River Basin (river + basin)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of River Basin

  • columbia river basin
  • ebro river basin
  • european river basin
  • large river basin
  • major river basin
  • mekong river basin
  • mississippi river basin
  • pearl river basin
  • yangtze river basin

  • Terms modified by River Basin

  • river basin management
  • river basin scale

  • Selected Abstracts


    Levan Elbakidze
    ABSTRACT: Effects of climate change are likely to be detected in nearly all sectors and regions of the economy, with both winners and losers. One of the consequences of climatic changes could be altered regional water supplies. This paper presents an investigation of regional agricultural implications of changes in water availability. Specifically, using a profit maximization approach, the economic consequences of altered water availability in the Great Basin of Nevada are analyzed in terms of the effects on net returns of agricultural producers. Under the scenarios analyzed in this paper, it is found that with adequate water systems, increase in streamflow and consequent increase in water availability could significantly benefit agricultural producers of this region. Net returns to irrigators could increase by 8 to 13 percent, not taking into account the possibility of changes in crop yields and prices. It is also shown that the benefits from increased water availability are sensitive to likely crop yield and price changes. The potential for adverse effects of climatic changes on water supply is also considered by analyzing the effects of decreased water availability. Under decreased water availability scenarios, farmer net returns decrease substantially. [source]

    A Freshwater Classification Approach for Biodiversity Conservation Planning

    biodiversidad de agua dulce; clasificación; planificación de conservación; representativo Abstract:,Freshwater biodiversity is highly endangered and faces increasing threats worldwide. To be complete, regional plans that identify critical areas for conservation must capture representative components of freshwater biodiversity as well as rare and endangered species. We present a spatially hierarchical approach to classify freshwater systems to create a coarse filter to capture representative freshwater biodiversity in regional conservation plans. The classification framework has four levels that we described using abiotic factors within a zoogeographic context and mapped in a geographic information system. Methods to classify and map units are flexible and can be automated where high-quality spatial data exist, or can be manually developed where such data are not available. Products include a spatially comprehensive inventory of mapped and classified units that can be used remotely to characterize regional patterns of aquatic ecosystems. We provide examples of classification procedures in data-rich and data-poor regions from the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest of North America and the upper Paraguay River in central South America. The approach, which has been applied in North, Central, and South America, provides a relatively rapid and pragmatic way to account for representative freshwater biodiversity at scales appropriate to regional assessments. Resumen:,La biodiversidad de agua dulce está en peligro y enfrenta amenazas crecientes en todo el mundo. Para ser completos, los planes regionales que identifican áreas críticas para la conservación deben incluir componentes representativos de la biodiversidad de agua dulce así como especies raras y en peligro. Presentamos un método espacialmente jerárquico para clasificar sistemas de agua dulce para crear un filtro grueso que capte a la biodiversidad de agua dulce en los planes regionales de conservación. La estructura de la clasificación tiene cuatro niveles que describimos utilizando factores abióticos en un contexto zoogeográfico y localizamos en un sistema de información geográfico. Los métodos para clasificar y trazar mapas son flexibles y pueden ser automatizados, donde existen datos espaciales de alta calidad, o desarrollados manualmente cuando tales datos no están disponibles. Los productos incluyen un inventario completo de unidades mapeadas y clasificadas que pueden ser usadas remotamente para caracterizar patrones regionales de ecosistemas acuáticos. Proporcionamos ejemplos de procedimientos de clasificación en regiones ricas y pobres en datos en la cuenca del Río Columbia en el noroeste de Norte América y del Río Paraguay en Sudamérica central. El método, que ha sido aplicado en Norte, Centro y Sudamérica, proporciona una forma relativamente rápida y pragmática de contabilizar biodiversidad de agua dulce representativa en escalas adecuadas para evaluaciones regionales. [source]

    Interspecific Effects of Artifically Propagated Fish: an Additional Conservation Risk for Salmon

    Phillip S. Levin
    We tested the hypothesis that hatchery-reared steelhead salmon ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) released into the Snake River Basin negatively affect the survival of wild Snake River steelhead and chinook ( O. tshawytscha) salmon. Because climatic conditions can influence salmon survival, we included an index of the El Niño,Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) as a covariate in our analyses. Based on time series of hatchery releases and rates of smolt-to-adult survival, we demonstrate that the survival of wild chinook salmon is negatively associated with hatchery releases of steelhead. The state of the ( ENSO) did not affect the strength of this relationship. We observed no relationship between survival of wild steelhead and steelhead hatchery releases. Our results suggest that industrial-scale production of hatchery fish may hinder the recovery of some threatened salmonids and that the potential interspecific impact of hatcheries must be considered as agencies begin the process of hatchery reform. Resumen: Por más de 120 años, las granjas han liberado números enormes de salmones del Pacífico para compensar las numerosas agresiones humanos a sus poblaciones, sin embargo, los impactos ecológicos de este esfuerzo masivo son poco entendidos. Evaluamos la hipótesis de que la trucha cabeza de acero ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) criada en granjas y liberada en la cuenca del Río Snake afecta negativamente la supervivencia de truchas cabeza de acero y salmones chinook ( O. tshawytscha) silvestres. Puesto que las condiciones climáticas pueden influir sobre la supervivencia del salmón, incluimos un índice de la Oscilación del Niño del Sur como covariable del análisis. En base a series de tiempo de las liberaciones de las granjas y las tasas de supervivencia hasta adulto de peces migrantes al mar, demostramos que la supervivencia del salmón chinook silvestre está negativamente correlacionada con las liberaciones de truchas cabeza de acero de las granjas. El estado de la Oscilación del Niño del Sur no afectó el grado de correlación. No observamos relación alguna entre la supervivencia de las truchas silvestres y las liberaciones de las granjas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la producción a escala industrial de peces de granja puede obstaculizar la recuperación de algunos salmónidos amenazados y que el impacto interespecífico potencial de las granjas debería ser considerado en cuanto las agencias inicien el proceso de reforma de las granjas. [source]

    Modelling rising groundwater and the impacts of salinization on terrestrial remnant vegetation in the Blackwood River Basin

    Geoff Hodgson
    Summary Southwest Western Australia has a particularly rich biodiversity. Clearing for agriculture has greatly reduced the extent of native vegetation in wheatbelt catchments; it also set into train hydrogeological and hydrological changes that are still evolving toward a new equilibrium. With those changes come widespread land salinization that presents a further risk to remnant vegetation, particularly in low portions of the landscape. The equilibrium position of shallow groundwater was modelled for the Blackwood Catchment, and used to assess the extent of risk to a set of remnant vegetation classes. A total of 37 368 ha of remnant vegetation was identified to be at risk of salinization when hydrological equilibrium is reached. Further hydrological modelling assessed the rate of development of these watertables (and hence the rate of impact on remnants), as well as the potential to protect remnants by controlling groundwater recharge with revegetation. The results demonstrate that only high levels of revegetation are effective at protecting high value remnants in the longer term. The timing of events is dependant on the accuracy of estimating recharge. [source]

    Presence of natural and anthropogenic organic contaminants and potential fish health impacts along two river gradients in Alberta, Canada

    Ken M. Jeffries
    Abstract In the current study, 28 organic contaminants were measured, many with estrogen-like activity, in water collected from 16 sites on two rivers in the South Saskatchewan River Basin, Alberta, Canada. The compounds detected included synthetic estrogens (birth control pill compounds and hormone therapy drugs) downstream of municipal wastewater effluents and natural hormones downstream of municipal wastewater effluents and in agricultural areas. Greater concentrations of cholesterol and derivatives, phytosterols, and fecal sterols were measured at the most downstream sites, which indicates cumulative inputs of such compounds in these rivers. A native minnow (longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae) was sampled to assess pathophysiological responses to exposure to compounds with estrogen-like activity. Hepatic vitellogenin protein was detected in at least one adult male longnose dace from 14 of 15 sites sampled for fish. Vitellogenin was negatively correlated with hepatosomatic (r,=,,0.47, p,<,0.001) and gonadosomatic (r,=,,0.44, p,<,0.003) indices, which suggests potential health impacts in male longnose dace in the South Saskatchewan River Basin. The current study demonstrates that organic contaminants, many with estrogen-like activity, are distributed over hundreds of kilometers throughout the South Saskatchewan River Basin and not just downstream of major point-sources. Therefore, many activities within these basins impact water quality in the South Saskatchewan River Basin and affect endemic longnose dace populations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2379,2387. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Reduced growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a live invertebrate diet pre-exposed to metal-contaminated sediments

    James A. Hansen
    Abstract Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed live diets of Lumbriculus variegatus cultured in metal-contaminated sediments from the Clark Fork River Basin (MT, USA), an uncontaminated reference sediment, or an uncontaminated culture medium. Fish were tested in individual chambers; individual growth as well as the nutritional quality and caloric value of each trout's consumed diet were determined. Growth was measured following 14, 28, 42, 56, and 67 d of exposure. A subset of fish was sampled at 35 d for whole-body metals. Metals (whole body, digestive tract, and liver) and histology were measured at the end of the test. We observed significant growth inhibition in trout fed the contaminated diets; growth inhibition was associated with reductions in conversion of food energy to biomass rather than with reduced food intake. Growth inhibition was negatively correlated with As in trout tissue residues. Histological changes in contaminated treatments included hepatic necrosis and degenerative alterations in gallbladder. The present study provides evidence that metal-contaminated sediments can pose a hazard to trout health through a dietary exposure pathway. [source]

    Pesticide residues in the aquatic environment of banana plantation areas in the North Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    Luisa E. Castillo
    Abstract A study of pesticide residues in surface waters and sediments was undertaken in the Suerte River Basin, Costa Rica, that drains into the Tortuguero conservation area. Samples were collected in streams, packing plants, and the Suerte River. The most frequently measured compounds in surface water samples were the fungicides thiabendazole, propiconazole, and imazalil; the nematicides terbufos and cadusafos; and the insecticide chlorpyrifos. At the conservation area, propiconazole was detected in 43% of the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 ,g/L. In 25% of the samples collected at this site, a nematicide (cadusafos, carbofuran, or ethoprophos) was detected (0.06,6.2 ,g/L). According to this study, most of the insecticide-nematicides analyzed pose a risk for acute or chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms based on the exposure levels and toxicity values from the literature. Ametryn, imazalil, and thiabendazole also exceeded the calculated chronic risk ratio. The most frequently detected compounds in sediments were thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos, imazalil, and propiconazole. The occurrence was higher in the packing plants and streams. Pesticides in waters and sediments of Tortuguero conservation area could pose a threat to this wetland and an additional stress to the endangered species that inhabit this area. More information is needed regarding the distribution and stability of pesticides in the lagoon system as well as of the effects of mixtures of low levels of pesticides and their degradation products on representative species of the Tortuguero ecosystem. Meanwhile, all measures to reduce the emissions of pesticides from the banana plantations and the packing plants should be taken. [source]

    Methods for the analysis of trends in streamflow response due to changes in catchment condition

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 7 2001
    R. A. Letcher
    Abstract Two algorithms for analysing changes in streamflow response due to changes in land use and farm dam development, based on the Estimated Generalized Least Squares (EGLS) and the Generalized Additive Model (GAM) methods, were compared on three catchments in the Macquarie River Basin in NSW, Australia. In order to account for the influence of climatic conditions on streamflow response, the IHACRES conceptual rainfall-runoff model was calibrated on a daily time step over two-year periods then simulated over the entire period of concurrent rainfall, streamflow and temperature data. Residuals or differences between observed and simulated flows were calculated. The EGLS method was applied to a smoothing of the residual (daily) time series. Such residuals represent the difference between the simulated streamflow response to a fixed catchment condition (in the calibration period) and that due to the actual varying conditions throughout the record period. The GAM method was applied to quarterly aggregated residuals. The methods provided similar qualitative results for trends in residual streamflow response in each catchment for models with a good fitting performance on the calibration period in terms of a number of statistics, i.e. the coefficient of efficiency R2, bias and average relative parameter error (ARPE). It was found that the fit of the IHACRES model to the calibration period is critically important in determining trend values and significance. Models with well identified parameters and less correlation between rainfall and model residuals are likely to give the best results for trend analysis. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Drivers of Unsustainable Land Use in the Semi-Arid Khabur River Basin, Syria

    Abstract The semi-arid zone of Southwest Asia, known as the Fertile Crescent, is under unprecedented stress because of agricultural development. Where rain-fed agriculture and transhumant herding had prevailed over ten millennia, today intensive cultivation with irrigation threatens future sustainability. A number of interconnected, but uncoordinated drivers of change combine to shape the landscape and its future, and their changes make it hard to anticipate future requirements and opportunities, as well as to implement policies, whether by local stakeholders or at the national level. Among the factors that comprise the socio-natural systems are (1) climate, (2) water and soil resources, (3) history of land use, (4) social, economic and political factors, (5) infrastructural developments (6) interstate impacts, and (7) legacies of the past. The example of the Khabur River drainage in northeastern Syria shows the dynamic interplay among these factors over the past 70 years, with implications for the way future policies and practices are developed. [source]


    ABSTRACT. Meltwater contributes to watershed hydrology by increasing summer discharge, delaying the peak spring runoff, and decreasing variability in runoff. High-elevation snowshed meltwater, including glacier-derived input, provides an estimated 26.9 percent of summer streamflow (ranging annually from 16 to 40 percent) in the Nooksack River Basin above the town of Deming, Washington, in the North Cascades Range. The Nooksack is a major spawning river for salmon and once was important for commercial, recreational, and tribal fishing, and in the past its flow met the demands of both human and aquatic ecosystems. But the river is already legally overallocated, and demand is rising in response to the rapidly growing human population. Variability in snowshed contributions to the watershed is considerable but has increased from an average of 25.2 percent in the 1940s to an average of 30.8 percent in the 1990s. Overall stream discharge shows no significant increase, suggesting that the glaciers are melting, and/or precipitation levels (or other hydrologic factors) are decreasing at about the same rate. If glaciers continue to recede, they may disappear permanently from the Cascades. If that occurs, their summer contribution to surface-water supplies will cease, and water-management policies will need drastic revision. [source]

    Peat carbon stocks in the southern Mackenzie River Basin: uncertainties revealed in a high-resolution case study

    Abstract The organic carbon (C) stocks contained in peat were estimated for a wetland-rich boreal region of the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada, using high-resolution wetland map data, available peat C characteristic and peat depth datasets, and geostatistics. Peatlands cover 32% of the 25 119 km2 study area, and consist mainly of surface- and/or groundwater-fed treed peatlands. The thickness of peat deposits measured at 203 sites was 2.5 m on average but as deep as 6 m, and highly variable between sites. Peat depths showed little relationship with terrain data within 1 and 5 km, but were spatially autocorrelated, and were generalized using ordinary kriging. Polygon-scale calculations and Monte Carlo simulations yielded a total peat C stock of 982,1025 × 1012 g C that varied in C mass per unit area between 53 and 165 kg m,2. This geostatistical approach showed as much as 10% more peat C than calculations using mean depths. We compared this estimate with an overlapping 7868 km2 portion of an independent peat C stock estimate for western Canada, which revealed similar values for total peatland area, total C stock, and total peat C mass per unit area. However, agreement was poor within ,875 km2 grids owing to inconsistencies in peatland cover and little relationship in peat depth between estimates. The greatest disagreement in mean peat C mass per unit area occurred in grids with the largest peatland cover, owing to the spatial coincidence of large cover and deep peat in our high-resolution assessment. We conclude that total peat C stock estimates in the southern Mackenzie Basin and perhaps in boreal western Canada are likely of reasonable accuracy. However, owing to uncertainties particularly in peat depth, the quality of information regarding the location of these large stocks at scales as wide as several hundreds of square kilometers is presently much more limited. [source]

    Arsenic in Glacial Drift Aquifers and the Implication for Drinking Water,Lower Illinois River Basin

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2001
    Kelly L. Warner
    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) covers 47,000 km2 of central and western Illinois. In the LIRB, 90% of the ground water supplies are from the deep and shallow glacial drift aquifers. The deep glacial drift aquifer (DGDA) is below 152 m altitude, a sand and gravel deposit that fills the Mahomet Buried Bedrock Valley, and overlain by more than 30.5 m of clayey till. The LIRB is part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment program, which has an objective to describe the status and trends of surface and ground water quality. In the DGDA, 55% of the wells used for public drinking-water supply and 43% of the wells used for domestic drinking water supply have arsenic concentrations above 10 ,g/L (a new U.S. EPA drinking water standard). Arsenic concentrations greater than 25 ,g/L in ground water are mostly in the form of arsenite (AsIII). The proportion of arsenate (AsV) to arsenite does not change along the flowpath of the DGDA. Because of the limited number of arsenic species analyses, no clear relations between species and other trace elements, major ions, or physical parameters could be established. Arsenic and barium concentrations increase from east to west in the DGDA and are positively correlated. Chloride and arsenic are positively correlated and provide evidence that arsenic may be derived locally from underlying bedrock. Solid phase geochemical analysis of the till, sand and gravel, and bedrock show the highest presence of arsenic in the underlying organic-rich carbonate bedrock. The black shale or coal within the organic-rich carbonate bedrock is a potential source of arsenic. Most high arsenic concentrations found in the DGDA are west and downgradient of the bedrock structural features. Geologic structures in the bedrock are potential pathways for recharge to the DGDA from surrounding bedrock. [source]

    The assessment of surface water resources for the semi-arid Yongding River Basin from 1956 to 2000 and the impact of land use change

    Lei Wang
    Abstract The assessment of surface water resources (SWRs) in the semi-arid Yongding River Basin is vital as the basin has been in a continuous state of serious water shortage over the last 20 years. In this study, the first version of the geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM) has been applied to the basin over a long period of time (1956,2000) as part of an SWR assessment. This was done by simulating the natural hydrological processes in the basin. The model was first evaluated at 18 stream gauges during the period from 1990 to 1992 to evaluate both the daily streamflows and the annual SWRs using the land use data for 1990. The model was further validated in 2000 with the annual SWRs at seven major stream gauges. Second, the verified model was used in a 45-year simulation to estimate the annual SWRs for the basin from 1956 to 2000 using the 1990 land use data. An empirical correlation between the annual precipitation and the annual SWRs was developed for the basin. Spatial distribution of the long-term mean runoff coefficients for all 177 sub-basins was also achieved. Third, an additional 10-year (1991,2000) simulation was performed with the 2000 land use data to investigate the impact of land use changes from 1990 to 2000 on the long-term annual SWRs. The results suggest that the 10-year land use changes have led to a decrease of 8·3 × 107 m3 (7·9% of total) for the 10-year mean annual SWRs in the simulation. To our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to assess the long-term SWRs and the impact of land use change in the semi-arid Yongding River Basin using a semi-distributed hillslope hydrological model. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A quarter century of declining suspended sediment fluxes in the Mississippi River and the effect of the 1993 flood,

    Arthur J. Horowitz
    Abstract Annual fluxes, flow-weighted concentrations and linear least squares trendline calculations for a number of long-term Mississippi River Basin (MRB) sampling sites covering 1981 through 2007, whilst somewhat ,noisy', display long-term patterns of decline. Annual flow-weighted concentration plots display the same long-term patterns of decline, but are less noisy because they reduce/eliminate variations due to interannual discharge differences. The declines appear greatest in the middle MRB, but also are evident elsewhere. The pattern for the lower Ohio River differs and may reflect ongoing construction at the Olmsted lock and dam that began in 1993 and currently is ongoing. The ,Great Flood of 1993' appears to have superimposed a step function (a sharp drop) on the long-term rate of decline in suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), annual fluxes and flow-weighted concentrations in the middle MRB at St Louis and Thebes, Missouri and Vicksburg, Mississippi, and in the lower MRB at St Francisville, Louisiana. Evidence for a step function at other sites is less substantial, but may have occurred. The step function appears to have resulted from losses in available (erodible) sediment, rather than to a reduction in discharge; hence, the MRB appears to be supply limited rather than discharge limited. These evaluations support the need for daily discharge and SSC data collections in the MRB to better address questions regarding long-term trends in sediment-related issues. This is apparent when the results for the Mississippi River at Thebes and St Louis sites are compared with those from other MRB sites where intensive (daily) data collections are lacking. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Climate change, land-cover dynamics and ecohydrology of the Nile River Basin

    Assefa M. Melesse
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Studies on the Mekong River Basin,Modelling of Hydrology and Water Resources

    Kuniyoshi Takeuchi Principal Investigator of RR2002(6) Project
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Seasonal changes in radiation and evaporation implied from the diurnal distribution of rainfall in the Lower Mekong

    Kumiko Tsujimoto
    Abstract Solar radiation is an important input to many empirical equations for estimating evaporation, which in turn plays an important role in the hydrologic cycle in the Lower Mekong River Basin due to the high evaporation potential of the tropical monsoon climate. Few proper meteorological data exist for the Lower Mekong River Basin, however, and the region's meteorological conditions, including seasonal variation in radiation and evaporation, have not been clarified. In this study, ground-based hourly hydrometeorological data were collected at three observation stations located in different land-use types (urban district, paddy area, and lake) in the Lower Mekong River Basin. These data were analysed to investigate the seasonal variation in radiation and evaporation related to the diurnal distribution of rainfall. Contrary to common expectations, our results showed that rainy and dry seasons had nearly the same amount of solar radiation in the Lower Mekong River Basin because (1) rainy seasons had a relatively larger amount of extraterrestrial radiation; (2) no rain fell on nearly half of the days during rainy seasons; and (3) the amount of solar radiation on rainy days reached 88% of that on non-rainy days. The third factor was attributed to the high frequency of evening rainfall. Furthermore, this rainfall,radiation relationship meant that rainy seasons had a large amount of net radiation due to the low reduction ratio of solar radiation and an increase in long-wave incoming radiation. Accordingly, rainy seasons had a high evaporation potential. Moreover, for the rain-fed rice paddies that prevail in this region, sufficient radiation during the rainy season would be a great advantage for rice growing. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Snow disappearance in Eastern Siberia and its relationship to atmospheric influences

    Yoshihiro Iijima
    Abstract In the present study, we examine the climatological features and interannual variations in snow disappearance within the Lena River Basin, Eastern Siberia, during a recent 15-year period (1986,2000), and the relationship of snow disappearance to atmospheric conditions. According to the climatology of the day of the year on which snow disappears, the boundary of snow disappearance within the Lena River Basin migrates rapidly northward from mid-April until early June, with minimum interannual variation occurring in the middle part of the basin. In addition, the preceding snow disappearance is apparent in the central Lena River Basin. Melting of snow within the Lena River Basin commonly occurs within 30 days of complete snow disappearance under certain atmospheric conditions: daily mean air temperature in excess of , 10 °C, greater than 2 hPa of water vapor pressure, and, hence, more than 170 W m,2 of downward longwave radiation under clear sky conditions. Composite analysis using a reanalysis dataset demonstrates that the increase in air temperature and water vapor that accompanies snow melting is due to wet (and warm) air advection in conjunction with enhanced water vapor convergence over the central Lena River Basin during the 30-day period prior to snow disappearance. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Secondary Production and Its Trophic Basis of Two Mayfly Species in a Subtropical Stream of China

    Yunjun Yan
    Abstract During June 2003 to June 2004, an investigation on life cycle, production and trophic basis of two species of mayfly in a second-order river of Hanjiang River Basin, Hubei, China was conducted. The results showed Epeorus sinensisUmler and Caenis nigropunctataWu both developed two generations a year. The mean annual production and P/B ratio of E. sinensis were 9.154 g m,2 a,1 dry weight and 16.0, and those of C. nigropunctata were 1.554 g m,2 a,1 and 9.6, respectively. For E. sinensis , the proportions contributing to secondary production of the main food types were: amorphous detritus 33.46%, fungi 10.8%, vascular plant detritus 1.8%, diatoms 53.9%; for C.nigropunctata , the proportions were 70.8%, 6.90%, 3.5% and 18.8%, respectively. Compared with those species reported in North America and Europe, although land use mode and local climate were greatly different in China, life history and trophic basis of the mayflies seemed roughly similar, yet secondary production appeared to be much higher. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Estimating the effectiveness of a rotational irrigation delivery system: A case study from Pakistan,

    Noor ul Hassan Zardari
    warabandi; allocation de l'eau; bassin de l'Indus; Pakistan Abstract In this study, basic principles of the rotational irrigation water delivery system of Pakistan (i.e. the warabandi) and the performance of the warabandi system under current socio-economic conditions have been investigated from a farmers' survey completed from 154 farmers located on five watercourses of the lower Indus River Basin. It is shown that irrigation water allocation based on very limited criteria does not give much incentive to the farmers for improving agricultural income. Also, the survey results suggest that the productivity of limited irrigation water could not be maximized under the warabandi system. We have therefore suggested the basic principles of the warabandi system should be revised by making them suitable for the current socio-economic conditions. We propose that the existence or non-existence of fresh groundwater resources along with other critical variables should be taken into consideration when making canal water allocation decisions. A framework to allow distribution equity and efficiency in water allocations , such as considering the gross area of a tertiary canal, sensitivity of crop growth stage to water shortage, crop value, bias of allocation towards most water use efficient areas, the potential losses from water deficiency, etc. , should be developed as a tool to improve water productivity for Pakistan and for individual farmers. The contribution of groundwater in the farmers' income from agriculture and the economic value of irrigation water have also been estimated. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cette étude analyse les principes de base et la performance du tour d'eau (le warabandi) selon les conditions socio-économiques à partir d'une enquête auprès de 154 agriculteurs situés sur cinq cours d'eau du bassin inférieur de l'Indus. Il est montré que la répartition de l'eau d'irrigation basée sur peu de critères n'incite pas les agriculteurs à améliorer leurs revenus. En outre, les résultats de l'enquête suggèrent que la productivité de l'eau rare ne peut pas être améliorée dans le cadre du système warabandi. Nous avons donc proposé que les principes de base du warabandi soient révisés de façon à les adapter à la situation socio-économique actuelle. Nous proposons que la disponibilité en eaux souterraines ainsi que d'autres variables soient prises en compte dans les décisions d'allocation. Un cadre permettant une allocation de l'eau équitable et efficace , prenant en compte la surface brute commandée par un canal tertiaire, la sensibilité de la croissance des cultures au moment de la pénurie d'eau, la valeur de la récolte, l'orientation vers les zones valorisant le mieux l'eau, les pertes dues au déficit en eau, etc. , devrait être développé comme un outil pour améliorer la productivité de l'eau pour le Pakistan et pour les agriculteurs. La contribution des eaux souterraines au revenu des irrigants et la valeur économique de l'eau ont également été estimées. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Flood control and land use management in Mengwa retention area, Huai River Basin,

    Han Ruiguang
    Contrôle des crues; gestion de l'occupation du sol; aire d'épandage Abstract Retention areas have a very important role in flood alleviation in the Huai River Basin. With economic and societal development the former retention areas have been developed and some of them even became very important urban areas. When floods come, there is a lot of damage. The government has realized that the flood control standards in the whole river basin are low and has made a plan to increase flood control standards for the Mengwa retention area. The design water level will be 28.00,m+MSL at Runheji. In light of this the use of the Mengwa retention area needs to be considered. To arrive at decisions that reduce flood damage, one should take into account the following uncertainties: the river discharge, the flood damage given the discharge, the downstream water level given the discharge, and the costs of constructing embankments and dredging the river. By using the DUFLOW model and a GIS model, the present situation and the alternative development options have been analysed. How to use the Mengwa retention area is also discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Les zones d'expansion jouent un rôle important dans la réduction des crues du fleuve Huia. Ces zones ont connu le même développement économique et social que le reste de la région, et certaines sont maintenant fortement urbanisées. Les crues y provoquent beaucoup de dégâts. Le gouvernement a pris conscience que les critères pour contrôler les crues dans le bassin versant sont insuffisants, et a élaboré un plan pour améliorer ce contrôle dans l'aire d'épandage de Mengwa. Le niveau d'eau de référence retenu est à la cote 28,m, prise à Runheji. Ceci implique de reconsidérer l'utilisation de la zone d'expansion. Les décisions permettant de réduire les dégâts dus aux crues ont été élaborées à partir des paramètres suivants: débit du fleuve, relation entre le débit et les dégâts dus aux crues, niveau d'eau en aval, coûts de renforcement des digues, coût du dragage. La situation actuelle et les possibilités d'amélioration ont été analysées avec le modèle DUFLOW et un SIG. L'utilisation de la zone d'expansion de Mwenga est examinée également. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Genetic analysis of ratmouth barbell (Ptychidio jordani Myers) from different geographic sub-populations in the Pearl River Basin using microsatellite markers

    X.-P. Zhu
    Summary Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to study the genetic variation of Ptychidio jordani sampled from the three sites of Liuzhou, Guiping and Yunan in the Pearl River Basin with the help of local fishers. Allele numbers ranged from 2 to 19 and fragment sizes ranged from 108 to 288. Average polymorphism information content (PIC), average observed heterozygosity (Ho) and average expected heterozygosity (He) were 0.439917, 0.4147 and 0.4986, respectively, which indicate a comparatively high level of genetic diversity. The coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst) between the two sub-populations ranged from 0.0074 to 0.0156, which shows little differentiation between sub-populations. amova analysis also offered evidence of weak differentiation with 0.53% variation between sub-populations, 99.47% variation within sub-populations and the Fst = 0.00531. The morphological variation among geographic sub-populations might result from different habitats. The correlation between genotype and morphological characters was analyzed and a significant correlation found between the genotype of microsatellite locus Hlj038 and the ratio of body depth and body length. The results suggest a possible linkage between this locus and these morphological characters. [source]

    Migratory movements of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in the highly impounded Paraná River

    M. C. Makrakis
    Summary A mark-recapture study was conducted in 1997,2005 to investigate movements of stocked pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in the Paraná River Basin of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. Fish raised in cages within the Itaipu Reservoir and in ponds were tagged externally (n = 2976) and released in the Itaipu Reservoir (53.2%) and bays of its major tributaries (46.8%). In total, 367 fish (12.3%) were recaptured. In all, 91% of the pacu moved away from the release site; upstream movements were more extensive than downstream movements. Pacu traveled upstream a maximum of 422 km (average of 41.3 km) at a maximum rate of 26.4 km day,1 (av. 0.8). Downstream movements were limited in terms of number of individuals and distance moved. Fish released during the wet season moved farther than those released during the dry season, and feeding rather than spawning might have been the compelling reason for movement. Although fish passed downstream through dams, none of the marked fish were detected to have moved upstream through the passage facilities. Pacu showed movement patterns not radically different from those of other neotropical migratory species, but their migratory movements may not be as extensive as those of other large migratory species in the basin. [source]

    Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    By J. L. Bryan
    Summary Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. [source]

    Environmental variability and the fishery dynamics of the Okavango delta, Botswana: the case of subsistence fishing

    G. Mmopelwa
    Abstract The hydrological regime of the Okavango River Basin is the main driver of ecological change in the delta. The delta supports a small-scale fishery which is a source of livelihood for communities within its fringes. The fish resource is particularly important to subsistence fishers, who have limited access to socio-economic opportunities. However, fish availability is subject to ,concentration and dilution' effects because of the hydrological regime. As a copying strategy, fishers use a variety of fishing methods to effectively harvest the delta's fish community across all its trophic levels. This exploitation regime helps to maintain the delta's species diversity and only reduces fish biomass proportionally across the different trophical levels. Furthermore, fishers have developed different fish-processing techniques to preserve their harvest for low fishing season periods to cope with low food availability. The aim of this paper therefore, was to explore spatio-temporal variations in fish availability and to show how the delta's subsistence fishers cope with this dynamicity. [source]


    M. T. Taner
    We present a new method for calibrating a classified 3D seismic volume. The classification process employs a Kohonen self-organizing map, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network; the subsequent calibration is performed using one or more suites of well logs. Kohonen self-organizing maps and other unsupervised clustering methods generate classes of data based on the identification of various discriminating features. These methods seek an organization in a dataset and form relational organized clusters. However, these clusters may or may not have any physical analogues in the real world. In order to relate them to the real world, we must develop a calibration method that not only defines the relationship between the clusters and real physical properties, but also provides an estimate of the validity of these relationships. With the development of this relationship, the whole dataset can then be calibrated. The clustering step reduces the multi-dimensional data into logically smaller groups. Each original data point defined by multiple attributes is reduced to a one- or two-dimensional relational group. This establishes some logical clustering and reduces the complexity of the classification problem. Furthermore, calibration should be more successful since it will have to consider less variability in the data. In this paper, we present a simple calibration method that employs Bayesian logic to provide the relationship between cluster centres and the real world. The output will give the most probable calibration between each self-organized map node and wellbore-measured parameters such as lithology, porosity and fluid saturation. The second part of the output comprises the calibration probability. The method is described in detail, and a case study is briefly presented using data acquired in the Orange River Basin, South Africa. The method shows promise as an alternative to current techniques for integrating seismic and log data during reservoir characterization. [source]

    Hydrologic Modeling of an Extreme Flood in the Guadalupe River in Texas,

    Hatim O. Sharif
    Sharif, Hatim O., Almoutaz A. Hassan, Sazzad Bin-Shafique, Hongjie Xie, and Jon Zeitler, 2010. Hydrologic Modeling of an Extreme Flood in the Guadalupe River in Texas. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 1-11. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00459.x Abstract:, Many of the storms creating the greatest rainfall depths in Texas, measured over durations ranging from one minute to 48 hours, have occurred in the Texas Hill Country area. The upstream portion of the Guadalupe River Basin, located in the Texas Hill Country, is susceptible to flooding and rapid runoff due to thin soils, exposed bedrock, and sparse vegetation, in addition to the Balcones Escarpment uplift contributing to precipitation enhancement. In November 2004, a moist air mass from the Gulf of Mexico combined with moist air from the Pacific Ocean resulted in the wettest November in Texas since 1895. Although the peak discharges were not the highest on record, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauge on the Guadalupe River at Gonzales, Texas reported a daily mean discharge of 2,304 m3/s on November 23, 2004 (average discharge is 53 m3/s). In this paper, we examine the meteorological conditions that led to this event and apply a two-dimensional, physically based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model to simulate the response of a portion of the basin during this event. The study results clearly demonstrate the ability of physically based, distributed-parameter simulations, driven by operational radar rainfall products, to adequately model the cumulative effect of two rainfall events and route inflows from three upstream watersheds without the need for significant calibration. [source]

    Models, Assumptions, and Stakeholders: Planning for Water Supply Variability in the Colorado River Basin,

    Dustin Garrick
    Abstract:, Declining reservoir storage has raised the specter of the first water shortage on the Lower Colorado River since the completion of Glen Canyon and Hoover Dams. This focusing event spurred modeling efforts to frame alternatives for managing the reservoir system during prolonged droughts. This paper addresses the management challenges that arise when using modeling tools to manage water scarcity under variable hydroclimatology, shifting use patterns, and institutional complexity. Assumptions specified in modeling simulations are an integral feature of public processes. The policymaking and management implications of assumptions are examined by analyzing four interacting sources of physical and institutional uncertainty: inflow (runoff), depletion (water use), operating rules, and initial reservoir conditions. A review of planning documents and model reports generated during two recent processes to plan for surplus and shortage in the Colorado River demonstrates that modeling tools become useful to stakeholders by clarifying the impacts of modeling assumptions at several temporal and spatial scales. A high reservoir storage-to-runoff ratio elevates the importance of assumptions regarding initial reservoir conditions over the three-year outlook used to assess the likelihood of reaching surplus and shortage triggers. An ensemble of initial condition predictions can provide more robust initial conditions estimates. This paper concludes that water managers require model outputs that encompass a full range of future potential outcomes, including best and worst cases. Further research into methods of representing and communicating about hydrologic and institutional uncertainty in model outputs will help water managers and other stakeholders to assess tradeoffs when planning for water supply variability. [source]


    Manoj Jha
    ABSTRACT: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the effects of potential future climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Calibration and validation of SWAT were performed using monthly stream flows for 1968,1987 and 1988,1997, respectively. The R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe simulation efficiency values computed for the monthly comparisons were 0.74 and 0.69 for the calibration period and 0.82 and 0.81 for the validation period. The effects of nine 30-year (1968 to 1997) sensitivity runs and six climate change scenarios were then analyzed, relative to a scenario baseline. A doubling of atmospheric CO2 to 660 ppmv (while holding other climate variables constant) resulted in a 36 percent increase in average annual streamflow while average annual flow changes of ,49, ,26, 28, and 58 percent were predicted for precipitation change scenarios of ,20, ,10, 10, and 20 percent, respectively. Mean annual streamflow changes of 51,10, 2, ,6, 38, and 27 percent were predicted by SWAT in response to climate change projections generated from the CISRO-RegCM2, CCC, CCSR, CISRO-Mk2, GFDL, and HadCMS general circulation model scenarios. High seasonal variability was also predicted within individual climate change scenarios and large variability was indicated between scenarios within specific months. Overall, the climate change scenarios reveal a large degree of uncertainty in current climate change forecasts for the region. The results also indicate that the simulated UMRB hydrology is very sensitive to current forecasted future climate changes. [source]


    Ho-Wen Chen
    ABSTRACT: This paper uses the grey fuzzy multiobjective programming to aid in decision making for the allocation of waste load in a river system under versatile uncertainties and risks. It differs from previous studies by considering a multicriteria objective function with combined grey and fuzzy messages under a cost benefit analysis framework. Such analysis technically integrates the prior information of water quality models, water quality standards, wastewater treatment costs, and potential benefits gained via in-stream water quality improvement. While fuzzy sets are characterized based on semantic and cognitive vagueness in decision making, grey numbers can delineate measurement errors in data collection. By employing three distinct set theoretic fuzzy operators, the synergy of grey and fuzzy implications may smoothly characterize the prescribed management complexity. With the aid of genetic algorithm in the solution procedure, the modeling outputs contribute to the development of an effective waste load allocation and reduction scheme for tributaries in this subwatershed located in the lower Tseng-Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Research findings indicate that the inclusion of three fuzzy set theoretic operators in decision analysis may delineate different tradeoffs in decision making due to varying changes, transformations, and movements of waste load in association with land use pattern within the watershed. [source]