tidal concentration) in 40% oxygen, and mechanically ventilated. The animals were bled 15 mL kg,1 b.w. from the femoral vein over 10 min, followed by an observation period of 30 min. Ten minutes before haemorrhage each group of animals was pre-treated with intravenous injection/infusion of either: isotonic saline (Group B; CON; n=7), vasopressin V1 -receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP; 10 ,g kg,1] (Group C; AVP-a; n=7), the non-selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist saralasin (10 ,g kg,1 min,1) (Group D; SAR; n=7) or hexamethonium (10 mg kg,1) (Group E; HEX; n=7). A separate group of conscious animals were pre-treated with isotonic NaCl and subjected to the same haemorrhage protocol (Group A; AW; n=7). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and blood gases were observed during the experiments. Only pre-treatment with SAR and HEX reduced MAP significantly. The pre-haemorrhage HR was only affected by HEX, which caused a reduction by 17%. The HR was significantly lower at the end of haemorrhage compared with pre-haemorrhage levels in all groups except that group treated with HEX. In that group the HR changed in the opposite direction. The ability to maintain MAP during haemorrhage, and the post-haemorrhage period, was significantly impaired in the groups treated with AVP-a, SAR or HEX compared with the group receiving NaCl. It is concluded that autonomic nervous activity is of major importance for the maintenance of MAP during isoflurane anaesthesia, whereas circulating angiotensin II and vasopressin levels contribute to a much smaller degree in this regard. General anaesthesia in combination with different degrees of neurohumoral blockade impairs the haemodynamic responses to blood loss, seen in conscious individuals. The impairment involves both the early and late phases during haemorrhage, as well as the post-bleeding recovery period. All three neurohumoral systems (autonomic nervous activity, angiotensin II and vasopressin) are of importance for regulating MAP during and after haemorrhage, although the autonomic nervous outflow appears to contribute to a larger extent. [source]

    Quantitative analysis of InSAR digital elevation models for identification of areas with different tectonic activities in southern Italy

    Claudio Martino
    Abstract This work presents the results of a quantitative analysis of an interferometric SAR (InSAR) digital elevation model (DEM), obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The analysis aims to identify additional parameters to recognize areas in southern Italy with different tectonic activities and behaviours. The axial zone of the Campania-Lucania Apennine and the Sila Massif in Calabria, Italy, characterized by quite different evolutionary histories, have been chosen as test areas sufficiently wide to validate observations on a sub-regional scale at least. Geomorphological information on the shape of palaeosurfaces has been used to estimate uplift and/or erosion amounts and rates. Palaeosurfaces are identified on the DEM as regions with an altitude higher than 1000 m a.s.l. and sub-planar land surfaces dipping less than 6. Information about the shape of palaeosurfaces during the first stage of uplift and before the tectonic-induced block fragmentation has been extracted. A fragmentation index has been computed for these erosional surfaces. The first stage of this landscape evolution has been studied in terms of the geometric characteristics of fragmented blocks. The last erosional stage has been recognized in terms of both geometric characteristics and fragmentation index of the sub-horizontal land surfaces. Altitude and age of the palaeosurfaces, referred to ancient base-levels of the erosion, have been used to estimate the erosional rate. Copyright 2008 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The role of mineralogy, geochemistry and grain size in badland development in Pisticci (Basilicata, southern Italy)

    V. Summa
    Abstract Mineralogical, geochemical and grain-size composition of soil and pore-water chemistry parameters were characterized on both eroded (south-facing) and non-eroded (north-facing) clayey-silt slopes in the Basilicata region (southern Italy). Only a few grain-size parameters and clay mineralogy discriminate eroded from non-eroded substrates. Compared with the latter, the former have fractions of over 63 m and 1,4 m lower and fractions 4,63 m higher. Grain-size characters of crusts did not discriminate with respect to substrate. Bulk rock mineralogy was not distinctive, but the clay mineral assemblage shows that the eroded slope is enriched in kaolinite, mixed layers (illite,smectite) and chlorite, whereas illite decreases, although overlaps are common. Chemical data enable discrimination between eroded and non-eroded slopes. pH, SAR (sodium adsorption ratio), TDS (total dissolved salts) and PS (percentage of sodium) are distinctive parameters for both eroded and non-eroded slopes. TDS increases in depth in the non-eroded slope, whereas the maximum TDS is just below the crust in the eroded one. On average, eroded substrates are higher in pH, SAR and PS than non-eroded ones. The ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) of the eroded slope has a higher value than the non-eroded one. Crusts are less dispersive than eroded substrates, and non-eroded substrates behave as crusts. This suggests that the portion of the slope most severely exposed to weathering tends to stabilize, due to strong decreases in SAR, PS and ESP. Several diagrams reported in the literature show similarly anomalous crust samples on eroded slopes, compared with other samples coming from greater depths on eroded slopes. In the present case study, the exchangeable form of Na characterizes crusts more than the soluble form. This study describes the erosional mechanism, which involves morphological and geographic exposure and climatic elements, as well as grain size, mineralogy, chemistry and exchangeable processes of soils. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Elementary processes of soil,water interaction and thresholds in soil surface dynamics: a review

    Richard S. B. Greene
    Abstract Elementary processes of soil,water interaction and the thresholds to these processes are important to understand as they control a range of phenomena that occur at the soil surface. In particular processes involved with wetting by rainfall that lead to particle breakdown are critical. This breakdown causes soil detachment and crust formation, which are both key elements in erosion. This paper reviews the range of approaches that have been taken in describing the processes associated with the wetting of a soil surface by rainfall. It assembles the studies that emphasize soil physics, soil chemistry, and erosion mechanics in a framework to enable a balanced consideration of important processes and management strategies to control erosion for a particular situation. In particular it discusses the factors associated with the two basic processes of soil structural breakdown, i.e. slaking and dispersion, and how these processes are critical in particle detachment, transport and surface crust formation. Besides the balance between the exchangeable cation composition and electrolyte concentration (measured as the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total cation concentration (TCC) respectively) of the soil, the importance of energy input and soil organic matter content in controlling clay dispersion is emphasized. Based on the balance between these factors, the soil can be in one of three different regions, i.e. a dispersed region, a ,occulated region and one where the resilience of the soil is variable. The implications of each of these regions to soil erosion management are brie,y outlined, as are the critical roles that soil cover levels and organic matter have in controlling erosion. Finally, the relationship between various laboratory measures of aggregate stability, and corresponding ,eld erosion characteristics, is discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Analysis of determinants of mammalian species richness in South America using spatial autoregressive models

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2004
    Marcelo F. Tognelli
    Classically, hypotheses concerning the distribution of species have been explored by evaluating the relationship between species richness and environmental variables using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. However, environmental and ecological data generally show spatial autocorrelation, thus violating the assumption of independently distributed errors. When spatial autocorrelation exists, an alternative is to use autoregressive models that assume spatially autocorrelated errors. We examined the relationship between mammalian species richness in South America and environmental variables, thereby evaluating the relative importance of four competing hypotheses to explain mammalian species richness. Additionally, we compared the results of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and spatial autoregressive models using Conditional and Simultaneous Autoregressive (CAR and SAR, respectively) models. Variables associated with productivity were the most important at determining mammalian species richness at the scale analyzed. Whereas OLS residuals between species richness and environmental variables were strongly autocorrelated, those from autoregressive models showed less spatial autocorrelation, particularly the SAR model, indicating its suitability for these data. Autoregressive models also fit the data better than the OLS model (increasing R2 by 5,14%), and the relative importance of the explanatory variables shifted under CAR and SAR models. These analyses underscore the importance of controlling for spatial autocorrelation in biogeographical studies. [source]

    Field theory for biogeography: a spatially explicit model for predicting patterns of biodiversity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 1 2010
    James P. O'Dwyer
    Abstract Predicting the variation of biodiversity across the surface of the Earth is a fundamental issue in ecology, and in this article we focus on one of the most widely studied spatial biodiversity patterns: the species,area relationship (SAR). The SAR is a central tool in conservation, being used to predict species loss following global climate change, and is striking in its universality throughout different geographical regions and across the tree of life. In this article we draw upon the methods of quantum field theory and the foundation of neutral community ecology to derive the first spatially explicit neutral prediction for the SAR. We find that the SAR has three phases, with a power law increase at intermediate scales, consistent with decades of documented empirical patterns. Our model also provides a building block for incorporating non-neutral biological variation, with the potential to bridge the gap between neutral and niche-based approaches to community assembly. Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 87,95 [source]

    Human impacts on the species,area relationship in reef fish assemblages

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2007
    Derek P. Tittensor
    Abstract The relationship between species richness and area is one of the oldest, most recognized patterns in ecology. Here we provide empirical evidence for strong impacts of fisheries exploitation on the slope of the species,area relationship (SAR). Using comparative field surveys of fish on protected and exploited reefs in three oceans and the Mediterranean Sea, we show that exploitation consistently depresses the slope of the SAR for both power-law and exponential models. The magnitude of change appears to be proportional to fishing intensity. Results are independent of taxonomic resolution and robust across coral and rocky reefs, sampling protocols and statistical methods. Changes in species richness, relative abundance and patch occupancy all appear to contribute to this pattern. We conclude that exploitation pressure impacts the fundamental scaling of biodiversity as well as the species richness and spatial distribution patterns of reef fish. We propose that species,area curves can be sensitive indicators of community-level changes in biodiversity, and may be useful in quantifying the human imprint on reef biodiversity, and potentially elsewhere. [source]

    The power of time: spatiotemporal scaling of species diversity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 8 2003
    Peter B. Adler
    Abstract The species,area relationship (SAR) provides the foundation for much of theoretical ecology and conservation practice. However, by ignoring time the SAR offers an incomplete model for biodiversity dynamics. We used long-term data from permanent plots in Kansas grasslands, USA, to show that the increase in the number of species found with increasing periods of observation takes the same power-law form as the SAR. A statistical model including time, area, and their interaction explains 98% of variation in mean species number and demonstrates that while the effect of time depends on area, and vice versa, time has strong effects on species number even at relatively broad spatial scales. Our results suggest equivalence of underlying processes in space and time and raise questions about the diversity estimates currently used by basic researchers and conservation practitioners. [source]

    Behavioural observations of Pieris brassicae larvae indicate multiple mechanisms of action of analogous drimane antifeedants

    L. Messchendorp
    Abstract We tested 11 analogous synthetic drimane antifeedant compounds for their feeding inhibiting effects on larvae of the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in no-choice tests on the host plant Brassica oleracea L. Furthermore, we observed larval feeding behaviour in no-choice tests to analyze temporal effects of five drimanes. The results show that the five analogous antifeedants differentially influence feeding behaviour and locomotion activity. Warburganal and polygodial are most likely sensory mediated antifeedants. Habituation to these compounds occurs soon after the onset of the tests (i.e., within 0.5,1.5 h). Compound 5 and confertifolin are probably not direct, sensory mediated antifeedants. After 0.5,1.5 h of exposure, these compounds inhibit not only feeding, but also locomotion behaviour, indicating postingestive, toxic effects. Isodrimenin inhibits feeding from the onset of the test and is probably a sensory mediated antifeedant. No habituation occurs to this compound, indicating that isodrimenin is either a very strong antifeedant or that it additionally has postingestive, toxic effects. Topical application of the drimanes on the larval cuticle revealed feeding inhibiting effects, but these could not be related to the occurrence of postingestive feeding inhibiting effects, indicating that this method is inappropriate to show possible postingestive effects of drimanes in P. brassicae. In conclusion, the behavioural observations performed in this research indicate that analogous drimanes inhibit feeding by P. brassicae larvae through multiple mechanisms of action. The results show that, when developing a structure activity relationship (SAR) for a series of antifeedants, it is important to distinguish the mode of action which underlies inhibition of feeding. [source]

    Best host-plant attribute for species,area relationship, and effects of shade, conspecific distance and plant phenophase in an arthropod community within the grass Muhlenbergia robusta

    Vctor LPEZ-GMEZ
    Abstract Increased understanding of the species,area relationship (SAR) can improve its usefulness as a tool for prediction of species loss for biodiversity conservation targets. This study was conducted: (i) to determine the best plant attribute for the SAR in the community of arthropods living within the grass Muhlenbergia robusta; (ii) to determine the contribution of phenophases of plant foliage (dry and fresh), shade and conspecific distance to the variation in arthropod richness within the plant; (iii) to determine the best functional model of changes in the abundance, diversity and biomass in communities of arthropods in response to increases in plant size; (iv) to determine the best host-plant attribute for prediction of these community attributes; and (v) to determine the effect of the plant phenophase, shade and M. robusta isolation on the abundance, diversity and biomass of the arthropod community. The above-ground dry weight of grass was found to be the best host-plant attribute for the SAR, while the light environment explained the arthropod richness within the grass, with higher richness observed in shaded environments. This study also showed that the best functional mathematical models for estimation of changes in the abundance, dry weight and diversity of arthropods in response to increases in grass size (dry weight) are the power model, exponential model and logarithmic model, respectively. Furthermore, the host-plant foliage phenophase, shade and the isolation of M. robusta with other conspecifics had no effect on the abundance, biomass or diversity per basal area of the grass. [source]

    Effect of ionic strength and clay mineralogy on Na,Ca exchange and the SAR,ESP relationship

    P. M. Kopittke
    Summary The relationship between sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) for all soils has traditionally been assumed to be similar to that developed by the United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) in 1954. However, under certain conditions, this relationship has been shown not to be constant, but to vary with both ionic strength and clay mineralogy. We conducted a detailed experiment to determine the effect of ionic strength on the Na+,Ca2+ exchange of four clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, pyrophyllite, and montmorillonite), with results related to the diffuse double-layer (DDL) model. Clays in which external exchange sites dominated (kaolinite and pyrophyllite) tended to show an overall preference for Na+, with the magnitude of this preference increasing with decreasing ESP. For these external surfaces, increases in ionic strength were found to increase preference for Na+. Although illite (2:1 non-expanding mineral) was expected to be dominated by external surfaces, this clay displayed an overall preference for Ca2+, possibly indicating the opening of quasicrystals and the formation of internal exchange surfaces. For the expanding 2:1 clay, montmorillonite, Na+,Ca2+ exchange varied due to the formation of quasicrystals (and internal exchange surfaces) from individual clay platelets. At small ionic strength and large ESP, the clay platelets dispersed and were dominated by external exchange surfaces (displaying preference for Na+). However, as ionic strength increased and ESP decreased, quasicrystals (and internal exchange surfaces) formed, and preference for Ca2+ increased. Therefore, the relationship between SAR and ESP is not constant and should be determined directly for the soil of interest. [source]

    Flow-field observations of a tidally driven island wake used by marine mammals in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    Abstract Correlations between fine-scale oceanographic features and aggregations of marine mammals are frequently reported, but the physical forces shaping these relationships are rarely explored. We conducted a series of oceanographic observations and remote sensing surveys of an oceanographic feature near Grand Manan Island known to attract marine mammals on flood tides. We tracked drift drogues from cliff-top with a theodolite and conducted box-type surveys with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to assess flow patterns within the oceanographic feature. The feature was also visualized with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes. Drift drogues were advected towards a shear line originating near the northern tip of the island and entrained in one or more eddies downstream. ADCP surveys confirmed the presence of the shear line between rapid easterly flow and slower return flow. As the tide progressed, the shear line extended and manifested a single anti-cyclonic eddy at its distal end. As the flood tide progressed, northerly flow along the eastern shore of the island intensified and deflected the shear line northwards, shedding the eddy at slack high water. SAR images confirmed the presence of the shearline and eddy system, illustrating the evolution of a wake behind the island on flood tides. Profiles of flow direction and acoustic backscatter revealed secondary flows within the wake consistent with models and observations of other wakes. Oceanographic and remote sensing observations confirm that an island wake is generated by tidal flow past Grand Manan Island and provide an ecological context for the predictable aggregations of odontocete and mysticete cetaceans observed foraging within this region. [source]

    Photonic dating of prehistoric irrigation canals at Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A.,

    Glenn W. Berger
    A number of archeological features, including in-filled irrigation canals of uncertain prehistoric age, occur within the Holocene floodplain of the Salt River at Phoenix, Arizona. In the first attempt to date irrigation-canal sediments using luminescence methods, we obtained age estimates of 1640 190 yr B.P. (1,) (multi-aliquot or MA) and 1621 95 yr B.P. (post-IR single-aliquot-regenerative-dose or SAR) for a single sample from the base of the oldest canal-infilling deposits (all IR-PSL ages reported in this article are in calendar years before A.D. 2001). For the remaining canal samples, weighted mean luminescence ages of 819 45 yr (MA) and 826 32 yr (post-IR SAR) were obtained. Thus from photonic dating we can resolve the first and last phases of canal use at this Phoenix site: initiation at ca. 1600 years ago and final use at ca. 800 years ago. These results demonstrate the power of SAR luminescence sediment dating to enhance our understanding of prehistoric irrigation-canal development and usage here and elsewhere in the world. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Analytical and 3-D numerical modelling of Mt. Etna (Italy) volcano inflation

    A. Bonaccorso
    SUMMARY Since 1993, geodetic data obtained by different techniques (GPS, EDM, SAR, levelling) have detected a consistent inflation of the Mt. Etna volcano. The inflation, culminating with the 1998,2001 strong explosive activity from summit craters and recent 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, is interpreted in terms of magma ascent and refilling of the volcanic plumbing system and reservoirs. We have modelled the 1993,1997 EDM and GPS data by 3-D pressurized sources to infer the position and dimension of the magma reservoir. We have performed analytical inversions of the observed deformation using both spheroidal and ellipsoidal sources embedded in a homogeneous elastic half-space and by applying different inversion methods. Solutions for these types of sources show evidence of a vertically elongated magma reservoir located 6 km beneath the summit craters. The maximum elevation of topography is comparable to such depth and strong heterogeneities are inferred from seismic tomography; in order to assess their importance, further 3-D numerical models, employing source parameters extracted from analytical models, have been developed using the finite-element technique. The deformation predicted by all the models considered shows a general agreement with the 1993,1997 data, suggesting the primary role of a pressure source, while the complexities of the medium play a minor role under elastic conditions. However, major discrepancies between data and models are located in the SE sector, suggesting that sliding along potential detachment surfaces may contribute to amplify deformation during the inflation. For the first time realistic features of Mt. Etna are studied by a 3-D numerical model characterized by the topography and lateral variations of elastic structure, providing a framework for a deeper insight into the relationships between internal sources and tectonic structures. [source]

    Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Siwalik Group sediments of Karnali River section in western Nepal

    Pitambar Gautam
    The remanent magnetization of siltstones and sandstones sampled at 476 levels/sites throughout a 3560 m thick molasse sequence belonging to the Siwalik Group (0,2015 m: Lower; 2015,3560 m: Middle) has been studied by stepwise thermal demagnetization. This section is exposed along the Karnali River in Nepal. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) usually consists of two components: a viscous or thermoviscous component of recent field origin, and an ancient characteristic component (ChRM). The former component is of normal polarity and resides either in goethite (unblocking temperature < 150 C; resistant to AFD up to 150 mT) or in maghemite (unblocking temperature 150,400 C). Goethite contributes up to 90 per cent of the total intensity in the finer variegated muddy samples belonging to the lower half of the section. Maghemite content is significant in the grey mud-free lithologies from the upper half of the section. The main component, unblocked in the high-temperature range (commonly 610,680 C) and believed to reside in haematite, presumably of mostly detrital origin, represents a characteristic remanence (ChRM). The tilt-corrected ChRM directions at individual sites show antipodal clusters (ratio of normal- to reverse-polarity sites: 0.62), and yield mean inclinations recording significant inclination shallowing,a feature well recorded in the Siwaliks. This ChRM is interpreted to represent a largely primary detrital remanence. The ChRM data from 430 sites yield the Karnali River magnetic polarity sequence, whose correlation with the geomagnetic polarity timescale (Cande & Kent 1995) suggests a depositional age of 16 Ma (younger than chron C5Cn.1n) to 5.2 Ma (around the top of chron C3r) for the 3560 m section sampled. Hence, the Karnali River exposes the oldest part of the Siwalik Group in Nepal. Estimates of the sediment accumulation rate (SAR) average to 32.9 cm kyr,1 for the 10.8 Myr time span of deposition. [source]

    Improving Kirchhoff migration with repeated local plane-wave imaging?

    A SAR-inspired signal-processing approach in prestack depth imaging
    ABSTRACT A local plane-wave approach of generalized diffraction tomography in heterogeneous backgrounds, equivalent to Kirchhoff summation techniques when applied in seismic reflection, is re-programmed to act as repeated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging for seismic prestack depth migration. Spotlight-mode SAR imaging quickly provides good images of the electromagnetic reflectivity of the ground via fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based signal processing. By calculating only the Green's functions connecting the aircraft to the centre of the illuminated patch, scattering structures around that centre are also recovered. SAR technology requires us to examine seismic imaging from the local point of view, where the quantity and quality of the available information at each image point are what are important, regardless of the survey geometry. When adapted to seismics, a local image of arbitrary size and sampling is obtained by FFT of seismic energy maps in the scattering wavenumber domain around each node of a pre-calculated grid of Green's functions. These local images can be used to generate a classic prestack depth-migrated section by collecting only their centres. However, the local images also provide valuable information around the centre, as in SAR. They can therefore help to pre-analyse prestack depth migration efficiently, and to perform velocity analysis at a very low cost. The FFT-based signal-processing approach allows local, efficient and automatic control of anti-aliasing, noise and resolution, including optimized Jacobian weights. Repeated local imaging could also be used to speed up migration, with interpolation between local images associated with a coarse grid of Green's functions, as an alternative to interpolation of Green's functions. The local images may, however, show distortions due to the local plane-wave approximation, and the velocity variations across their frame. Such effects, which are not necessarily a problem in SAR, should be controlled and corrected to further enhance seismic imaging. Applications to realistic models and to real data show that, despite the distortion effects, the local images can yield similar information to prestack depth migration, including common-image-point gathers for velocity analyses and AVO/AVA effects, at a much lower cost when a small target is considered. [source]

    Near real time satellite imagery to support and verify timely flood modelling

    Giuliano Di Baldassarre
    Abstract The study investigates the capability of coarse resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to support flood inundation models. A hydraulic model of a 98-km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) was calibrated on the October 2000 high-magnitude flood event with extensive and high-quality field data. During the June 2008, low-magnitude flood event a SAR image was acquired and processed in near real time (NRT) in order to provide adequate data for quick verification and recalibration of the hydraulic model. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Operational performance of current synthetic aperture radar sensors in mapping soil surface characteristics in agricultural environments: application to hydrological and erosion modelling

    Nicolas Baghdadi
    Abstract Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are often used to characterize the surface of bare soils in agricultural environments. They enable the soil moisture and roughness to be estimated with constraints linked to the configurations of the sensors (polarization, incidence angle and radar wavelength). These key soil characteristics are necessary for different applications, such as hydrology and risk prediction. This article reviews the potential of currently operational SAR sensors and those planned for the near future to characterize soil surface as a function of users' needs. It details what it is possible to achieve in terms of mapping soil moisture and roughness by specifying optimal radar configurations and the precision associated with the estimation of soil surface characteristics. The summary carried out for the present article shows that mapping soil moisture is optimal with SAR sensors at low incidence angles (<35 ). This configuration, which enables an estimated moisture accuracy greater than 6% is possible several times a month taking into account all the current and future sensors. Concerning soil roughness, it is best mapped using three classes (smooth, moderately rough, and rough). Such mapping requires high-incidence data, which is possible with certain current sensors (RADARSAT-1 and ASAR both in band C). When L-band sensors (ALOS) become available, this mapping accuracy should improve because the sensitivity of the radar signal to Soil Surface Characteristics (SSC) increases with wavelength. Finally, the polarimetric mode of certain imminent sensors (ALOS, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, etc.), and the possibility of acquiring data at very high spatial resolution (metre scale), offer great potential in terms of improving the quality of SSC mapping. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Use of multi-platform, multi-temporal remote-sensing data for calibration of a distributed hydrological model: an application in the Arno basin, Italy

    Lorenzo Campo
    Abstract Images from satellite platforms are a valid aid in order to obtain distributed information about hydrological surface states and parameters needed in calibration and validation of the water balance and flood forecasting. Remotely sensed data are easily available on large areas and with a frequency compatible with land cover changes. In this paper, remotely sensed images from different types of sensor have been utilized as a support to the calibration of the distributed hydrological model MOBIDIC, currently used in the experimental system of flood forecasting of the Arno River Basin Authority. Six radar images from ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors (three for summer 2002 and three for spring,summer 2003) have been utilized and a relationship between soil saturation indexes and backscatter coefficient from SAR images has been investigated. Analysis has been performed only on pixels with meagre or no vegetation cover, in order to legitimize the assumption that water content of the soil is the main variable that influences the backscatter coefficient. Such pixels have been obtained by considering vegetation indexes (NDVI) and land cover maps produced by optical sensors (Landsat-ETM). In order to calibrate the soil moisture model based on information provided by SAR images, an optimization algorithm has been utilized to minimize the regression error between saturation indexes from model and SAR data and error between measured and modelled discharge flows. Utilizing this procedure, model parameters that rule soil moisture fluxes have been calibrated, obtaining not only a good match with remotely sensed data, but also an enhancement of model performance in flow prediction with respect to a previous calibration with river discharge data only. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Active microwave remote sensing for soil moisture measurement: a field evaluation using ERS-2

    Jeffrey P. Walker
    Abstract Active microwave remote sensing observations of backscattering, such as C-band vertically polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations from the second European remote sensing (ERS-2) satellite, have the potential to measure moisture content in a near-surface layer of soil. However, SAR backscattering observations are highly dependent on topography, soil texture, surface roughness and soil moisture, meaning that soil moisture inversion from single frequency and polarization SAR observations is difficult. In this paper, the potential for measuring near-surface soil moisture with the ERS-2 satellite is explored by comparing model estimates of backscattering with ERS-2 SAR observations. This comparison was made for two ERS-2 overpasses coincident with near-surface soil moisture measurements in a 6 ha catchment using 15-cm time domain reflectometry probes on a 20 m grid. In addition, 1-cm soil moisture data were obtained from a calibrated soil moisture model. Using state-of-the-art theoretical, semi-empirical and empirical backscattering models, it was found that using measured soil moisture and roughness data there were root mean square (RMS) errors from 35 to 85 dB and r2 values from 000 to 025, depending on the backscattering model and degree of filtering. Using model soil moisture in place of measured soil moisture reduced RMS errors slightly (05 to 2 dB) but did not improve r2 values. Likewise, using the first day of ERS-2 backscattering and soil moisture data to solve for RMS surface roughness reduced RMS errors in backscattering for the second day to between 09 and 28 dB, but did not improve r2 values. Moreover, RMS differences were as large as 37 dB and r2 values as low as 053 between the various backscattering models, even when using the same data as input. These results suggest that more research is required to improve the agreement between backscattering models, and that ERS-2 SAR data may be useful for estimating fields-scale average soil moisture but not variations at the hillslope scale. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Parallel DSMC method using dynamic domain decomposition

    J.-S. Wu
    Abstract A general parallel direct simulation Monte Carlo method using unstructured mesh is introduced, which incorporates a multi-level graph-partitioning technique to dynamically decompose the computational domain. The current DSMC method is implemented on an unstructured mesh using particle ray-tracing technique, which takes the advantages of the cell connectivity information. In addition, various strategies applying the stop at rise (SAR) (IEEE Trans Comput 1988; 39:1073,1087) scheme is studied to determine how frequent the domain should be re-decomposed. A high-speed, bottom-driven cavity flow, including small, medium and large problems, based on the number of particles and cells, are simulated. Corresponding analysis of parallel performance is reported on IBM-SP2 parallel machine up to 64 processors. Analysis shows that degree of imbalance among processors with dynamic load balancing is about ,, of that without dynamic load balancing. Detailed time analysis shows that degree of imbalance levels off very rapidly at a relatively low value with increasing number of processors when applying dynamic load balancing, which makes the large problem size fairly scalable for processors more than 64. In general, optimal frequency of activating SAR scheme decreases with problem size. At the end, the method is applied to compute two two-dimensional hypersonic flows, a three-dimensional hypersonic flow and a three-dimensional near-continuum twin-jet gas flow to demonstrate its superior computational capability and compare with experimental data and previous simulation data wherever available. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A laser flash photolysis/IR diode laser absorption study of the reaction of chlorine atoms with selected alkanes

    Hai-Bo Qian
    A high-resolution IR diode laser in conjunction with a Herriot multiple reflection flow-cell has been used to directly determine the rate coefficients for simple alkanes with Cl atoms at room temperature (298 K). The following results were obtained: k(Cl + n-butane) = (1.91 0.10) 10,10 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, k(Cl + n -pentane) = (2.46 0.12) 10,10 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, k(Cl + iso-pentane) = (1.94 0.10) 10,10 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, k(Cl + neopentane) = (1.01 0.05) 10,10 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, k(Cl + n -hexane) = (3.44 0.17) 10,10 cm3 molecule,1 s,1 where the error limits are 1,. These values have been used in conjunction with our own previous measurements on Cl + ethane and literature values on Cl + propane and Cl + iso-butane to generate a structure activity relationship (SAR) for Cl atom abstraction reactions based on direct measurements. The resulting best fit parameters are kp = (2.61 0.12) 10,11 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, ks = (8.40 0.60) 10,11 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, kt = (5.90 0.30) 10,11 cm3 molecule,1 s,1, with f( CH2) = f ( CH2) = f (C) = f = 0.85 0.06. Tests were carried out to investigate the potential interference from production of excited state HCl(v = 1) in the Cl + alkane reactions. There is some evidence for HCl(v = 1) production in the reaction of Cl with shape n -hexane. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 34: 86,94, 2002 [source]

    A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR

    Paul S. F. Yip
    Abstract Objective The objective of this paper is to ascertain estimates of the prevalence, and associated risk factors for, suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method The study was conducted as part of the General Household Survey (GHS), using face to face interviews of ethnic Chinese people aged 60 or above living in the community. Elders living in institutions or elderly homes were excluded from the study. Results Six percent of the sample was found to have ever had suicide ideation. The results showed that poor physical health, including poor vision, hearing problems, and a greater number of diseases; and poor mental health, especially in the form of depression, are predictors of suicidal ideation in the elderly population. Also, statistical analysis by linking individual factors to depression showed that financial and relationship problems are significant risk factors as well. Older adults who engaged in active coping, that is, those who actively seek to manage or control the negative events in their lives, fare better with lower levels of suicidal ideation than those who use passive coping styles. Conclusions The prevalence of suicidal ideation is similar among elders in Hong Kong and western countries. Factors that contribute to risk for suicidal ideation span physical and mental health, social, and psychological domains. Although the association of suicidal ideation to self-destructive acts remains to be determined, these findings indicate a variety of potential foci for late life suicide prevention efforts. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Financial Debt and Suicide in Hong Kong SAR,

    Paul S. F. Yip
    The presence of indebtedness is known to be a risk factor that can trigger stressed persons to contemplate suicide. This study compares the profiles of suicides with and without debt problems based on 2002 Coroner's Court death files. The category of men aged 25,39 has seen a 70% increase in suicide rate since 1997, and the number using carbon monoxide poisoning has increased from 1% of the total deaths in 1997 to about 26% of the total deaths in 2002. Suicides associated with debt problems seem to involve fewer mental and physical problems with formal job attachment than do suicides without debt problems. Gambling is a significant contributing factor to unmanageable indebtedness. [source]

    Skin sensitization potency of isoeugenol and its dimers evaluated by a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay and guinea pig maximization test

    Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Abstract Allergic contact dermatitis is the serious unwanted effect arising from the use of consumer products such as cosmetics. Isoeugenol is a fragrance chemical with spicy, carnation-like scent, is used in many kinds of cosmetics and is a well-known moderate human sensitizer. It was previously reported that the dimerization of eugenol yielded two types of dimer possessing different sensitization potencies. This study reports the differences in skin sensitization potencies for isoeugenol and two types of dimer, , -O-4-dilignol and dehydrodiisoeugenol (DIEG), as evaluated by the non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (non-RI LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test. In the guinea pig maximization test, isoeugenol, , -O-4-dilignol and DIEG were classified as extreme, weak and moderate sensitizers, respectively. As for the results of non-RI LLNA, the EC3 for isoeugenol, , -O-4-dilignol and DIEG were calculated as 12.7%, >30% and 9.4%, respectively. The two types of isoeugenol dimer showed different sensitizing activities similar to the case for eugenol dimers. A reduction of sensitization potency achieved by dimerization may lead to developing safer cosmetic ingredients. Isoeugenol dimers are not currently used for fragrance chemicals. However, the dimerization of isoeugenol may yield a promising candidate as a cosmetic ingredient with low sensitization risk. The data may also provide useful information for the structure-activity relationship (SAR) in skin sensitization. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of habitat history and extinction selectivity on species-richness patterns of an island land snail fauna

    Satoshi Chiba
    Abstract Aim, Local-scale diversity patterns are not necessarily regulated by contemporary processes, but may be the result of historical events such as habitat changes and selective extinctions that occurred in the past. We test this hypothesis by examining species-richness patterns of the land snail fauna on an oceanic island where forest was once destroyed but subsequently recovered. Location, Hahajima Island of the Ogasawara Islands in the western Pacific. Methods, Species richness of land snails was examined in 217 0.25 0.25 km squares during 1990,91 and 2005,07. Associations of species richness with elevation, current habitat quality (proportion of habitat composed of indigenous trees and uncultivated areas), number of alien snail species, and proportion of forest loss before 1945 in each area were examined using a randomization test and simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models. Extinctions in each area and on the entire island were detected by comparing 2005,07 records with 1990,91 records and previously published records from surveys in 1987,91 and 1901,07. The association of species extinction with snail ecotype and the above environmental factors was examined using a spatial generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results, The level of habitat loss before 1945 explained the greatest proportion of variation in the geographical patterns of species richness. Current species richness was positively correlated with elevation in the arboreal species, whereas it was negatively correlated with elevation in the ground-dwelling species. However, no or a positive correlation was found between elevation and richness of the ground-dwelling species in 1987,91. The change of the association with elevation in the ground-dwelling species was caused by greater recent extinction at higher elevation, possibly as a result of predation by malacophagous flatworms. In contrast, very minor extinction levels have occurred in arboreal species since 1987,91, and their original patterns have remained unaltered, mainly because flatworms do not climb trees. Main conclusions, The species-richness patterns of the land snails on Hahajima Island are mosaics shaped by extinction resulting from habitat loss more than 60 years ago, recent selective extinction, and original faunal patterns. The effects of habitat destruction have remained long after habitat recovery. Different factors have operated during different periods and at different time-scales. These findings suggest that historical processes should be taken into account when considering local-scale diversity patterns. [source]

    The terminology and use of species,area relationships: a response to Dengler (2009)

    Samuel M. Scheiner
    Abstract Dengler (Journal of Biogeography, 2009, 36, 728,744) addresses issues regarding species,area relationships (SARs), but fails to settles those issues. He states that only certain types of sampling schemes should be used to construct SARs, but is not consistent in the criteria that he uses to include some sampling schemes but not others. He argues that a sampling scheme of contiguous plots will be more accurate in extrapolating beyond the sampled area, but logic tells us that a dispersed sampling scheme is likely to be more accurate. Finally, he concludes that the ,true' SAR is a power function, but this conclusion is inconsistent with his results and with the results of others. Rather than defining a narrow framework for SARs, we need to recognize that the relationship between area and species richness is scale- and system-dependent. Different sampling schemes serve different purposes, and a variety of functional relationships are likely to hold. Further theoretical and empirical work is needed to resolve these issues fully. [source]

    On the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography

    Simone Fattorini
    Abstract Aim, To investigate the biological meaning of equations used to apply the general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography proposed by R. J. Whittaker, K. A. Triantis and R. J. Ladle. Location, Analyses are presented for 17 animal groups living on the Aeolian Islands, a volcanic archipelago in the central Mediterranean, near Sicily. Methods, In addition to the mathematical implementation of the GDM proposed by Whittaker, Triantis and Ladle, and termed here logATT2 (, where S is species number or any other diversity metric, t is island age, A is island area, and a, b, c and d are fitted parameters), a new implementation based on the Arrhenius equation of the species,area relationship (SAR) is investigated. The new model (termed powerATT2) is: . For logATT2 and powerATT2 models, equations were developed to calculate (1) the expected number of species at equilibrium (i.e. when the island has reached maturity) per unit area (Seq), and (2) the time required to obtain this value (teq). Whereas the intercept in the Gleason model (S = C + z log A) or the coefficient of the Arrhenius power model (S = CAz) of the SAR can be considered measures of the expected number of species per unit area, this is not the case for the parameter a of the ATT2 models. However, values of Seq can be used for this purpose. The index of ,colonization ability' (CAB), calculated as the ratio , may provide a measure of the mean number of species added per unit area per unit time. Results, Both ATT2 models fitted most of the data well, but the powerATT2 model was in most cases superior. Equilibrial values of species richness (Seq) varied from c. 3 species km,2 (reptiles) to 100 species km,2 (mites). The fitted curves for the powerATT2 model showed large variations in d, from 0.03 to 3. However, most groups had values of d around 0.2,0.4, as commonly observed for the z -values of SARs modelled by a power function. Equilibration times ranged from about 170,000 years to 400,000 years. Mites and springtails had very high values of CAB, thus adding many more species per unit area per unit time than others. Reptiles and phytophagous scarabs showed very low values, being the groups that added fewest species per unit area per unit time. Main conclusions, Values of equilibrial species richness per unit area are influenced by species biology (e.g. body size and ecological specialization). Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that higher immigration rates should increase the z -values of the Arrhenius model. Thus, in the same archipelago, groups with larger z -values should be characterized by higher dispersal ability. Results obtained here for the parameter d conform to this prediction. [source]

    Local,regional boundary shifts in oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) communities: species,area relationships in arboreal habitat islands of a coastal temperate rain forest, Vancouver Island, Canada

    Zo Lindo
    Abstract Aim, This study investigates the species,area relationship (SAR) for oribatid mite communities of isolated suspended soil habitats, and compares the shape and slope of the SAR with a nested data set collected over three spatial scales (core, patch and tree level). We investigate whether scale dependence is exhibited in the nested sampling design, use multivariate regression models to elucidate factors affecting richness and abundance patterns, and ask whether the community composition of oribatid mites changes in suspended soil patches of different sizes. Location, Walbran Valley, Vancouver Island, Canada. Methods, A total of 216 core samples were collected from 72 small, medium and large isolated suspended soil habitats in six western redcedar trees in June 2005. The relationship between oribatid species richness and habitat volume was modelled for suspended soil habitat isolates (type 3) and a nested sampling design (type 1) over multiple spatial scales. Nonlinear estimation parameterized linear, power and Weibull function regression models for both SAR designs, and these were assessed for best fit using R2 and Akaike's information criteria (,AIC) values. Factors affecting oribatid mite species richness and standardized abundance (number per g dry weight) were analysed by anova and linear regression models. Results, Sixty-seven species of oribatid mites were identified from 9064 adult specimens. Surface area and moisture content of suspended soils contributed to the variation in species richness, while overall oribatid mite abundance was explained by moisture and depth. A power-law function best described the isolate SAR (S = 3.97 A0.12, R2 = 0.247, F1,70 = 22.450, P < 0.001), although linear and Weibull functions were also valid models. Oribatid mite species richness in nested samples closely fitted a power-law model (S = 1.96 A0.39, R2 = 0.854, F1,18 = 2693.6, P < 0.001). The nested SAR constructed over spatial scales of core, patch and tree levels proved to be scale-independent. Main conclusions, Unique microhabitats provided by well developed suspended soil accumulations are a habitat template responsible for the diversity of canopy oribatid mites. Species,area relationships of isolate vs. nested species richness data differed in the rate of accumulation of species with increased area. We suggest that colonization history, stability of suspended soil environments, and structural habitat complexity at local and regional scales are major determinants of arboreal oribatid mite species richness. [source]

    Patterns of species richness on very small islands: the plants of the Aegean archipelago

    Maria Panitsa
    Abstract Aim, To investigate the species,area relationship (SAR) of plants on very small islands, to examine the effect of other factors on species richness, and to check for a possible Small Island Effect (SIE). Location, The study used data on the floral composition of 86 very small islands (all < 0.050 km2) of the Aegean archipelago (Greece). Methods, We used standard techniques for linear and nonlinear regression in order to check several models of the SAR, and stepwise multiple regression to check for the effects of factors other than area on species richness (,habitat diversity', elevation, and distance from nearest large island), as well as the performance of the Choros model. We also checked for the SAR of certain taxonomic and ecological plant groups that are of special importance in eastern Mediterranean islands, such as halophytes, therophytes, Leguminosae and Gramineae. We used one-way anova to check for differences in richness between grazed and non-grazed islands, and we explored possible effects of nesting seabirds on the islands' flora. Results, Area explained a small percentage of total species richness variance in all cases. The linearized power model of the SAR provided the best fit for the total species list and several subgroups of species, while the semi-log model provided better fits for grazed islands, grasses and therophytes. None of the nonlinear models explained more variance. The slope of the SAR was very high, mainly due to the contribution of non-grazed islands. No significant SIE could be detected. The Choros model explained more variance than all SARs, although a large amount of variance of species richness still remained unexplained. Elevation was found to be the only important factor, other than area, to influence species richness. Habitat diversity did not seem important, although there were serious methodological problems in properly defining it, especially for plants. Grazing was an important factor influencing the flora of small islands. Grazed islands were richer than non-grazed, but the response of their species richness to area was particularly low, indicating decreased floral heterogeneity among islands. We did not detect any important effects of the presence of nesting seabird colonies. Main conclusions, Species richness on small islands may behave idiosyncratically, but this does not always lead to a typical SIE. Plants of Aegean islets conform to the classical Arrhenius model of the SAR, a result mainly due to the contribution of non-grazed islands. At the same time, the factors examined explain a small portion of total variance in species richness, indicating the possible contribution of other, non-standard factors, or even of stochastic effects. The proper definition of habitat diversity as pertaining to the taxon examined in each case is a recurrent problem in such studies. Nevertheless, the combined effect of area and a proxy for environmental heterogeneity is once again superior to area alone in explaining species richness. [source]