Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Sanctions

  • economic sanction
  • state sanction

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2007
    A growing number of field and experimental studies focus on the institutional arrangements by which individuals are able to solve collective action problems. Important in this research is the role of reciprocity and institutions that facilitate cooperation via opportunities for monitoring, sanctioning, and rewarding others. Sanctions represent a cost to both the participant imposing the sanction and the individual receiving the sanction. Rewards represent a zero-sum transfer from participants giving to those receiving rewards. We contrast reward and sanction institutions in regard to their impact on cooperation and efficiency in the context of a public goods experiment. (JEL C92) [source]

    Juridification, Codification and Sanction in UK Competition Law

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 4 2000
    Imelda Maher
    First page of article [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2007
    A growing number of field and experimental studies focus on the institutional arrangements by which individuals are able to solve collective action problems. Important in this research is the role of reciprocity and institutions that facilitate cooperation via opportunities for monitoring, sanctioning, and rewarding others. Sanctions represent a cost to both the participant imposing the sanction and the individual receiving the sanction. Rewards represent a zero-sum transfer from participants giving to those receiving rewards. We contrast reward and sanction institutions in regard to their impact on cooperation and efficiency in the context of a public goods experiment. (JEL C92) [source]

    International Economic Sanctions Against a Dictator

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2004
    William H. Kaempfer
    Wintrobe's (1990, 1998) dictatorship model is adapted to examine the impacts of economic sanctions on an autocrat. It is shown that the dictator's choice of the level of power, and the quantities of loyalty and repression used as inputs in the production of power, are affected by the type and magnitude of sanctions and by the impact of sanctions on the political effectiveness of opposition groups. Sanctions have direct and indirect effects on the prices of loyalty and repression as well as potentially generating rents that might be captured either by the dictator or by the opposition. [source]

    Political Institutions and Constrained Response to Economic Sanctions

    Susan Hannah Allen
    Institutional constraints within the target state not only influence a leader's ability to resist economic sanctions, but they also affect the decision-making process within the target state and the nature of information that a sender can ascertain about likely response. Autocratic leaders, who are less constrained, send noisier signals about their probable behavior. This lack of constraint also allows more freedom to resist sanctions, as they can shunt the costs of sanctions off onto the general public, who have little influence over policy outcomes or leadership retention. Democratic leaders are more constrained and more susceptible to sanctions pressure. As result, there is less uncertainty for senders about probable response. Using a heteroskedastic probit model to explore potential systematic components of the variation surrounding sanctions response, the impact of sanctions is shown to differ by regime type,both in the response to coercion as well as in the variance surrounding that response. The results presented here suggest that as expected, democracies are more susceptible to sanctions pressure, but the response of mixed and authoritarian systems are more difficult to predict. These findings have implications for the design of future sanctions policy as well as suggesting which states make the best targets for economic coercion. [source]

    Disciplinary Observance and Sanctions on German and Danish Auditors

    Reiner Quick
    This paper presents the results of a comparative study on disciplinary observance systems of the auditing profession within two member states of the European Union: Germany and Denmark. Disciplinary observance is an important factor in reducing the hidden action problem, but could also be used by the profession to signal quality. In Germany, the Wirtschaftsprüferkammer is the supervisory body which oversees compliance with standards and professional duties. It is entitled to sanction the minor violations of duties by auditors. Only more severe types of misbehaviour are dealt with by courts. In Denmark, a special court (Disciplinæernævn) is concerned with disciplinary actions against auditors. The results of this study will demonstrate that audit regulations and in particular disciplinary laws remain basically national, despite efforts to harmonise auditing. This study identifies characteristics of disciplinary systems common to both countries and provides information on the functioning of both systems that may be useful in a number of ways. The results presented might initiate a more systematic comparison of disciplinary systems within member states of the European Union, which would enhance institutional knowledge of the European market for auditing services. This in turn could promote the process of achieving a single European market for auditing services and thus reduce market inefficiencies. [source]

    Dealing with Tyranny: International Sanctions and the Survival of Authoritarian Rulers,

    Abel Escribà-Folch
    This paper examines whether economic sanctions destabilize authoritarian rulers. We argue that the effect of sanctions is mediated by the type of authoritarian regime against which sanctions are imposed. Because personalist regimes and monarchies are more sensitive to the loss of external sources of revenue (such as foreign aid and taxes on trade) to fund patronage, rulers in these regimes are more likely to be destabilized by sanctions than leaders in other types of regimes. In contrast, when dominant single-party and military regimes are subject to sanctions, they increase their tax revenues and reallocate their expenditures to increase their levels of cooptation and repression. Using data on sanction episodes and authoritarian regimes from 1960 to 1997 and selection-corrected survival models, we test whether sanctions destabilize authoritarian rulers in different types of regimes. We find that personalist dictators are more vulnerable to foreign pressure than other types of dictators. We also analyze the modes of authoritarian leader exit and find that sanctions increase the likelihood of a regular and an irregular change of ruler, such as a coup, in personalist regimes. In single-party and military regimes, however, sanctions have little effect on leadership stability. [source]

    "A Hand upon the Throat of the Nation": Economic Sanctions and State Repression, 1976,2001

    Reed M. Wood
    While intended as a nonviolent foreign policy alternative to military intervention, sanctions have often worsened humanitarian and human rights conditions in the target country. This article examines the relationship between economic sanctions and state-sponsored repression of human rights. Drawing on both the public choice and institutional constraints literature, I argue that the imposition of economic sanctions negatively impacts human rights conditions in the target state by encouraging incumbents to increase repression. Specifically, sanctions threaten the stability of target incumbents, leading them to augment their level of repression in an effort to stabilize the regime, protect core supporters, minimize the threat posed by potential challengers, and suppress popular dissent. The empirical results support this theory. These findings provide further evidence that sanctions impose political, social, and physical hardship on civilian populations. They also underscore a need for improvements in current strategies and mechanisms by which states pursue foreign-policy goals and the international community enforces international law and stability. [source]

    ZIMBABWE,EU, US: Sanctions to Continue

    Article first published online: 1 APR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Scope of Criminal Law and Criminal Sanctions: An Economic View and Policy Implications

    Roger Bowles
    This paper considers why some harm-generating activities are controlled by criminal law and criminal sanctions while others are subject to some other mechanism such as civil law, administrative law, regulation or the tax system. It looks at the question from the perspective of the law and economics approach. We seek to identify the comparative benefits of using the criminal law relative to other enforcement mechanisms and , more broadly , why certain specific behaviours are criminalized. The paper argues that an economic approach emphasizing the relative merits of alternative legal instruments for bringing about harm reduction can provide an explanation for a number of recent legal developments. It argues also that the willingness of legislators to combine the use of sanctions traditionally used in one area of the law with sanctions from other areas is more readily explicable in economic terms than in other terms. [source]

    Reasonable Sanctions for Reasonable Doctrines

    David Meeler
    First page of article [source]

    Sanctions in Family Drug Treatment Courts

    Judge Leonard Edwards
    First page of article [source]

    Iraq: International Sanctions and What Next?

    MIDDLE EAST POLICY, Issue 4 2000
    H. C. von Sponeck

    U.S. Presidents and the Use of Economic Sanctions

    What conditions lead the U. S. president to use and alter economic sanctions? Both relations with the target country and domestic politics are considered as conditions leading to the employment and later removal of economic sanctions. Using time-series cross-sectional data, the analysis shows that the president considers both the relations with the target country and U. S. domestic factors when deciding to impose economic sanctions, although the relations with the target have a much greater impact on the decision. Once the economic sanctions are in place and the president must decide to maintain or alter them, the domestic political influence disappears, and the president considers only the relations with the target when modifying sanction policy. [source]

    Guidelines on Sanctions for Breach: Hale v Tanner

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 4 2001
    Roger Kay

    How Lay Third Parties Weigh Legitimacy and Sanctions in a Side-Taking Dilemma: A Study among Chinese and Dutch Employees

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Huadong Yang
    Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of side-taking with a legitimacy party (or a sanction party). Seventy-nine Chinese and 77 Dutch employees were presented with a scenario describing a conflict dilemma between one party who has more legitimacy claims but less negative sanctions and the other party who has less legitimacy claims but more negative sanctions. The results showed that moral orientation by itself has a reinforcing effect on the positive link between perceived legitimacy and siding with a legitimacy party. In addition, in both countries, the relationship between expected negative sanctions and side-taking with a sanction party was moderated by a joint effect of the moral and the expedient orientations. That is, for lay third parties with a weakly moral orientation and a strongly expedient orientation, an increase in negative sanctions led to more side-taking with a sanction party. For those lay third parties who were weakly moral and weakly expedient oriented, strongly moral and strongly expedient oriented, or strongly moral and weakly expedient oriented, the above-mentioned link was not positive any more. Confrontés à un conflit interpersonnel, les tiers non concernés réagissent parfois en prenant parti. Dans cet article, nous étudions les effets d'interaction des orientations morales et opportunistes de tiers non impliqués sur la relation entre la légitimé perçue ou les sanctions négatives attendues et leur intention de se ranger aux côtés d'un groupe légitime ou d'un groupe puissant. On a présentéà 79 salariés chinois et 77 salariés néerlandais un scénario décrivant un dilemme conflictuel entre un groupe qui disposait de plus de légitimité, mais de sanctions négatives moindres et un autre groupe qui disposait de moins de légitimité, mais de sanctions négatives plus fortes. Les résultats montrent que l'orientation morale exerce par elle-même un renforcement sur la liaison positive entre la légitimité perçue et le fait de se ranger aux côtés d'un groupe bénéficiant de la légitimité. De plus, dans les deux pays, la relation entre les sanctions négatives attendues et le fait de choisir le groupe puissant était régulé par un effet conjugué des orientations morales et opportunistes. Ce qui signifie que pour des tiers pourvus d'une orientation morale déficiente et d'un grand opportunisme, une augmentation des sanctions négatives incite à prendre plutôt parti pour le groupe puissant. La relation ci-dessus mentionnée n'est nullement positive pour les tiers à la morale et à l'opportunisme faibles, à la morale et à l'opportunisme forts, ou à la morale forte et à l'opportunisme faible. [source]


    Research Summary: The issue of whether innocent people have been executed is now at the center of the debate concerning the legitimacy of capital punishment. The purpose of this research was to use data collected by the Gallup Organization in 2003 to investigate whether Americans who believed that an innocent person had been executed were less likely to support capital punishment. We also explored whether the association varied by race, given that African Americans are disproportionately affected by the death penalty. Our results indicated that three-quarters of Americans believed that an innocent person had been executed for a crime they did not commit within the last five years and that this belief was associated with lower levels of support for capital punishment, especially among those who thought this sanction was applied unfairly. In addition, our analyses revealed that believing an innocent person had been executed had a stronger association with altering African American than white support for the death penalty. Policy Implications: A key claim of death penalty advocates is that a high proportion of the public supports capital punishment. In this context, scholars opposing this sanction have understood the importance of showing that the public's support for executing offenders is contingent and shallower than portrayed by typical opinion polls. The current research joins this effort by arguing that the prospect of executing innocents potentially impacts public support for the death penalty and, in the least, creates ideological space for a reconsideration of the legitimacy of capital punishment. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2007
    A growing number of field and experimental studies focus on the institutional arrangements by which individuals are able to solve collective action problems. Important in this research is the role of reciprocity and institutions that facilitate cooperation via opportunities for monitoring, sanctioning, and rewarding others. Sanctions represent a cost to both the participant imposing the sanction and the individual receiving the sanction. Rewards represent a zero-sum transfer from participants giving to those receiving rewards. We contrast reward and sanction institutions in regard to their impact on cooperation and efficiency in the context of a public goods experiment. (JEL C92) [source]

    Whose job is it anyway?: organizational information competencies for value creation

    Joe Peppard
    Abstract. Research highlights that most business managers continue to be dissatisfied with the value they perceive they are deriving from their organization's information systems investments. On examining the literature, the dominant perspective is that creating value through information systems is primarily the responsibility of the IS function. Accordingly, to address this chronic malaise, attention generally focuses on the IS function with proposed prescriptions ranging from re-skilling the IS professional through re-engineering the IS function to the ultimate sanction of outsourcing. This paper examines the problem of value creation from IS investments from an organizational as opposed to an IS functional perspective. Drawing on resource-based theory, the paper argues that the effective deployment and exploitation of information should be viewed as a ,strategic asset'. To leverage value from IS, the paper proposes that organizations must recognize and develop information competencies and that the elements of these competencies are distributed throughout the organization and not solely resident in the IS function. Through a multimethodological approach these information competencies are identified and described. The resultant competencies are then studied in an organizational context. The paper ends by drawing conclusions and articulating further research directions and opportunities [source]

    Consolidating the Gains Made in Diplomacy Studies: A Taxonomy,

    Stuart Murray
    Since the end of the Cold War, the scope and study of diplomacy has expanded. In the modern diplomatic environment, novel terms such as pipeline diplomacy, coercive diplomacy, diplomacy by sanction and citizen diplomacy are common, alongside the more traditional view of diplomacy as state-to-state activity, monopolized by professional, official diplomats. With such a broad range of views, the scholar can become confused as to what actually constitutes modern diplomacy? In this article, it is argued that the disparity of views in the diplomacy studies field must be classified and consolidated before the enhanced role of diplomacy in the twenty-first century can be better understood. In this article, three different classifications or schools of diplomatic thought are introduced and constructed: the Traditional School, the Nascent School, and the Innovative School. [source]

    Capitalism, Unfree Labor and Colonial Doxa: The Master and Servant Act from Britain to Hong Kong, 1823,1932

    The Master and Servant Act was a law that allowed the use of penal sanction against workers for breach of contract in nineteenth century Britain. For scholars who believe that wage laborers under capitalism are free from "extra-economic" coercion, this law was an anomaly. One explanation suggests technological backwardness during the early stages of capitalism as the cause. In this paper I will challenge this account and offer an alternative explanation. As the British Empire expanded, the same law was enacted in many British colonies. If it was the process of capitalist production that rendered the Master and Servant Act necessary, this explanation should also apply to the British colonies. By focusing on Hong Kong, I show that this was not the case. Instead, I show that the use of judiciary coercion could be explained by Bourdieu's notions of doxa, habitus and field. [source]

    Prejudice Control and Interracial Relations: The Role of Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice

    David A. Butz
    ABSTRACT A decade of research indicates that individual differences in motivation to respond without prejudice have important implications for the control of prejudice and interracial relations. In reviewing this work, we draw on W. Mischel and Y. Shoda's (1995, 1999) Cognitive,Affective Processing System (CAPS) to demonstrate that people with varying sources of motivation to respond without prejudice respond in distinct ways to situational cues, resulting in differing situation,behavior profiles in interracial contexts. People whose motivation is self-determined (i.e., the internally motivated) effectively control prejudice across situations and strive for positive interracial interactions. In contrast, people who respond without prejudice to avoid social sanction (i.e., the primarily externally motivated) consistently fail at regulating difficult to control prejudice and respond with anxiety and avoidance in interracial interactions. We further consider the nature of the cognitive,affective units of personality associated with motivation to respond without prejudice and their implications for the quality of interracial relations. [source]

    Are football referees really biased and inconsistent?: evidence on the incidence of disciplinary sanction in the English Premier League

    Peter Dawson
    Summary., The paper presents a statistical analysis of patterns in the incidence of disciplinary sanction (yellow and red cards) that were taken against players in the English Premier League over the period 1996,2003. Several questions concerning sources of inconsistency and bias in refereeing standards are examined. Evidence is found to support a time consistency hypothesis, that the average incidence of disciplinary sanction is predominantly stable over time. However, a refereeing consistency hypothesis, that the incidence of disciplinary sanction does not vary between referees, is rejected. The tendency for away teams to incur more disciplinary points than home teams cannot be attributed to the home advantage effect on match results and appears to be due to a refereeing bias favouring the home team. [source]

    An Evaluation of a Delaware Teen Court

    ABSTRACT The Kent County Teen Court Program (teen court) provides sanctions for juvenile delinquency from a panel of a juvenile's peers rather than from a Family Court Judge. Part of the concept behind teen peer courts is that the sanction from one's peers carries more weight than sanctions from adults. The Delaware Criminal Justice Council (CJC) awarded a grant to Delaware - Teen Courts, Inc. to support the operation of the Kent County Teen Court Program. The teen court program was designed to provide participants with hands-on education in the judicial process, to create a sanction pro- gram that will not create a permanent record for a juvenile, and to foster, a sense of community responsibility in the program participants. The teen court program is an adult model teen court in which all of the judicial actors are juveniles with the exception of the judge. This article reflects the results of an evaluation on the Kent County Teen Court program's first two years of operation (Garrison, 2001). [source]

    The Role of Family Ties in the Labour Market.

    LABOUR, Issue 4 2001
    An Interpretation Based on Efficiency Wage Theory
    By casual empiricism, it seems that many firms take explicit account of the family ties connecting workers, often hiring individuals belonging to the same family or passing jobs on from parents to their children. This paper makes an attempt to explain this behaviour by introducing the assumption of altruism within the family and supposing that agents maximize a family utility function rather than an individual one. This hypothesis has been almost ignored in the analysis of the relationship between employers and employees. The implications of this assumption in the efficiency wage models are explored: by employing members of the same family, firms can use a (credible) harsher threat , involving a sanction for all the family's members in case of one member's shirking , that allows them to pay a lower efficiency wage. On the other hand, workers who accept this agreement exchange a reduction in wage with an increase in their probability of being employed: this can be optimal in a situation of high unemployment. Moreover, the link between parents and children allows the firm to follow a strategy that solves the problem of an individual's finite time horizon by its making use of the family's reputation. [source]

    Ending Up in Pizza: Accountability as a Problem of Institutional Arrangement in Brazil

    Matthew M. Taylor
    ABSTRACT Brazilians often complain that investigations of corruption by public servants drag on for years or bring few legal sanctions on the perpetrators. This lack of accountability is so pervasive that a slang phrase, acabou em pizza, is often invoked when investigations are inconclusive. This article investigates the role of four Brazilian public institutions charged with keeping public servants accountable. For analysis, it breaks the accountability process into its three component stages: oversight, investigation, and sanction. Through a study of six prominent cases of corruption, it shows that the weakness of the accountability process in Brazil is due not entirely to the toothlessness of individual institutions of accountability, but also to the independence of such institutions at each of the three stages. These findings suggest that institutional arrangements influence the degree of accountability, and thereby also public trust and confidence, in Latin America's largest democracy. [source]

    Status Disparities in the Capital of Capital Punishment

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 4 2009
    Scott Phillips
    Numerous studies have examined the influence of victim race on capital punishment, with a smaller number focused on victim gender. But death penalty scholars have largely ignored victim social status. Drawing on Black's (1976) multidimensional theoretical concept, the current research examines the impact of victim social status on the district attorney's decision to seek the death penalty and the jury's decision to impose a death sentence. The data include the population of cases indicted for capital murder in Harris County (Houston), Texas, from 1992 to 1999 (n=504). The findings suggest that victim social status has a robust influence on the ultimate state sanction: Death was more likely to be sought and imposed on behalf of high-status victims who were integrated, sophisticated, conventional, and respectable. The research also has implications beyond capital punishment. Because victim social status has rarely been investigated in the broader sentencing literature, Black's concept provides a theoretical tool that could be used to address such an important omission. [source]

    How to Put the Community in Community-Based Justice: Some Views of Participants in Criminal Court Diversion

    Tammy Landau
    Individuals charged with criminal offences who meet strict criteria are diverted from the criminal process in exchange for performing a community sanction. Under this model, direct community involvement is critical to ,success'. This study is an evaluation of these projects, combining file data with the results of interviews with the main participants. Results suggest that the projects are highly successful, and that involved communities are highly supportive of the current form and structure of post-charge diversion. [source]

    Conceptions Of Liberty Deprivation

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 5 2006
    Liora Lazarus
    This article adopts a theoretical and comparative perspective on the prisoner's legal status in England and Wales. Applying the principles of human rights, legality and proportionality, it argues that the prisoner's legal status must rest on a divisible conception of liberty. Such a conception must distinguish clearly between the liberty lost, and the rights restricted, by the imposition of the custodial sentence as opposed to the administration of prisons (the key distinction). In order for this to be achieved, the conception of the prisoner's legal status must also establish the purpose or purposes of the custodial sanction as distinct from the purpose of prison administration. Through comparison with Germany, the article demonstrates that the common law concept of the prisoner's legal status is unstable. Vacillating between a divisible and indivisible conception of the prisoner's liberty, the English conception of the prisoner's legal status lacks a foundation firm enough to satisfy the principles of human rights, legality and proportionality. [source]

    ,Going out': the growth of Chinese foreign direct investment in Southeast Asia and its implications for corporate social responsibility

    Stephen Frost
    Abstract Analysts have finally started to pay increasing attention to the rapidly rising levels of Chinese investment abroad. Deals such as Lenovo's purchase of IBM's PC production arm have sparked interest in a quiet revolution. The story now is not just about the flow of foreign investment in China, but also of the flow of China's investment into other countries. However, most interest so far has concentrated on big ticket investments in the West and the consequences for European and particularly US geopolitical interests. Of less concern thus far have been the implications of Chinese investment on corporate social responsibility. This paper is a preliminary assessment of the potential implications of Chinese investments: in particular, the effect on sanctions designed to improve human rights (with specific reference to Myanmar), and whether pressure can be maintained on foreign investors to comply with international standards and norms in the face of Chinese investment. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]