Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Results

  • abnormal result
  • acceptable result
  • accurate result
  • additional result
  • adequate result
  • afm result
  • alone result
  • ambiguous result
  • analogous result
  • analysis result
  • analytic result
  • analytical result
  • anatomical result
  • anomalous result
  • assessment result
  • association result
  • asymptotic result
  • available experimental result
  • available result
  • bad result
  • basic result
  • behavioral result
  • beneficial result
  • best result
  • biochemical result
  • biological result
  • biopsy result
  • blot result
  • borderline result
  • c. these result
  • calculated result
  • calculation result
  • calorimetry result
  • cell result
  • classical result
  • classification result
  • clinical result
  • clinical trial result
  • clustering result
  • combined result
  • common result
  • comparable result
  • comparative result
  • comparative static result
  • complementary result
  • complex result
  • computational result
  • computed result
  • computer simulation result
  • conclusive result
  • concordant result
  • conflicting result
  • conservative result
  • consistent result
  • content result
  • contradictory result
  • controversial result
  • convergence result
  • convergent result
  • correct result
  • corresponding result
  • cosmetic result
  • cross-sectional result
  • culture result
  • current result
  • cytology result
  • degradation result
  • descriptive result
  • desirable result
  • desired result
  • diagnostic result
  • different result
  • differential scanning calorimetry result
  • diffraction result
  • direct result
  • disappointing result
  • discordant result
  • discrepant result
  • disparate result
  • divergent result
  • dsc result
  • early result
  • econometric result
  • effects result
  • election result
  • electron microscopy result
  • electrophoresis result
  • empirical result
  • end result
  • equivalent result
  • equivocal result
  • erroneous result
  • esthetic result
  • estimation result
  • evaluation result
  • exact result
  • excellent cosmetic result
  • excellent result
  • existence result
  • existing result
  • expected result
  • experiment result
  • experimental result
  • fair result
  • false negative result
  • false positive result
  • false-negative result
  • false-positive result
  • favorable result
  • favourable result
  • field result
  • final result
  • financial result
  • finding result
  • first result
  • fish result
  • follow-up result
  • functional result
  • fundamental result
  • gene result
  • general result
  • genetic result
  • good clinical result
  • good cosmetic result
  • good functional result
  • good result
  • h. these result
  • i. these result
  • identical result
  • identification result
  • ihc result
  • imaging result
  • immediate result
  • important result
  • improved result
  • inconclusive result
  • inconsistent result
  • incorrect result
  • individual result
  • initial result
  • interesting result
  • intermediate result
  • ion result
  • karyotype result
  • key result
  • kinetic result
  • laboratory result
  • laboratory test result
  • last result
  • late result
  • latter result
  • ligand result
  • likely result
  • long-term result
  • longitudinal result
  • lower result
  • main result
  • major result
  • mass spectrometric result
  • meaningful result
  • measured result
  • measurement result
  • mechanical result
  • methods result
  • microarray result
  • microscopy result
  • mixed result
  • model result
  • modeling result
  • modelling result
  • modest result
  • molecular result
  • molecule result
  • month result
  • mouse result
  • negative result
  • negative test result
  • net result
  • new result
  • nmr result
  • nonsignificant result
  • normal result
  • novel result
  • numerical result
  • numerical simulation result
  • objective result
  • observational result
  • observed result
  • obtained result
  • oncologic result
  • oncological result
  • only result
  • operative result
  • opposite result
  • optimal result
  • optimum result
  • original result
  • other result
  • our result
  • own result
  • patch test result
  • pathological result
  • patient result
  • pcr result
  • performance result
  • phylogenetic result
  • plausible result
  • pooled result
  • poor result
  • positive result
  • positive test result
  • postoperative result
  • practical result
  • precise result
  • predicted result
  • prediction result
  • preliminary experimental result
  • preliminary result
  • present numerical result
  • present result
  • previous experimental result
  • previous result
  • primary result
  • principal result
  • prior result
  • promising result
  • proposed result
  • protein result
  • psa result
  • published result
  • qualitative result
  • quantitative result
  • radiographic result
  • rat result
  • realistic result
  • reasonable result
  • recent experimental result
  • recent result
  • receptor result
  • refinement result
  • regression result
  • regularity result
  • relevant result
  • reliable result
  • remarkable result
  • reported result
  • reproducible result
  • research result
  • result result
  • robust result
  • rt-pcr result
  • same result
  • satisfactory result
  • scanning calorimetry result
  • scientific result
  • screening result
  • search result
  • sem result
  • serological result
  • several experimental result
  • several result
  • short-term result
  • showed similar result
  • significant result
  • similar result
  • simulated result
  • simulation result
  • skin test result
  • specific result
  • spectrometric result
  • spectroscopic result
  • spectroscopy result
  • spurious result
  • stability result
  • stable result
  • standard result
  • static result
  • statistical result
  • striking result
  • structural result
  • structure result
  • study result
  • successful result
  • superior result
  • surgical result
  • surprising result
  • survey result
  • system result
  • tem result
  • temperature result
  • tentative result
  • test result
  • testing result
  • theoretical result
  • therapeutic result
  • these result
  • treatment result
  • trial result
  • turn result
  • unexpected result
  • uniqueness result
  • unpublished result
  • unreliable result
  • useful result
  • valid result
  • validation result
  • variable result
  • various result
  • very different result
  • very good result
  • very satisfactory result
  • very similar result
  • vitro result
  • vivo result
  • well-known result
  • western blot result
  • x-ray diffraction result
  • xp result
  • xrd result
  • yield different result

  • Terms modified by Results

  • result a number
  • result a total
  • result administration
  • result age
  • result analysis
  • result available
  • result change
  • result child
  • result comparable
  • result comparison
  • result complete data
  • result consistent
  • result data
  • result database
  • result difficult
  • result help
  • result highlight
  • result implied
  • result in
  • result lead
  • result likely
  • result mean age
  • result only
  • result open
  • result patient
  • result point
  • result program
  • result response rate
  • result result
  • result reveal
  • result show
  • result showing
  • result shows
  • result similar
  • result support
  • result there
  • result treatment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Impact of Effective Valvotomy in Mitral Stenosis on Pulmonary Venous Flow Pattern

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2006
    Solange Bernardes Tatani M.D.
    Aims: Transesophageal Doppler echocardiography (TEE) is a useful tool to investigate pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity, which is altered in patients with mitral stenosis (MS). This study used TEE to analyze the variations in the PVF pattern after successful valvar dilatation in MS patients. Methods/Results: A total of 15 MS patients, mean age 27.2 years, underwent effective percutaneous balloon valvotomy (PBV). All were submitted to TEE before and after PBV. TEE assessed systolic (SPFV) and diastolic (DPFV) peak flow velocities and their ratio (SPFV/DPFV), time-velocity integrals (STVI and DTVI) and their ratio, and diastolic flow deceleration (DFD). Valvotomy yielded statistically significant increases (P , 0.05) in the SPFV: increase on average by 67% and STVI by 120%, as well as in the diastolic component: increased on average by 35%, DTVI by 33%, and DFD by 75%. Conclusion: TEE demonstrated that PBV induced a global increase in velocities of PVF, probably related to improvement of left atrial emptying. [source]

    Suppression of experimental colitis in mice by CD11c+ dendritic cells

    Joseph E. Qualls PhD
    Abstract Background: The innate immune system serves a critical role in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Both macrophages (MØs) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to have pathogenic roles in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. However, studies by several labs have established that resident MØs and DCs within the normal GI tract maintain an immunosuppressive phenotype compared to that seen in other peripheral sites. Recent studies by our lab demonstrated that the depletion of both MØs and DCs before the initiation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis resulted in exacerbation of disease, partly caused by increased neutrophil influx. Methods/Results: In this current report, DSS-induced colitis was shown to be significantly more severe when DCs were selectively depleted in mice as indicated by changes in weight loss, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, and histopathology. In contrast to enhanced colitis in MØ/DC-depleted mice, which was associated with increased neutrophil influx, increased colitis in DC-depleted mice was not associated with an increase in neutrophils in the colon, as shown by CXCL1 chemokine levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. However, increased IL-6 gene and protein expression in colon tissues correlated positively with increased colitis severity in DC-depleted mice compared to colitis in DC-intact mice. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that resident DCs can suppress the severity of acute DSS colitis and that regulation of IL-6 production may contribute to DC-mediated control of intestinal inflammation. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    A Prospective Pediatric Clinical Trial of Digital Music Players: Do They Interfere with Pacemakers?

    Background: There has been recent concern in the media about iPodÔ interference with pacemakers. We systematically tested two types of digital music players (DMP) on pacemaker or ICD function in children. Methods/Results: Patients were monitored by a 6-lead ECG and programmer telemetry. The pacemaker was tested in bipolar and unipolar sensing at normal and maximal sensitivities. The order of DMP tested was randomized. Each DMP was placed on top of the pacemaker pocket, put into "play" mode three times (5 seconds each), with and without programmer wand placed one cm adjacent to DMP. Pacemaker interference was defined as: pacing inhibition, inappropriate pacing, oversensing, or detection of high-rate episodes associated with the use of DMP. Of the 67 patients (mean age 12 ± 5 years), 62 had pacemakers and five had ICDs; 39 endocardial and 28 epicardial systems. Patients were tested with SansaÔ (67), iPodÔ 30 GB (51), and other DMPs (43). There was no evidence of interference with pacemaker function by any DMP under any of the study conditions (each performed in triplicate). Reproducible programmer telemetry interference was shown in 11 cases (Medtronic 6/47, St. Jude Medical 5/18, Guidant 0/2) related to use of iPodÔ (6), SansaÔ (1), or others (4). None of these were associated with any evidence of pacemaker malfunction. Conclusion: Interference with pacemaker function could not be shown with iPodÔ or MP3 players. No additional precaution beyond standard is necessary for patients with pacemakers when they are using these players. [source]

    Effect of triclosan on interferon-, production and major histocompatibility complex class II expression in human gingival fibroblasts

    Manal Mustafa
    Abstract Background, aims: The effect of triclosan (2,4,4,-trichloro-2,-hydroxyl-diphenyl ether) on the production of interferon-, (IFN-,) and the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen was studied in human gingival fibroblasts isolated from 4 individuals. Methods/Results: AII cell lines demonstrated high IFN-, production in 24-h cultures of human gingival fibroblasts stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (5 ,g/ml). Human gingival fibroblasts showed a high expression of MHC class II when stimulated with 500 and 1000 pg/ml rIFN-, in 7-day cultures. Treatment of the cells with triclosan (0.5 ,g/ml) reduced both IFN-, production and MHC class II expression in human gingival fibroblast cultures. Similar inhibitory effects on IFN-, production and MHC class II expression were observed when the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethazone (1 ,M) was used. Conclusion: The present study further supports the view that the agent has an anti-inflammatory effect in addition to its antibacterial capacity. [source]

    Cholangiocytes as immune modulators in rotavirus-induced murine biliary atresia

    Barrett H. Barnes
    Abstract Background/Aims: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive disease characterized by bile duct inflammation and fibrosis. The aetiology is unknown and may be due to a virus-induced, autoimmune-mediated injury of cholangiocytes. Cholangiocytes are not only targets of injury but may also modulate hepatic inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the immune profile of murine cholangiocytes and the ability to function as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in culture with Rhesus rotavirus (RRV), poly I:C (viral mimic) or interferon-,/tumour necrosis factor-,. Methods/Results: Both the cholangiocyte cell line (long-term culture) and fresh, ex vivo cholangiocytes expressed APC surface markers major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class I and II and CD40, while only the cultured cell line expressed costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2. Despite APC expression, cultured cholangiocytes were unable to function as competent APCs in T-cell proliferation assays. Furthermore, both cultured and ex vivo cholangiocytes expressed RNA transcripts for many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Conclusions: Although cholangiocytes contain APC molecules, they are incompetent at antigen presentation and cannot elicit effective T-cell activation. Upregulation of MHC-class I and II found in BA mice may serve to prime the cholangiocyte as a target for immune-mediated injury. Cholangiocytes produced many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the setting of RRV infection and T-helper type 1 cytokine milieu, suggesting a role of cholangiocytes as immune modulators promoting the ongoing inflammation that exists in RRV-induced BA. [source]

    Overexpressed growth hormone (GH) synergistically promotes carcinogen-initiated liver tumour growth by promoting cellular proliferation in emerging hepatocellular neoplasms in female and male GH-transgenic mice

    Kenneth J. Snibson
    Abstract:Background/Aims: Growth hormone (GH), when overexpressed in male and female GH-transgenic mice, is known to induce liver tumours within 1 year. This study aimed to gain a clearer understanding of the interaction between GH and tumour cells in vivo. Methods/Results: The carcinogen diethylnitrosomine (DEN) was administered to neo-natal transgenic and non-transgenic mice maintained in a "hepatocarcinogenesis resistant" genetic background (C57BL/6J). Macroscopic, microscopic and liver weight/body weight ratio analyses revealed that carcinogen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis was dramatically accelerated in young GH-transgenic mice compared to non-transgenic counterparts. Image analysis of microscopic hepatocellular neoplasms showed rapidly increasing tumour burdens, and neoplastic foci size over time in young adult GH-transgenic mice. The magnitude of enhanced tumour growth was equivalent in both male and female transgenic mice, whereas much lower and sexually dimorphic tumour growth rates (males>females) were observed in non-transgenic mice treated with DEN. BrdU labelling experiments demonstrated that rapid tumour growth in carcinogen-treated GH-transgenic mice was due to the promotion of cell proliferation in emerging lesions. Tumour cell proliferation in young GH-transgenic mice was 2.6- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than that observed in similar age male and female non-transgenic mice. Interestingly, both GH-transgenic and non-transgenic mice displayed progressively slower tumour growth rates in older animals. Conclusion: Overall, GH synergistically promotes carcinogen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in both sexes of GH-transgenic mice by stimulating tumour cell proliferation. [source]

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide radicals in activation and proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
    Abstract:Background /Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce HSCs activation, proliferation and collagen gene expression in vitro. Nitric oxide (NO) represents a reactive molecule that reacts with ROS, yielding peroxynitrite. We thus verified the effect of NO on ROS-induced HSCs proliferation in vitro and correlated iNOS expression and ROS formation to HSCs activation in the early phase of liver injury leading to hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Methods/Results: HSCs were incubated with iron ascorbate (FeAsc) in vitro, which induced ROS production, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased cell proliferation. This effect was significantly reduced by the presence of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. Liver injury was induced in vivo in rats by dimethylnitrosamine administration. HSCs activation started 6 h after DMN administration and peaked at 1 week. ROS generation and neutrophil infiltration were evident for at least 48 h after DMN treatment, showing an identical distribution pattern. Only a few inflammatory cells expressed iNOS 6 h after DMN administration. Conclusions: we have shown that NO acts as a ROS scavenger in vitro, thus inhibiting HSCs proliferation. ROS production by infiltrating neutrophils occurs in the early phase of liver fibrosis and can represent a stimulus to HSCs activation in vivo. The reduced iNOS expression may account for the low NO levels and the inability to prevent the ROS-induced HSC activation in vivo. [source]

    Expression and function of phosphodiesterases in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in rats

    Irene W.J.M. van der Horst MD
    Abstract Background Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is an anomaly associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The limited efficacy of current approaches to treat PH in CDH, including inhaled nitric oxide (NO), drives the search for other therapies. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) degrade cyclic nucleotide second messenger cAMP and cGMP downstream of NO thereby limiting the vasodilatory response to NO. Objective To identify therapeutic targets by cataloguing the expression and function of PDE isoforms in the pulmonary vasculature in nitrofen-induced CDH in fetal rats. Methods/Results Quantitative RT-PCR revealed PDE1,5 and PDE9 mRNA expression in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of control and nitrofen-induced CDH term fetal rats. In this order of potency, the PDE inhibitors Sildenafil (PDE5),>,EHNA (PDE2),>,Rolipram (PDE4),>,Cilostamide (PDE3) all dilated isolated third generation PA after pre-constriction with the thromboxane analog U46619. Hyperoxic pre-incubation of PAs significantly attenuated vasodilatation induced by the PDE5 inhibitor Sildenafil (65% vs. 33%, P,<,0.004). CDH PAs dilated significantly less to PDE2 inhibitor EHNA compared to control (51% vs. 72%, P,<,0.05). Subsequently PDE2 protein expression was higher in PAs of CDH animals. Conclusion Most PDE isoforms exist in the PAs of fetal rats and their inhibition causes pulmonary vasodilatation. PDE5 inhibition was the most potent vasodilator, however, there were no differences between groups. PDE5-induced vasodilatation was attenuated by hyperoxic pre-incubation. PDE inhibitors might be considered therapeutic targets in combination with iNO in neonates with CDH. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010; 45:320,325. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Data mining for signals in spontaneous reporting databases: proceed with caution,

    Wendy P. Stephenson MD
    Abstract Purpose To provide commentary and points of caution to consider before incorporating data mining as a routine component of any Pharmacovigilance program, and to stimulate further research aimed at better defining the predictive value of these new tools as well as their incremental value as an adjunct to traditional methods of post-marketing surveillance. Methods/Results Commentary includes review of current data mining methodologies employed and their limitations, caveats to consider in the use of spontaneous reporting databases and caution against over-confidence in the results of data mining. Conclusions Future research should focus on more clearly delineating the limitations of the various quantitative approaches as well as the incremental value that they bring to traditional methods of pharmacovigilance. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Whole-body UVB (TL-01) or UVA-1 irradiation does not alter the levels of immunomodulatory cytokines in the serum of human volunteers

    P. Mcloone
    Background/Purpose: Ultraviolet (UV) exposure of mammalian skin induces local and systemic immunosuppression. In mice it has been proposed that systemic immunosuppression is mediated by an UV-induced cytokine cascade involving systemic interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 and a reduction in IL-12 activity. To investigate whether there was a parallel mechanism in humans we examined the effect of whole-body narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) (311,313 nm; TL-01) and ultraviolet A (UVA)-1 (340,400 nm) on serum cytokine levels. Methods/Results: In a first study, five male psoriatic subjects were whole-body irradiated with three sessions of a standard UVB (TL-01) phototherapy regimen previously shown to cause downregulation of natural killer cell activity and T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) of sera taken before and after the third session showed no effect of phototherapy on IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,). In a second study, five healthy subjects received three whole-body exposures of UVB (TL-01) and five other healthy subjects received three exposures of UVA-1 on alternate days (total 22 J/cm2). Blood samples were taken before the first irradiation and at 0, 4, 8, 12, 14, 24 and 48 h after the third irradiation. The sera were subsequently analysed for IL-10, IL-12, IL-8, IL-1, and TNF-,, by ELISA. The levels of IL-1, and TNF-, were below detection limits (<5 pg/ml), while no significant change in the levels of IL-10, IL-12 or IL-8 was detected as a result of either TL-01 or UVA-1. Conclusion: It seems unlikely that a modulation in these circulating cytokines assessed in this study accounts for systemic UV-induced immunosuppression in human subjects. [source]

    Development of historical exposure estimates of cosmic radiation and circadian rhythm disruption for cohort studies of Pan Am flight attendants,,

    Martha A. Waters PhD
    Abstract Background The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting cohort studies of flight crew employed by the former Pan American World Airways company (Pan Am) as part of an effort to examine flight crew workplace exposures and health effects. Flight crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation and to disruption of circadian rhythm when flying across multiple time zones. Methods exist to calculate cosmic radiation effective doses on individual flights; however, only work histories which provided an employee's domicile (home base) history rather than a record of every flight flown were available. Methods/Results We developed a method for estimating individual cumulative domicile-based cosmic radiation effective doses and two metrics for circadian rhythm disruption for each flight attendant: cumulative times zones crossed and cumulative travel time during the standard sleep interval. Conclusions The domicile-exposure matrix developed was used to calculate exposure estimates for a cohort mortality study of former Pan Am flight attendants. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:751,761, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Impact of Female Sex Hormones on the Maturation and Function of Human Dendritic Cells

    Sabine E. Segerer
    Problem, During pregnancy, the immune and the endocrine system cooperate to ensure that the fetal allograft develops without eliciting a maternal immune response. This is presumably in part achieved by dendritic cells (DCs) that play a dominant role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether female sex hormones, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone (Prog), and estradiol (E2), which are highly elevated during pregnancy, induce the differentiation of DCs into a tolerance-inducing phenotype. Methods/Results, Immature DCs were generated from blood-derived monocytes and differentiated in the presence of hCG, Prog, E2, or Dexamethasone (Dex) as a control. Unlike Dex, female sex hormones did not prevent the upregulation of surface markers characteristic for mature DCs, such as CD40, CD83, and CD86, except for hCG, which inhibited HLA-DR expression. Similarly, hCG, Prog, and E2 had any impact on neither the rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton nor the enhanced chemokine secretion following DC maturation, both of which were strongly altered by Dex. Nevertheless, the T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs was significantly reduced after hCG and E2 exposure. Conclusion, Our findings suggest that the female sex hormones hCG and E2 inhibit the T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs, which may help in preventing an allogenic T-cell response against the embryo. [source]

    Multimodality Approach to Management of the Paralyzed Face

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2006
    Tessa A. Hadlock MD
    Abstract Objectives: Despite the ability of facial reanimation techniques to introduce meaningful movement to the paralyzed face, dynamic methods do not address all zones of the face. Our objective was to retrospectively review outcomes after multimodality management of the patient with facial paralysis, to describe several novel surgical methods that introduce subtle improvements in static facial balance, and to present an algorithm for comprehensive management of the paralyzed face. Methods/Results: Three hundred thirty-seven patients with facial paralysis were seen and treated in a busy facial nerve center setting over a 3-year period using a range of standard muscle transfers, physical therapy, chemodenervation with botulinum toxin, and static surgical techniques. Three adjunct techniques emerged as novel and useful procedures that more fully addressed facial balance issues than existing techniques. Of patients proceeding with physical therapy, greater than 80% of patients experienced a benefit, and 97% of those who proceeded with botulinum toxin therapy experienced a benefit. Conclusions: Facial paralysis is best managed using a multimodality approach that includes surgical interventions, physical therapy, and chemodeneveration. We describe three adjunctive surgical techniques for management of the paralyzed face and present a comprehensive algorithm for management of the paralyzed face. That may provide improved function and cosmesis in all zones of the paralyzed face. [source]

    Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire (CIMP-QUEST): reported topographic symptoms in MCI and dementia

    R. Åstrand
    Åstrand R, Rolstad S, Wallin A. Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire (CIMP-QUEST): reported topographic symptoms in MCI and dementia. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 121: 384,391. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard. Objective,,, The Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire (CIMP-QUEST) is an instrument based on information obtained by key informants to identify symptoms of dementia and dementia-like disorders. The questionnaire consists of three subscales reflecting impairment in parietal-temporal (PT), frontal (F) and subcortical (SC) brain regions. The questionnaire includes a memory scale and lists non-cognitive symptoms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined in 131 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia at a university-based memory unit. Methods/Results,,, Cronbach alpha for all subscales was calculated at r = 0.90. Factor analysis supported the tri-dimensionality of CIMP-QUEST's brain region-oriented construct. Test,retest reliability for a subgroup of cognitively stable MCI-patients (n = 25) was found to be r = 0.83 (P = 0.0005). The correlation between the score on the cognitive subscales (PT + F + M) and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly was r = 0.83 (P = 0.0005, n = 123). The memory subscale correlated significantly with episodic memory tests, the PT subscale with visuospatial and language-oriented tests, and the SC and F subscales with tests of attention, psychomotor tempo and executive function. Conclusions,,, CIMP-QUEST has high reliability and validity, and provides information about cognitive impairment and brain region-oriented symptomatology in patients with MCI and mild dementia. [source]

    A double-blind study on a patient with tardive dyskinesia treated with pallidal deep brain stimulation

    Z. Kefalopoulou
    Background,,, Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a neurological disorder typically induced by long-term exposure to neuroleptics. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) may represent a therapeutic alternative for TD, which is often resistant to conservative treatment. Aims of the study,,, This report's objective is to present a case of TD successfully treated with DBS, as well as to indicate a putative role of brain perfusion scintigraphy as a helpful tool correlating functional imaging findings with clinical responsiveness to DBS. Methods/Results,,, A 42-year-old male patient suffering from refractory TD underwent bilateral GPi DBS surgery. Post-operative Burke-Fahn-Mardsen Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total scores have been reduced by 90.7% and 76.7% respectively on the 6-month follow-up assessment. Brain perfusion scintigraphy, performed post-operatively in the two stimulation states, revealed a decrease in cerebral blood flow, during the ,on-DBS', compared with the ,off-DBS' state. Conclusions,,, Clinical improvement of this patient, correspondent to previous studies, suggests that continuous bilateral GPi DBS may provide a promising treatment option for TD. Furthermore, this report could imply, as no previous such comparison study exists, a possible correlation between brain functional imaging findings and the movement disorder's response to DBS. [source]

    Outcome in the real-world of coronary high-risk intervention with drug-eluting stents (ORCHID),A single-center study comparing CypherÔ sirolimus-eluting with TaxusÔ paclitaxel-eluting stents

    S. Kumar MRCP
    Abstract Objective: We present real world experience from a single center registry comparing the 6-month outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in unselected high-risk individuals using either sirolimus-eluting (SES) or paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). Methods/Results: We compared clinical outcome at 6 months follow-up in two cohorts of 156 consecutive patients(total n = 312) who underwent SES (June 2002,Februrary 2003) and PES(march 2003,July 2003) implantation. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Baseline clinical characteristics were well matched. The 6-month target vessel revascularization (TVR) rates were 1.9% (SES) and 2.6% (PES) and MACE rates were similar in the two groups (SES 4.5% vs. PES 3.2%, P = NS). In the PES group, intervention for multivessel disease, bifurcation lesions and in small vessels was more common, and for in-stent restenosis less common, reflecting the impact of drug eluting stents on indications for PCI. The incidence of sub-acute stent thrombosis, related to inadequate antiplatelet therapy in 3 of the 6 cases, was 0.95% with no difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study confirms the safety and efficacy of SES and PES in unselected high risk patients undergoing PCI. Clinical outcomes of both stents are equivalent at 6 months with low rates of MACE and TVR. These data provide important complementary information to forthcoming randomized studies. © 2006 Wiley-Liss., Inc. [source]

    British Association of Critical Care Nurses position statement on prescribing in critical care

    Kate Bray
    ABSTRACT Background: Nurses in the UK are now one group of non-medical staff who can prescribe. This practice is evolving for critical care nursing staff who care for critically ill patients during their stay in hospital through ward and outpatient follow-up after admission to critical care. Aim: The purposes of this paper were to present existing information regarding prescribing to support nurses in critical care currently prescribing and to inform those who are intending to prescribe. Methods: To develop the position statement, a search of the literature was conducted using key databases. To ascertain the current level and type of prescribing in critical care, a short questionnaire was sent by email to British Association of Critical Care Nursing members, and the results of this are presented in Appendix A. Outcomes/Results: Evidence was found in relation to the history, context in critical care, educational requirements and issues of consent related to non-medical prescribing. Conclusions: The position statement is based upon evidence from the literature, National Health Service policy and the Nursing and Midwifery Council regulations. It takes account of the critical care patient pathway before, during and after an admission to critical care. [source]

    Degradation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil and the effects of PAEs on soil microcosm activity

    Hui-Jun Xie
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of refractory and toxic organic compounds, are becoming one of the most widespread contaminants in the environment. Degradation of PAEs in soil has been investigated, but limited to one or a few kinds of PAEs. Microorganisms could be regarded as a sensitive bio-indicator for soil contaminants. Therefore, four commonly used PAEs were chosen to investigate their degradation patterns and potential impacts on soil microbial activity with a series of bioassays. RESULT: PAEs in sterile soils changed slightly, while degradation of PAEs in non-sterile soil followed a single first-order kinetic. Higher concentrations of PAEs led to lower ,-glucosidase activity and higher protease activity, with smooth changes of phosphatase and urease activities. PAEs decreased average well color development (AWCD), while Shannon index (H) showed a tendency to increase after a decrease. Carbon utilization profile was affected significantly by PAEs, especially at 10 mg kg,1 soil. CONCLUSION: Degradation of PAEs was driven mainly by microbial mediated processes. PAEs affected carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles variously, and had temporal effects on metabolic diversity, owing to the adaptation of microbes. Carbon substrates utilization changed from easily degradable sugars and carboxylic acids to recalcitrant compounds during the simulation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Optimization and analysis of nickel adsorption on microwave irradiated rice husk using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Magesh Ganesa Pillai
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The removal of heavy metals using adsorption techniques with low cost biosorbents is being extensively investigated. The improved adsorption is essentially due to the pores present in the adsorbent. One way of improving the porosity of the material is by irradiation of the precursor using microwaves. In the present study, the adsorption characteristics of nickel onto microwave-irradiated rice husks were studied and the process variables were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). RESULT: The adsorption of nickel onto microwave-irradiated rice husk (MIRH) was found to be better than that of the raw rice husk (RRH). The kinetics of the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto MIRH was found to follow a pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (,G°), standard enthalpy (,H°), and standard entropy (,S°) were also evaluated. The thermodynamics of Ni(II) adsorption onto MIRH indicates that it is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the design parameters for the present process. CONCLUSION: Microwave-irradiated rice husk was found to be a suitable adsorbent for the removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of the rice husk was found to be 1.17 mg g,1. The optimized parameters for the current process were found as follows: adsorbent loading 2.8 g (100 mL),1; Initial adsorbate concentration 6 mg L,1; adsorption time 210 min.; and adsorption temperature 35 °C. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    ABSTRACT A set of standard testing conditions using the TA-XT2 Texture Analyser were established to monitor cheddar cheese texture variation. Cheddar cheese was produced in the standard commercial practice and sampled at monthly intervals throughout the milk production season (August - June), and monitored for textural and compositional changes occurring during ripening. The composition, based on fat and protein levels, of the cheese was relatively constant during the period, which was expected as the commercial process aims for that outcome. A reduction in the force and degree of compression at fracture with time, indicative of a reduction in cheese firmness and an increase in cheese crumbliness, was recorded as the milk production season progressed. The degree of proteolysis and changes in milk fat in late season milk are primarily responsible for the changes recorded in cheese texture. The differences observed between cheeses produced at different times during the season indicate that the current fat and protein standardization employed by cheese-makers is not adequate to provide cheddar cheese with consistent textural characteristics year round. [source]

    Characterizing diversity in composition and pasting properties of tuber flour in yam germplasm (Dioscorea spp.) from Southern Ethiopia

    Muluneh Tamiru
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies on composition and functional properties in germplasm collections are important in determining their diversity and suitability for food and non-food applications. The diversity in 65 yam accessions collected from Southern Ethiopia and belonging largely to a yet unknown species and to Dioscorea bulbifera L. (aerial yam) was analyzed based on protein, starch and amylose contents, and pasting properties of tuber flour, applying descriptive and multivariate statistics. RESULT: Starch content varied from 65.2% to 76.6% dry matter, while the protein content range was 6.4,13.4% dry matter. Amylose represented between 7.1% and 30.6% of the starch fraction, and was negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with starch content. UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis clearly distinguished aerial yam from those accessions with underground tubers. The first four principal components accounted for 78% of the total variability, and were highly correlated with pasting parameters. CONCLUSION: The extent of diversity detected among accessions studied showed scope for improving the crop through selection of landraces with desirable characteristics. Similar investigations on tubers grown under different environmental conditions and additional data on physicochemical properties of isolated starch will be useful in evaluating the potential of yam for food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Cytokine profile in women with preeclampsia

    Yvonne Jonsson
    Preeclampsia is a severe complication engaging 5,10% of all pregnancies. Immune mechanisms have been suggested in the etiology of this disease. AIM:, To study the systemic spontaneous and fetus-specific cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancies. METHODS:, PBMCs from nine women with preeclampsia and five women with normal pregnancies were stimulated in mixed leukocyte cultures with paternal cells (representing the fetus) and autologous blood lymphocytes. The stimulated and spontaneous production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-, were analysed by ELISPOT and IL-12 and IL-13 in cell-culture supernatants by ELISA. Cell-culture supernatants were collected for 2,7 days of incubation. RESULT:, The results are preliminary since analysis of data is going on. We found a trend of decreased IL-10 production in response to paternal cells in preeclamptic women. Data for the other cytokines did not show any differences between groups. CONCLUSION:, The material studied so far is limited and further studies are needed to draw any safe conclusions. [source]

    A Th2 Chemokine, TARC, Produced by Trophoblasts and Endometrial Gland Cells, Regulates the Infiltration of CCR4+ T Lymphocytes into Human Decidua at Early Pregnancy

    PROBLEM:,A chemokine receptor, CCR4 preferentially expressed on type 2 helper T (Th2-type) cells, and its ligand, thymus and activation regulated chemokine -(TARC/CCL)- play important roles in the recruitment of Th2-type cells. We examined the distribution of CCR4 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ -T cells in human decidua at early pregnancy, and localized TARC in the decidual tissue and chorionic tissue. METHOD OF STUDY:,Decidual tissue was obtained by legal abortion. The percentages of CCR4 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ -T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Localization of TARC protein was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. The expression of TARC mRNA in the choriocarcinoma cell line and endometrial cell line was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR). RESULT:,The percentages of CCR4+ cells in CD4+ -T cells and CD8+ -T cells were significantly increased in human early pregnancy decidua compared with those in peripheral blood. An another marker of human Th2 and Tc2 cells, CRTH2 molecules was also expressed on CCR4+CD4+ -T cells and CCR4+CD8+ -T cells. In addition, we found that trophoblasts, uterine epithelial cells and endometrial gland cells produce TARC by immunohistochemical staining and the RT-PCR method. CONCLUSION:,Our findings imply that TARC secreted in decidua mediates the infiltration of CCR4+ T-cell migration into the fetomaternal interface, decidua, resulting in the maintenance of pregnancy. [source]

    ERAP75 functions as a coactivator to enhance estrogen receptor , transactivation in prostate stromal cells,

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 12 2008
    Ming Chen
    Abstract BACKGROUND Estrogen receptor , (ER,) has been reported to be expressed and function in the prostate stromal cells, and numerous evidences indicated that the stromal ER, signal pathway plays critical roles in prostate development and cancer. ER, requires distinct coregulators for efficient transcriptional regulation. The goal of this study is to examine physical and functional interaction between ER, and ERAP75 in the context of prostate stromal cells. METHOD Yeast two-hybrid assays were used to screen novel ER, interaction proteins. The interaction between ER, and ERAP75 was confirmed by mammalian two-hybrid, GST pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation methods. The interaction motif was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of ERAP75 on ER, transactivation and the expression of ER, target genes were determined by luciferase assay and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULT ER, can interact with the C terminus of ERAP75 via its ligand binding domain both in vivo and in vitro. The conserved LXXLL motif within the C terminus of ERAP75 is required for the interaction between ER, and ERAP75. ERAP75 can enhance ER, transactivation in a dose-dependent manner and up-regulate the expression of the endogenous ER, target gene, stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), in the prostate stromal cells. CONCLUSION ERAP75 functions as a novel coactivator that can modulate ER, function in the prostate stromal cells. The understanding of the mechanism of ER, transactivation in prostate stromal cells could possibly help in the development of new strategies to control or treat prostate cancer by targeting its transactivation protein complex. Prostate 68:1273,1282, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    RANKL inhibition is an effective adjuvant for docetaxel in a prostate cancer bone metastases model

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 8 2008
    K. M. Woods Ignatoski
    Abstract BACKGROUND Docetaxel induces an anti-tumor response in men with advanced prostate cancer (PCa); however, the side effects associated with docetaxel treatment can be severe, resulting in discontinuation of therapy. Thus, identification of an effective adjuvant therapy to allow lower doses of docetaxel is needed. Advanced PCa is typically accompanied by skeletal metastasis. Receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) is a key pro-osteoclastic factor. Targeting RANKL decreases establishment and progression of PCa growth in bone in murine models. METHODS The efficacy of inhibiting RANKL, using a recombinant soluble RANK extracellular domain fused with the immunoglobulin Fc domain (RANK-Fc), was tested as an adjuvant therapy with docetaxel for PCa bone metastasis in a murine intra-tibial model. RESULT The combination of RANK-Fc and docetaxel reduced tumor burden in bone greater than either treatment alone. CONCLUSION The combination of docetaxel with a RANKL-inhibiting agent merits further investigation for treatment of advance PCa. Prostate 68:820,829, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Albumin enhanced morphometric image analysis in CLL,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2004
    Matthew A. Lunning
    Abstract BACKGROUND The heterogeneity of lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and blood film artifacts make morphologic subclassification of this disease difficult. METHODS We reviewed paired blood films prepared from ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (ETDA) samples with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) from 82 CLL patients. Group 1 adhered to NCCLS specifications for the preparations of EDTA blood films. Group 2 consisted of blood films containing EDTA and a 1:12 dilution of 22% BSA. Eight patients were selected for digital photomicroscopy and statistical analysis. Approximately 100 lymphocytes from each slide were digitally captured. RESULTS The mean cell area ± standard error was 127.8 ,m2 ± 1.42 for (n = 793) for group 1 versus 100.7 ,m2 ± 1.39 (n = 831) for group 2. The nuclear area was 88.9 ,m2 ± 0.85 for group 1 versus 76.4 ,m2 ± 0.83 for group 2. For the nuclear transmittance, the values were 97.6 ± 0.85 for group 1 and 104.1 ± 0.83 for group 2. The nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios were 0.71 ± 0.003 for group 1 and 0.78 ± 0.003 for group 2. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS BSA addition results in the reduction of atypical lymphocytes and a decrease in smudge cells. BSA also decreases the lymphocyte area and nuclear area, whereas nuclear transmittance and nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio are increased. A standardized method of slide preparation would allow accurate interlaboratory comparison. The use of BSA may permit better implementation of the blood film-based subclassification of CLL and lead to a better correlation of morphology with cytogenetics and immunophenotyping. Published 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Multicenter clinical experience with flow cytometric method for fetomaternal hemorrhage detection

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 6 2002
    Jenn C. Chen
    Abstract BACKGROUND Enumeration of fetal red blood cells (RBCs) is important in the management of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH), particularly in situations of Rh incompatibility. METHODS We evaluated results from three institutions using the flow cytometric method (FCM) to detect fetal RBCs based on the anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) monoclonal antibody method. RESULTS During 1997,2001, 69 of 1,248 patients (5.5%) had measurable fetal erythrocytes (RBCs) in maternal blood. Only 21 patients (1.7%) had more than 30 mL of fetal blood detected in maternal blood. Of the 11 patients with large FMH and clinical follow-up, 7 had fetal demise (64%). In positive samples, significant differences were found in the fluorescence intensity (FI) of anti-HbF antibody staining between HbF-negative erythrocytes (HbF-) and adult HbF containing erythrocytes (F cells; 4 ± 0 versus 57 ± 9 linear mean channels [LMC]; P < 0.001) and between HbF-cells and fetal RBCs (4 ± 0 versus 433 ± 136 LMC; P < 0.001). In addition, significant differences were observed in forward light scatter intensity between HbF-cells and fetal RBCs (298 ± 15 versus 355 ± 68 LMC, P = 0.03). The transportability of the test is also addressed by comparing results from two other laboratories. The experience of our three laboratories, as well as the results from the recently reinitiated College of American Pathologists survey, which compares FCM and manual methods, clearly documents the superiority of the FCM test over the manual Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test. CONCLUSIONS The FCM is a simpler, more objective, and more precise alternative to the KB method in clinical testing. The high mortality rate associated with large FMH and therapeutic implications of these results should give laboratories motivation to abandon the KB method with more robust FCM to detect FMH. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:285,290, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Digital Block With and Without Epinephrine During Chemical Matricectomy with Phenol

    BACKGROUND Digital block with epinephrine is safe in selected patients. Chemical matricectomy with phenol is a successful, cheap, and easy method for the treatment of ingrown nails. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of digital block with epinephrine in chemical matricectomy with phenol. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-four patients with ingrown toenail were randomly divided into two groups. The plain lidocaine group (n=22) underwent digital anesthesia using 2% plain lidocaine, and the lidocaine with epinephrine group (n=22) underwent digital anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. In the postoperative period, the patients were evaluated for pain, drainage, and peripheral tissue destruction and were followed for up to 18 months for recurrence. RESULTS The mean anesthetic volume used in the epinephrine group (2.2±0.4 mL) was significantly lower than the plain lidocaine group (3.1±0.6 mL). There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain and recurrence rates, but duration of drainage was significantly shorter in the epinephrine group (11.1±2.5 days) than in the plain lidocaine group (19.0±3.8 days). CONCLUSION Digital block with epinephrine is safe in selected patients, and epinephrine helps to shorten the postoperative drainage period. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue,Derived Stem Cells Obtained from Cryopreserved Adipose Aspirates

    BACKGROUND Although frozen adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of frozen fat remains a controversy. The cryopreservation of adipose tissue is important for the future use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and adipocytes. OBJECTIVE To determine whether optimal cryopreservation techniques with regard to the addition of cryopreservative agents and preservation temperature is essential for the long-term storage of adipose tissue and whether ASCs from cryopreserved adipose aspirates are reliable for use in adipogenic differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adipose tissue was frozen directly or with cryoprotectant at ,20°C or ,80°C for 1 year. The viability of adipose aspirates and the differentiation of ASCs isolated from adipose tissue were evaluated. RESULTS The viability of adipose aspirates frozen with dimethyl sulfoxide at ,80°C was approximately 87% after 2 months of storage. Moreover, ASCs from adipose tissue stored with cryoprotectant survived successfully for 1 year and differentiated into adipocytes, although ASCs were not detected in the directly frozen adipose tissue. CONCLUSION Adipose tissue cryopreserved with cryoprotectant and stored at optimal temperature might prove to be a reliable source of human ASCs and adipocytes. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Use of High-Frequency, High-Resolution Ultrasound Before Mohs Surgery

    BACKGROUND Although ultrasound imaging is employed ubiquitously today, its use to examine and assess the skin is a relatively new technology. We explored the clinical application and use of high-frequency, high-resolution ultrasound in Mohs micrographic surgery. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of ultrasound to accurately determine lesion length and width of tumor borders in order to reduce the number of surgical stages. METHODS AND MATERIALS This was an institutional review board,approved single-center study of 26 Mohs surgery patients. Ultrasound images were taken to record lesion dimensions, and then the investigator documented clinical estimation of the first stage. Extirpation of the tumor and histological analysis were performed thereafter. RESULTS The results of 20 patients were included in the analysis. A paired-samples t -test revealed no significant difference between clinical and ultrasound widths (t=,1.324, p=.20). Similarly, there was no significant difference between the lengths found from clinical assessment and ultrasound (t=,1.093, p=.29). For different tumor types, there was no significant difference between clinical and ultrasound widths or lengths for basal cell carcinoma (t=,1.307, p=.23; t=,1.389, p=.20) or squamous cell cancer (t=,0.342, p=.73; t=0.427, p=.68). CONCLUSION There is a diagnostic role for high-resolution ultrasound in Mohs surgery regarding the delineation of surgical margins, but its limitations preclude its practical adoption at this time. The ultrasound equipment was loaned to the investigators. Funding for the study was provided by Longport, Inc. [source]