Risk Stratification (risk + stratification)

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Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Risk Stratification

  • risk stratification models
  • risk stratification strategy

  • Selected Abstracts

    Risk Stratification and Prognosis in Octogenarians Undergoing Stress Echocardiographic Study

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2007
    F. A. C. C., Farooq A. Chaudhry M.D.
    Background: The prognostic value of stress echocardiography (SE) for the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in octogenarians is not well defined. Methods: Follow-up of 5 years (mean 2.9 ± 1.0 years) for confirmed nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 17) and cardiac death (n = 37) was obtained in 335 patients, age ,80 years (mean age 84 ± 3 years, 44% male), undergoing SE (33% treadmill, 67% dobutamine). Left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion was assessed by a consensus of two echocardiographers and scored as per standard five-point scale, 16-segment model of wall motion analysis. Ischemic LV wall segment was defined as deterioration in the thickening and excursion during stress (increase in wall-motion score index (WMSI) ,1). Results: By univariate analysis, inducible ischemia (chi-square = 38.4, P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (chi-square = 41.2, P < 0.001), a history of previous myocardial infarction (chi-square = 22.3, P < 0.01), hypertension (chi-square = 33, P < 0.01), and age (chi-square = 27.7, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of future cardiac events. WMSI, an index of inducible ischemia, provided incremental prognostic information when forced into a multivariable model where clinical and rest echocardiography variables were entered first. WMSI effectively stratified octogenarians into low- and high-risk groups (annualized event rates of 1.2 versus 5.8%/year, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Stress echocardiography yields incremental prognostic information in octogenarians and effectively stratifies them into low- and high-risk groups. Precise therapeutic decision making in very elderly patients should incorporate combined clinical and stress echocardiography data. [source]

    Clinical Course and Risk Stratification of Patients Affected with the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome

    Introduction: Data regarding risk factors and clinical course of patients affected with Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS), an autosomal recesssive form of the congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS), are limited to several reported cases and a retrospective analysis. Methods and Results: We prospectively followed-up 44 JLNS patients from the U.S. portion of the International LQTS Registry and compared their clinical course with 2,174 patients with the phenotypically determined dominant form of LQTS (Romano-Ward syndrome [RWS]) and a subgroup of 285 patients with type 1 LQTS (LQT1). Mean (±SD) corrected QT interval (QTc) in the JLNS, RWS, and LQT1 groups were 548 ± 73, 500 ± 48, and 502 ± 46 msec, respectively (P < 0.001). The cumulative rates of cardiac events from birth through age 40 among JLNS and RWS patients were 93% (mean [±SD] age: 5.0 ± 7.0 years) and 54% (mean [±SD] age: 14.2 ± 9.3 years), respectively (P < 0.001). The JLNS:RWS and JLNS:LQT1 adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for cardiac events were highest among patients with a baseline QTc ,550 msec (HR = 15.83 [P < 0.001] and 13.80 [P < 0.001], respectively). Among JLNS patients treated with beta-blockers, the cumulative probability of LQTS-related death was 35%; defibrillator therapy was associated with a 0% mortality rate during a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.9 ± 3.4 years. Conclusions: Patients with JLNS experience a high rate of cardiac and fatal events from early childhood despite medical therapy. Defibrillator therapy appears to improve outcome in this high-risk population, although longer follow-up is needed to establish its long-term efficacy. [source]

    Risk Stratification of Individuals with the Brugada Electrocardiogram: A Meta-Analysis

    Objectives: We performed a meta-analysis of prognostic studies of patients with a Brugada ECG to assess predictors of events. Background: The Brugada syndrome is an increasingly recognized cause of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation; however, there is wide variation in the prognosis of patients with the Brugada ECG. Methods and Results: We retrieved 30 prospective studies of patients with the Brugada ECG, accumulating data on 1,545 patients. Summary estimates of the relative risk (RR) of events (sudden cardiac death [SCD], syncope, or internal defibrillator shock) for a variety of potential predictors were made using a random-effects model. The overall event rate at an average of 32 months follow-up was 10.0% (95% CI 8.5%, 11.5%). The RR of an event was increased (P < 0.001) among patients with a history of syncope or SCD (RR 3.24 [95% CI 2.13, 4.93]), men compared with women (RR 3.47 [95% CI 1.58, 7.63]), and patients with a spontaneous compared with sodium-channel blocker induced Type I Brugada ECG (RR 4.65 [95% CI 2.25, 9.58]). The RR of events was not significantly increased in patients with a family history of SCD (P = 0.97) or a mutation of the SCN5A gene (P = 0.18). The RR of events was also not significantly increased in patients inducible compared with noninducible by electrophysiologic study (EPS) (RR 1.88 [95% CI 0.62, 5.73], P = 0.27); however, there was significant heterogeneity of the studies included. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a history of syncope or SCD, the presence of a spontaneous Type I Brugada ECG, and male gender predict a more malignant natural history. Our findings do not support the use of a family history of SCD, the presence of an SCN5A gene mutation, or EPS to guide the management of patients with a Brugada ECG. [source]

    Fitness: The Ultimate Marker for Risk Stratification and Health Outcomes?

    Barry A Franklin PhD
    First page of article [source]

    Reflections on Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Prevention

    Nathan D. Wong PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Subgroup Analyses in Randomized Controlled Trials: The Need for Risk Stratification in Kidney Transplantation

    M. Wagner
    Although randomized controlled trials (RCT) are the gold standard for establishing causation in clinical research, their aggregated results can be misleading when applied to individual patients. A treatment may be beneficial in some patients, but its harms may outweigh benefits in others. While conventional one-variable-at-a-time subgroup analyses have well-known limitations, multivariable risk-based analyses can help uncover clinically significant heterogeneity in treatment effects that may be otherwise obscured. Trials in kidney transplantation have yielded the finding that a reduction in acute rejection does not translate into a similar benefit in prolonging graft survival and improving graft function. This paradox might be explained by the variation in risk for acute rejection among included kidney transplant recipients varying the likelihood of benefit or harm from intense immunosuppressive regimens. Analyses that stratify patients by their immunological risk may resolve these otherwise puzzling results. Reliable risk models should be developed to investigate benefits and harms in rationally designed risk-based subgroups of patients in existing RCT data sets. These risk strata would need to be validated in future prospective clinical trials examining long-term effects on patient and graft survival. This approach may allow better individualized treatment choices for kidney transplant recipients. [source]

    Anti-JC virus antibodies: Implications for PML Risk Stratification

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Leonid Gorelik PhD
    Objective A study was undertaken to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect JC virus (JCV)-specific antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and to evaluate its potential utility for identifying patients at higher or lower risk (ie, risk stratification) of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods A 2-step assay for detecting and confirming the presence of anti-JCV antibodies in human serum and plasma was developed and demonstrated to be both sensitive and specific. ELISA cutpoints were statistically established using sera from >800 MS patients from natalizumab clinical studies. Subsequently, this assay was used to determine the presence of anti-JCV antibodies in natalizumab-treated PML patients where serum samples were collected 16-180 months prior to the diagnosis of PML. Results In our evaluation of natalizumab-treated MS patients, 53.6% tested positive for anti-JCV antibodies, with a 95% confidence interval of 49.9 to 57.3%. The false-negative rate of the ELISA was calculated to be approximately 2.5%, with an upper 1-sided confidence limit of 4.4%. Notably, we observed anti-JCV antibodies in all 17 available pre-PML sera samples, which was significantly different from the 53.6% seropositivity observed in the overall MS study population (p < 0.0001). Interpretation This 2-step assay provides a means to classify MS patients as having detectable or not detectable levels of anti-JCV antibodies. The finding that all 17 of the pre-PML samples that were available tested seropositive, and none tested seronegative, warrants further research on the clinical utility of the anti-JCV antibody assay as a potential tool for stratifying MS patients for higher or lower risk of developing PML. Ann Neurol 2010 [source]

    Usefulness of T-Wave Alternans in Sudden Death Risk Stratification and Guiding Medical Therapy

    Ph.D., Tuomo Nieminen M.D.
    Visible T-wave alternans (TWA), a beat-to-beat alternation in the morphology and amplitude of the ST segment or T wave, has been observed for over a century to occur in association with life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and cardiac channelopathies. This compelling linkage prompted development of quantitative techniques leading to FDA-cleared commercial methodologies for measuring nonvisible levels of TWA in the frequency and time domains. The first aim of this review is to summarize evidence from more than a hundred studies enrolling a total of >12,000 patients that support the predictivity of TWA for cardiovascular mortality and sudden cardiac death. The second focus is on the usefulness of TWA in guiding therapy. Until recently, TWA has been used primarily in decision making for cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Its potential utility in guiding pharmacologic therapy has been underappreciated. We review clinical literature supporting the usefulness of TWA as an index of antiarrhythmic effects and proarrhythmia for different drug classes. Beta-adrenergic and sodium channel-blocking agents are the most widely studied drugs in clinical TWA investigations, with both reducing TWA magnitude; the exception is patients in whom sodium channel blockade discloses the Brugada syndrome and provokes macroscopic TWA. An intriguing possibility is that TWA may help to detect beneficial effects of nonantiarrhythmic agents such as the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan, which indirectly protects from arrhythmia through improving myocardial remodeling. We conclude that quantitative analysis of TWA has considerable potential to guide pharmacologic intervention and thereby serve as a therapeutic target. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010;15(3):276,288 [source]

    Usefulness of Risk Stratification for Future Cardiac Events in Infarct Survivors with Severely Depressed Versus Near-Normal Left Ventricular Function: Results From a Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Thomas Klingenheben
    Background: Although primary preventive therapy with implantable cardioverter defibrillators has recently been shown to be effective in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, further identification of patients at particularly high risk for arrhythmic death would improve the cost effectiveness of device therapy. The value of risk stratification in postinfarction patients with versus those without left ventricular dysfunction has not been investigated in detail in infarct survivors treated according to contemporary therapeutic guidelines. Methods: Patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent coronary angiography including left ventricular angiography in an attempt to restore antegrade flow of the infarct-related artery. Additionally, patients underwent noninvasive autonomic risk stratification by means of heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) measurements prior to hospital discharge. Results: A total of 411 patients were prospectively included in the study. The primary study endpoint of cardiac death and arrhythmic events was significantly more common in patients with LVEF , 35% as compared to those with preserved LV function (27% vs 4%; P < 0.0001). In patients with LV dysfunction, HRV and BRS were significant risk predictors on univariate (P < 0.01 for BRS; P = 0.04 for HRV) and multivariate (P = 0.028 for BRS; P = 0.053 for HRV) analyses. In contrast, in patients with preserved LV function, only patency of the infarct artery but not autonomic markers was significantly predictive of cardiac death and arrhythmic events. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that autonomic testing does not yield predictive power in infarct survivors with preserved left ventricular function. Accordingly, cost effectiveness of risk stratification and subsequent preventive therapy may be improved by restricting risk stratification to patients with impaired LV function. [source]

    Brugada Syndrome: Current Clinical Aspects and Risk Stratification

    Ph.D., Takanori Ikeda M.D.
    Brugada syndrome is a primary electrical disease of the heart that causes sudden cardiac death or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, especially in younger men. Genetic analysis supports that this syndrome is a cardiac ion channel disease. A typical electrocardiographic finding consists of a right bundle branch block pattern and ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads. The higher intercostal space V1 to V3 lead electrocardiogram could be helpful in detecting Brugada patients. Although two types of the ST-segment elevation are present, the coved type is more relevant to the syndrome than the saddle-back type. These patterns can be present permanently or intermittently. Recent data suggest that the Brugada-type electrocardiogram is more prevalent than the manifest Brugada syndrome. Asymptomatic individuals have a much lower incidence of future cardiac events than the symptomatic patients. Although risk stratification for the Brugada syndrome is still incomplete, the inducibility of sustained ventricular arrhythmias has been proposed as a good outcome predictor in this syndrome. In noninvasive techniques, some clinical evidence supports that late potentials detected by signal-averaged electrocardiography are a useful index for identifying patients at risk. The available data recommend prophylactic implantation of an imptantabie cardioverter defibrillator to prevent sudden cardiac death. This review summarizes recent information of the syndrome by reviewing most of new clinical reports and speculates on its risk stratification. A.N.E. 2002;7(3):251,262 [source]

    Risk Stratification: A Practical Guide for Clinicians

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2002
    Margaret McCredie
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Risk Stratification in Women Enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry Emergency Module (ADHERE-EM)

    Deborah B. Diercks MD
    Abstract Objectives:, It has been reported that the mortality risk for heart failure differs between men and women. It has been postulated that this is due to differences in comorbid features. Variation in risk profiles by gender may limit the performance of stratification algorithms available for heart failure in women. This analysis examined the ability of a published risk stratification model to predict outcomes in women. Methods:, The Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry Emergency Module (ADHERE-EM) database was used. Characteristics, treatments, and outcomes for men and women were compared. The ADHERE registry classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used for the risk stratification evaluation. Results:, Of 10,984 ADHERE-EM patients, 5,736 (52.2%) were women. In-hospital mortality was similar between men and women (p = 0.727). Significant differences (p < 0.0002) were noted by gender in all three variables in the CART model (blood urea nitrogen [BUN] , 43 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure < 115 mm Hg, and serum creatinine , 2.75 mg/dL). However, the CART model effectively stratified both genders into distinct risk groups with no significant difference in mortality by gender within stratified groups. Conclusions:, The ADHERE Registry CART tool is effective at predicting risk in ED patients, regardless of gender. [source]

    Guideline Implementation Research: Exploring the Gap between Evidence and Practice in the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative

    Andra L. Blomkalns MD
    Translating research results into routine clinical practice remains difficult. Guidelines, such as the 2002 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Unstable Angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, have been developed to provide a streamlined, evidence-based approach to patient care that is of high quality and is reproducible. The Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress ADverse Outcomes with Early Implementation (CRUSADE) Quality Improvement Initiative was developed as a registry for non,ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes to track the use of guideline-based acute and discharge treatments for hospitalized patients, as well as outcomes associated with the use of these treatments. Care for more than 200,000 patients at more than 400 high-volume acute care hospitals in the United States was tracked in CRUSADE, with feedback provided to participating physicians and hospitals regarding their performance over time and compared with similar institutions. Such access to data has proved important in stimulating improvements in non,ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes care at participating hospitals for delivery of acute and discharge guideline-based therapy, as well as improving outcomes for patients. Providing quality improvement methods such as protocol order sets, continuing education programs, and a CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative toolbox serve to actively stimulate physician providers and institutions to improve care. The CRUSADE Initiative has also proven to be a fertile source of research in translation of treatment guidelines into routine care, resulting in more than 52 published articles and 86 abstracts presented at major emergency medicine and cardiology meetings. The cycle for research of guideline implementation demonstrated by CRUSADE includes four major steps,observation, intervention, investigation, and publication,that serve as the basis for evaluating the impact of any evidence-based guideline on patient care. Due to the success of CRUSADE, the American College of Cardiology combined the CRUSADE Initiative with the National Registry for Myocardial Infarction ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction program to form the National Cardiovascular Data Registry,Acute Coronary Treatment & Intervention Outcomes Network Registry beginning in January 2007. [source]

    New perspectives in managing myeloproliferative disorders: focus on the patient,

    Gunnar Birgegård
    Abstract Risk stratification is the basis for treatment decisions in the chronic myeloproliferative disorders, and in addition to the three established risk factors of previous thrombosis, age and platelets >1500,×,109, cardiovascular risk factors should be addressed. In addition, premorbidity with regard to possible side effects of platelet-reducing drugs as well as the impact on quality of life of such side effects should be considered. The near-to-normal life expectancy and long term nature of treatment also makes it necessary to consider the potential leukaemogenic effects of some cytostatic drugs. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessment of Markers for Identifying Patients at Risk for Life-Threatening Arrhythmic Events in Brugada Syndrome

    Introduction: Risk stratification for life-threatening arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome is not yet established. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of various markers in predicting life-threatening arrhythmic events in the Brugada syndrome. Methods and Results: Forty-six patients with Brugada-type ECGs were categorized into the symptomatic (n = 28) and asymptomatic (n = 18) groups. Statistical analyses were performed with respect to the usefulness of the following markers: SCN5A mutation, pharmacologic challenge, ventricular fibrillation (VF) inducibility by programmed electrical stimulation, and late potential (LP) by signal-averaged ECG (SAECG). Comparison between the two groups revealed a significant difference only in LP positivity (92.6% vs 47.1%, P = 0.0004). The symptomatic group had significantly lower RMS40, longer LAS40, and longer fQRSd compared with the asymptomatic group. A significant difference was noted, especially RMS40. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and predictive accuracy when setting a cutoff value of 15 ,V were 92.0%, 78.9%, and 86.4%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with an RMS40 value <15 ,V (n = 25) showed significantly higher rates of VF recurrence compared with patients with an RMS40 value , 15 ,V (n = 19, P = 0.047). Conclusion: Regarding risk stratification for identifying high-risk patients in Brugada syndrome, only LP by SAECG was shown to be useful, suggesting the importance of RMS40 in predicting the history of life-threatening arrhythmic events and the recurrence of VF. [source]

    The Use of B-Type Natriuretic Peptides in the Intensive Care Unit

    Christian Mueller MD
    B-type natriuretic peptide levels are quantitative markers of cardiac stress and heart failure that summarize the extent of systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, valvular dysfunction, and right ventricular dysfunction. Initial observational pilot studies have addressed 7 potential indications in the intensive care unit: identification of cardiac dysfunction, diagnosis of hypoxic respiratory failure, risk stratification in severe sepsis and septic shock, evaluation of patients with shock, estimation of invasive measurements, weaning from mechanical ventilation, as well as perioperative and postoperative risk prediction. Although additional studies are required to better define the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide values in the intensive care unit, current data suggest that the diagnosis of hypoxic respiratory failure and timing of extubation seem to be the most promising indications. Congest Heart Fail. 2008;14(4 suppl 1):43,45. ©2008 Le Jacq [source]

    Low health-related quality of life is associated with all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes on haemodialysis: the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2009
    Y. Hayashino
    Abstract Aims, Whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can be accurately predicted in patients with extremely low HRQoL as a result of diabetic complications is unclear. We investigated the impact of HRQoL on mortality risk in patients with diabetes on haemodialysis. Methods, Data from the Dialysis Outcomes Practice Pattern Study (DOPPS) were analysed for randomly selected patients receiving haemodialysis in Japan. Information regarding the diagnosis of diabetes and clinical events during follow-up was abstracted from the medical records at baseline and HRQoL was assessed by a self-reported short form (SF)-36 questionnaire. The association between physical component score and mental component score in the SF-36 and mortality risk was analysed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Results, Data from 527 patients with diabetes on haemodialysis were analysed. The mortality age-adjusted hazard ratio of having a physical component score greater than or equal to the median was 0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08,0.96] and the multivariable-adjusted mortality hazard ratio of having an mental component score greater than or equal to the median was 1.21 (95% CI 0.44,3.35). Conclusions, The physical component score derived from the SF-36 is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes on haemodialysis who generally had very low HRQoL scores. Baseline mental component score was not predictive of mortality. Patient self-reporting regarding the physical component of health status may aid in risk stratification and clinical decision making for patients with diabetes on haemodialysis. [source]

    Living with uncertainty: Equivocal Pap test results and the evolution of ASC terminology

    Lydia Pleotis Howell M.D.
    Abstract Communication of equivocal findings and their significance has been a significant challenge related to Pap testing throughout its history. Terminology to report these findings has changed considerably to accommodate the changes in understanding of cervical neoplasia, and to accommodate new management strategies, tests, and technologies. This article reviews the evolution of terminology for equivocal Pap test findings from the original Papanicolaou classification to the current the Bethesda System 2001 atypical squamous cells terminology, the implication and use of these terms, and the changing landscape of cervical neoplasia screening, which prompted these terminology changes. Emerging issues related to improving risk stratification through the introduction of additional terms and the impact of human papillomavirus testing may alter terminology of equivocal findings in the future. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CK19 mRNA expression in the bone marrow of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance

    X. Zhang
    SUMMARY The 5-year survival rate in resectable patients with esophageal cancer is only 20% to 36%. Regional relapse and distant metastasis are responsible for the failure of treatment and the majority of cancer-related deaths. Earlier detection of metastases, especially micrometastases, has the potential for more accurate risk stratification in subsequent therapy decisions. No effective techniques have yet been found to detect metastases in erroneously thought to have early stage disease. This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of bone marrow micrometastases detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in patients with esophageal cancer. Expression of CK19 mRNA in the bone marrow of 61 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 15 benign pulmonary and esophageal disease patients was assessed via RT-PCR. Correlation of CK19 mRNA expression to the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of the 61 patients was analyzed: 21.3% (13/61) were positive for expression of CK19 mRNA in patients with ESCC. No CK19 mRNA was detected of the 15 benign pulmonary and esophageal disease patients. CK19 mRNA expression did not correlate with the clinicopathologic features of the patients with ESCC, but patients with CK19 mRNA-positive bone marrow had earlier recurrence and shorter survival after surgery. In multivariate analysis, CK19 mRNA was found to be an independent predictor of a poor outcome. CK19 mRNA may be used as a molecular maker to detect bone marrow micrometastases in patients with ESCC and may help to select the proper therapy and predict the prognosis. [source]

    Clinical Assessment and Rest and Stress Echocardiography for Prediction of Long-Term Prognosis in African Americans with Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
    Stephen G. Sawada M.D.
    Background: There is limited information on noninvasive risk stratification of African Americans, a high-risk group for cardiovascular events. We investigated the value of clinical assessment and echocardiography for the prediction of a long-term prognosis in African Americans. Methods: Dobutamine echocardiography was performed in 324 African Americans. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at rest, and rest and stress wall motion was assessed. A retrospective follow-up was conducted for cardiac events: myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiac death (CD). Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years, and 83% of patients had hypertension. The follow-up was obtained in 318 (98%) patients for a mean of 5.3 years. The events occurred in 107 (33%) subjects. The independent predictors of events were history of MI (P = 0.001, risk ratio [RR] 2.04), ischemia (P = 0.007, RR 1.97), fractional shortening (P = 0.033, RR 0.08), and left atrial (LA) dimension (P = 0.034, RR 1.39). An LA size of 3.6 cm and a fractional shortening of 0.30 were the best cutoff values for the prediction of events. Prior MI, ischemia, LA size >3.6 cm, and fractional shortening <0.30 were each considered independent risk predictors for events. The event rates were 13%, 21%, 38%, 59%, and 57% in patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 risk predictors, respectively. Event-free survival progressively worsened with an increasing number of predictors: 0 or 1 versus 2 predictors, P < 0.001; 2 versus 3 or 4 predictors, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The long-term prognosis of African Americans can be accurately predicted by clinical assessment combined with rest and stress echocardiography. [source]

    Correlation between NT-pro BNP Levels and Early Mitral Annulus Velocity (E,) in Patients with Non,ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Marcia M. Barbosa M.D., Ph.D.
    Acute coronary syndromes in the absence of ST-segment elevation (NSTE-ACS) are a heterogeneous entity in which early risk stratification is essential. Diastolic dysfunction is precocious and associated with poor prognosis. BNP has been recognized as a biochemical marker of ventricular dysfunction and ischemia. Objective: To investigate if there is correlation of NT pro-BNP levels with diastolic dysfunction in patients with NSTE-ACS. Methods: Fifty-two patients with NSTE-ACS admitted to the coronary unit were included. NT-pro brain natriuretic hormone (BNP) levels and a Doppler echocardiogram were obtained in all and systolic and diastolic functions were analyzed. Their Doppler indexes were compared with those of 53 age- and sex-matched controls, without heart failure symptoms and with normal ejection fraction (EF) and normal NT-pro BNP levels. Results: Twenty-four patients (46%) with unstable angina and 28 patients (54%) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were included. Mean EF was 55.9 ± 10.7% and mean NT-pro BNP level was 835 ± 989 pg/ml. No mitral or pulmonary venous flow parameters of diastolic function correlated with NT-pro BNP levels. E,/A, correlated with NT-pro BNP level in univariate analysis but, in a multivariate analysis, only the EF and the E, showed negative correlation with the peptide level (r =,0.33, P = 0.024 and r =,0.29, P = 0.045, respectively). Thirteen patients presented with stage II diastolic dysfunction but the NT-pro BNP level in these patients did not differ from the level in stage I patients. Conclusion: NT-pro BNP levels are elevated in acute coronary syndromes, even in the absence of significant necrosis. Of all echocardiographic parameters investigated, only E, and the EF correlated with the levels of NT-pro BNP in this group of patients. [source]

    Risk Stratification and Prognosis in Octogenarians Undergoing Stress Echocardiographic Study

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2007
    F. A. C. C., Farooq A. Chaudhry M.D.
    Background: The prognostic value of stress echocardiography (SE) for the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in octogenarians is not well defined. Methods: Follow-up of 5 years (mean 2.9 ± 1.0 years) for confirmed nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 17) and cardiac death (n = 37) was obtained in 335 patients, age ,80 years (mean age 84 ± 3 years, 44% male), undergoing SE (33% treadmill, 67% dobutamine). Left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion was assessed by a consensus of two echocardiographers and scored as per standard five-point scale, 16-segment model of wall motion analysis. Ischemic LV wall segment was defined as deterioration in the thickening and excursion during stress (increase in wall-motion score index (WMSI) ,1). Results: By univariate analysis, inducible ischemia (chi-square = 38.4, P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (chi-square = 41.2, P < 0.001), a history of previous myocardial infarction (chi-square = 22.3, P < 0.01), hypertension (chi-square = 33, P < 0.01), and age (chi-square = 27.7, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of future cardiac events. WMSI, an index of inducible ischemia, provided incremental prognostic information when forced into a multivariable model where clinical and rest echocardiography variables were entered first. WMSI effectively stratified octogenarians into low- and high-risk groups (annualized event rates of 1.2 versus 5.8%/year, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Stress echocardiography yields incremental prognostic information in octogenarians and effectively stratifies them into low- and high-risk groups. Precise therapeutic decision making in very elderly patients should incorporate combined clinical and stress echocardiography data. [source]

    The Relation Between Mitral Annular Calcification and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2006
    Howard J. Willens M.D.
    To determine whether the observed association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and mortality is independent of the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), we analyzed data from 134 male veterans (age 63 ± 10 years) followed for 5 years who had undergone diagnostic coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography within 6 months of each other. Echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of MAC. The relation of MAC to all-cause mortality was analyzed using logistic regression, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. MAC was present in 49 (37%) subjects. Over the 5-year follow-up period, 38 (28%) patients expired. Five-year survival was 80% for subjects without MAC and 56% for subjects with MAC (P = 0.003). MAC (OR = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.43,6.96, P = 0.003), ejection fraction (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59,0.97, P = 0.02), and left main CAD (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.11,6.57, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction, number of obstructed coronary arteries and the presence of left main coronary artery stenosis, MAC significantly predicted death (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.09,5.68, P = 0.03). Similarly, after adjusting for predictors of MAC, including ejection fraction, age, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure, MAC remained a significant predictor of death (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02,5.58, P = 0.04). MAC also predicted death independent of smoking status, hypertension, serum creatinine, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein levels (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.68,9.40, P = 0.001). MAC detected by two-dimensional echocardiography independently predicts mortality and may provide an easy-to-perform and inexpensive way to improve risk stratification. [source]

    Assessment of Myocardial Viability with Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2005
    Siu-Sun Yao M.D.
    The noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability has proved clinically useful for distinguishing hibernating and/or stunned myocardium from irreversibly injured myocardium in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease or recent myocardial infarction, with marked regional and/or global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Noninvasive techniques utilized for the detection of viability in asynergic myocardial regions include positron emission tomographic imaging of residual metabolic activity, single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of radioisotope uptake with thallium-201, low-dose dobutamine echocardiography assessment of inotropic reserve and myocardial contrast echocardiography for evaluation of microvascular integrity. Of these techniques, dobutamine stress echocardiography is a safe, widely available and relatively inexpensive modality for the identification of myocardial viability for risk stratification and prognosis. Low-dose dobutamine response can accurately predict improvement of dysfunctional yet viable myocardial regions, and thus identify a subset of patients whose LV function will improve following successful coronary revascularization. [source]

    Role of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Atrial Fibrillation

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2000
    Atrial fibrillation is a major clinical problem that is predicted to be encountered more frequently as the population ages. The clinical management of atrial fibrillation has become increasingly complex as new therapies and strategies have become available for ventricular rate control, conversion to sinus rhythm, maintenance of sinus rhythm, and prevention of thromboembolism. Clinical and transthoracic echocardiographic features are important in determining etiology and directing therapy for atrial fibrillation. Left atrial size, left ventricular wall thickness, and left ventricular function have independent predictive value for determining the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. Left atrial size may have predictive value in determining the success of cardioversion and maintaining sinus rhythm in selected clinical settings but has less value in the most frequently encountered group, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, in whom the duration of atrial fibrillation is the most important feature. When selecting pharmacological agents to control ventricular rate, convert to sinus rhythm, and maintain normal sinus rhythm, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) allows noninvasive evaluation of left ventricular function and hence guides management. The combination of clinical and transthoracic echocardiographic features also allows risk stratification for thromboembolism and hemorrhagic complications in atrial fibrillation. High-risk clinical features for thromboembolism supported by epidemiological observations, results of randomized clinical trials, and meta-analyses include rheumatic valvular heart disease, prior thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, hypertension, older (> 75 years old) women, and diabetes. Small series of cases also suggest those with hyperthyroidism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are at high risk. TTE plays a unique role in confirming or discovering high-risk features such as rheumatic valvular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and decreased left ventricular function. Validation of the risk stratification scheme used in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation-III trial is welcomed by clinicians who are faced daily with balancing the benefit and risks of anticoagulation to prevent thromboembolism inpatients with atrial fibrillation. [source]

    More biomarkers for risk stratification of chest pain: Bigger, faster, better?

    William A Parsonage
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: from genetics to treatment

    Ali J. Marian
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (4): 360,369 Abstract Background, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the prototypic form of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. HCM is an important cause of sudden cardiac death in the young and a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. Design, We discuss the clinical implications of recent advances in the molecular genetics of HCM. Results, The current diagnosis of HCM is neither adequately sensitive nor specific. Partial elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of HCM has raised interest in genetic-based diagnosis and management. Over a dozen causal genes have been identified. MYH7 and MYBPC3 mutations account for about 50% of cases. The remaining known causal genes are uncommon and some are rare. Advances in DNA sequencing techniques have made genetic screening practical. The difficulty, particularly in the sporadic cases and in small families, is to discern the causal from the non-causal variants. Overall, the causal mutations alone have limited implications in risk stratification and prognostication, as the clinical phenotype arises from complex and often non-linear interactions between various determinants. Conclusions, The clinical phenotype of ,HCM' results from mutations in sarcomeric proteins and subsequent activation of multiple cellular constituents including signal transducers. We advocate that HCM, despite its current recognition and management as a single disease entity, involves multiple partially independent mechanisms, despite similarity in the ensuing phenotype. To treat HCM effectively, it is necessary to delineate the underlying fundamental mechanisms that govern the pathogenesis of the phenotype and apply these principles to the treatment of each subset of clinically recognized HCM. [source]

    Circulating levels of copeptin, a novel biomarker, in lower respiratory tract infections

    B. Müller
    Abstract Background, Vasopressin has haemodynamic as well as osmoregulatory effects, and reflects the individual stress response. Copeptin is cosynthesized with vasopressin, directly mirroring vasopressin levels, but is more stable in plasma and serum. Both levels are increased in patients with septic shock. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a precursor of sepsis. Thus, we investigated circulating levels and the prognostic use of copeptin for the severity and outcome in patients with LRTI. Materials and methods, Five hundred and forty-five consecutive patients with LRTI and 50 healthy controls were evaluated. Serum copeptin levels were measured with a new chemiluminescens sandwich immunoassay. Results, Of the 545 patients, 373 had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 60 acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 59 acute bronchitis, 13 exacerbations of asthma and 40 other final diagnoses. Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with LRTI as compared to controls (P < 0·001) with highest levels in patients with CAP. Copeptin levels increased with increasing severity of CAP, as classified by the pneumonia severity index (PSI) (P < 0·001). In patients who died, copeptin levels on admission were significantly higher as compared to levels in survivors [70·0 (28·8,149·0) vs. 24·3 (10·8,43·8) pmol L,1, P < 0·001]. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for survival was 0·75 for copeptin, which was significantly higher as compared to C-reactive protein (AUC 0·61, P = 0·01), leukocyte count (AUC 0·59, P = 0·01) and similar to procalcitonin (AUC 0·68, P = 0·21). Conclusions, Copeptin levels are increased with increasing severity of LRTI namely in patients with CAP and unfavourable outcome. Copeptin levels, as a novel biomarker, might be a useful tool in the risk stratification of patients with LRTI. [source]

    Markers of eosinophilic inflammation and risk prediction in patients with coronary artery disease

    C. Falcone
    Abstract Background, The eotaxin family comprises three distinct peptides (eotaxin, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3) which have been implicated in eosinophilic inflammation. In vitro and clinical studies suggest that eotaxins could play a role in vascular inflammation, but no data are available on their prognostic significance in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods, Baseline plasma samples were obtained from 1014 patients with documented CAD. We tested the predictive effect of markers of eosinophilic inflammation and C-reactive protein (CRP) on death from cardiovascular causes and nonfatal myocardial infarction over a 2·7,4·1-year follow-up period. Results, Unexpectedly, lower eotaxin-3 concentrations were observed in patients with adverse cardiovascular events, whereas both eotaxin and eotaxin-2 showed no association with risk. After adjustment for most potential confounders, patients in the upper-quartile of eotaxin-3 levels had a 0·42 hazard-ratio (95% CI, 0·29,0·61, P < 0·001) for adverse events compared with subjects in the lower-quartile. The highest risk of future cardiovascular events was observed in subjects with combined elevation of CRP and reduction of eotaxin-3; 4·4 hazard-ratio (95% CI, 2·1,9·5, P < 0·001). Importantly, receiver-operating-characteristic curves analysis suggested a superior prognostic value of eotaxin-3 compared with CRP for predicting cardiac events in patients with CAD. Conclusions, Low levels of eotaxin-3 are an independent predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and may be useful for risk stratification. [source]

    Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-3 level is an independent prognostic factor in stable coronary artery disease

    T. C. Wu
    Abstract Background, Recent evidence suggests the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the progression of atherosclerosis and development of clinical events. We assessed the prognostic value of different plasma MMPs in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods, A total of 165 consecutive nondiabetic patients with angiographically significant CAD (n = 150) or normal coronary angiograms despite exercise-induced myocardial ischemia (cardiac syndrome X, n = 15) and 17 normal subjects were evaluated. In each subject, plasma inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and MMP-2, 3 and 9 were measured. In CAD patients, major cardiovascular events including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unscheduled coronary revascularization and hospitalization as a result of unstable angina were prospectively followed up for more than 6 months. Results, Plasma levels of MMPs were significantly higher in CAD patients than in those with cardiac syndrome X and in normal subjects (MMP-2: 914·76 ± 13·20 vs. 830·79 ± 31·95 vs. 783·08 ± 28·40 ng mL,1, P = 0·002; MMP-3: 129·59 ± 4·21 vs. 116·86 ± 8·09 vs. 91·71 ± 9·55 ng mL,1, P = 0·011; MMP-9: 31·42 ± 2·84 vs. 11·40 ± 5·49 vs. 6·71 ± 2·89 ng mL,1, P = 0·006). In CAD patients, there were 48 major cardiovascular events during a mean follow-up period of 17·74 ± 0·85 months. The numbers of diseased vessels (HR = 2·19, 95% CI 1·20,1·02, P = 0·011), plasma hsCRP (HR = 2·21, 95% CI 1·18,4·11, P = 0·013) and MMP-3 level (HR = 2·46, 95% CI = 1·15,5·28, P = 0·021) were associated with the development of cardiovascular events. However, only the plasma MMP-3 level was an independent predictor of the adverse events in CAD patients (HR = 2·47, 95% CI 1·10,5·54, P = 0·028). Conclusions, Plasma MMP levels were increased in CAD patients. Plasma MMP-3 level, rather than hsCRP, was an independent prognostic marker for future cardiovascular events, suggesting its potential role in risk stratification and clinical management of stable CAD. [source]