Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Reservoir

  • animal reservoir
  • different reservoir
  • drinking water reservoir
  • fractured reservoir
  • freshwater reservoir
  • gas reservoir
  • hydrocarbon reservoir
  • important reservoir
  • large reservoir
  • main reservoir
  • major reservoir
  • man-made reservoir
  • natural reservoir
  • non-perennial reservoir
  • oil reservoir
  • petroleum reservoir
  • potential reservoir
  • sandstone reservoir
  • small reservoir
  • storage reservoir
  • tropical reservoir
  • viral reservoir
  • water reservoir

  • Terms modified by Reservoir

  • reservoir formation
  • reservoir hosts
  • reservoir models
  • reservoir operation
  • reservoir property
  • reservoir quality
  • reservoir rock
  • reservoir simulation
  • reservoir solution
  • reservoir system
  • reservoir unit

  • Selected Abstracts


    D. Palermo
    The Lower Triassic Rogenstein Member of the Buntsandstein Formation produces gas at the De Wijk and Wanneperveen fields, NE Netherlands and consists mainly of claystones with intercalated oolitic limestone beds. The excellent reservoir properties of the oolites (,= 20-30%; k = 5-4000 mD) are predominantly controlled by depositional facies. Oolitic limestones are interpreted as the storm and wave deposits of a shallow, desert lake located in the Central European Buntsandstein Basin. The vertical sequence of lithofacies in the Rogenstein Member indicates cyclic changes of relative lake level. The reservoir rock is vertically arranged in a three-fold hierarchy of cycles, recognised both in cores and wireline logs. These cycles are a key to understanding the distribution of reservoir facies, and are used as the basis for a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation of the reservoir units. Slight regional-scale thickness variations of the Rogenstein Member (in the order of tens of metres) are interpreted as the effects of differential subsidence associated with the inherited Palaeozoic structural framework. The depositional basin can be subdivided into subtle palaeo-highs and -lows which controlled facies distribution during Rogenstein deposition. Oolitic limestones show their greatest lateral extent and thickest development in the Middle Rogenstein during large-scale maximum flooding. Potential reservoir rocks (decimetre to metres thick) are present in the NE Netherlands, in particular in the Lauwerszee Trough and the Lower Saxony Basin, where abundant gas shows of 200 - 4000 ppm CH4 have been recorded. Preserved primary porosity is interpreted to be a result of rapid burial in subtle depositional palaeo-lows in this area. The thickest, amalgamated oolite intervals (tens of metres thick) occur in the eastern part of the Central Netherlands Basin. Because of poor reservoir properties, other areas appear to be less promising in terms of Rogenstein exploration potential. [source]


    A. Sahin
    Most classical reservoir engineering concepts are based on homogeneous reservoirs despite the fact that homogeneous reservoirs are the exception rather than the rule. This is especially true of carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East which are known to be highly heterogeneous. The realistic petrophysical characterization of these kinds of reservoirs is not an easy task and must include the study of directional variations of permeability. Such variation can be incorporated into engineering calculations as the square root of the ratio of horizontal to vertical permeability, a parameter known as the anisotropy ratio. This paper addresses the distribution of anisotropy ratio values in an Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Based on whole core data from a number of vertical wells, statistical distributions of horizontal and vertical permeability measurements as well as anisotropy ratios were determined. The distributions of both permeability measurements and anisotropy ratios have similar patterns characterized by considerable positive skewness. The coefficients of variation for these distributions are relatively high, indicating their very heterogeneous nature. Comparison of plots of anisotropy ratios against depth for the wells and the corresponding core permeability values indicate that reservoir intervals with lower vertical permeability yield consistently higher ratios with considerable fluctuations. These intervals are represented by lower porosity mud-rich and/or mud-rich/granular facies. Granular facies, on the other hand, yielded considerably lower ratios without significant fluctuations. [source]


    S. Y. Zheng
    One problem with the inversion of transient well test data is that it can yield a non-unique solution. The uncertainty resulting from this type of approach can only be resolved by considering information from another source such as geology. Geological information will help to define the interpretation model which will ensure the correct analysis of the well test data. The results of well test analyses are of little value to reservoir characterisation and modelling unless they can be explained from a geological point of view. This last step is what we refer to here as geological interpretation. Other sources of information which can help with well test analyses come from seismic surveys and petrophysics. Modern well test interpretation therefore consists of two major steps: analysis of the well test data; and interpretation of the results. In detail, this should include the following: 1definition of an interpretation model , this requires the integration of geological, seismic and petrophysical data with transient pressure data 2analysis of the well test data based on the interpretation model defined 3geological interpretation of the results, which is necessary in order to explain or give meaning to the results. In this paper, we present a case study from a fluvial gas reservoir in the Gulf of Thailand which demonstrates these procedures. In the context of a defined geological environment, a transient pressure test has been fully analysed. Newly-developed software based on the finite element method has been used to forward model the test scenarios. This allowed the results of seismic and petrophysical analyses to be integrated into the well test model. This case study illustrates the integrated use of geological, petrophysical, well test and seismic attribute data in defining a reservoir model which respects both the reservoir geometry at some distance from the well location and also the reservoir's heterogeneity. We focus on a particular well in the Pattani Basin at which conventional well test analyses have been conducted. By considering the results of these analyses, forward modelling was carried out in which the drainage area was "cut" out of the structural map defined by seismic interpretation; also, the formation's internal heterogeneity was modelled according to well logs and petrophysical analyses. Finally, analytical and simulation results were compared with the transient pressure data. We conclude that the integration of geological, seismic, petrophysical and well test data greatly reduced uncertainties in well test interpretation. The consistency of the results and the fact that they satisfied all the relevant disciplines meant that much more confidence could be given to their interpretation. [source]


    H. Al-Saad
    Deposition of the Arab Formation on the Arabian Plate followed a eustatic sea-level high during the Oxfordian that deposited the open-marine shelfal carbonates of the Hanifa and Jubaila Formations. Oolite/peloidal shoals and local coral-algal stromatoporoid banks were subsequently deposited on the platform margin. These acted as barriers and led to the differentiation of intrashelf basins from open-marine (Tethyan) waters to the east. During the subsequent Kimmeridgian lowstand, gypsum wedges were laid down in the intrashelf basins. Slight changes in water depth, which exposed or flooded these barriers, are believed to be responsible for the cyclic nature of the Arab Formation sediments. Arab Formation cycles show a 4,h order frequency but have thicknesses more typical of 3rd order Vail-type sequences. This is probably explained by the 4th order flooding events merely topping-up pre-existing accommodation space of tens of metres water depth in the intrashelf basin. Diagenesis associated with movement of hypersaline brines may have been responsible for the development of widespread dissolution porosity and dolomitization. The laminated, organic-rich, bituminous lime mudstones of the Hanifa/Jubaila Formations are the probable source of oil in the Arab Formation in Qatar. The main reservoir types are oolitic-peloidal grainstones and dolomitized limestones. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Amanda J. Posselt
    The role of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in promoting dominance of the toxic nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wo,osz.) Seenayya et Subba Raju was examined in a subtropical water reservoir, Lake Samsonvale (=North Pine reservoir). A novel in situ bioassay approach, using dialysis tubing rather than bottles or bags, was used to determine the change in C. raciborskii dominance with daily additions of DIP. A statistically significant increase in dominance of C. raciborskii was observed when DIP was added at two concentrations (0.32 ,M and 16 ,M) in a daily pulse over a 4 d period in three separate experiments in the summer of 2006/2007. There was an increase in both C. raciborskii cell concentrations and biovolume in two DIP treatments, but not in the ammoniacal N + DIP treatment. In addition, overall phytoplankton cell concentrations increased with DIP addition, indicating that Lake Samsonvale was DIP limited at the time of experiments. Given the bioassay response, it is likely that dominance of C. raciborskii could increase in Lake Samsonvale with periodic injections of DIP such as inflow events. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Delphine Latour
    Analysis of a sediment core taken from the Grangent reservoir in 2004 showed the presence of high concentrations of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. colonies at the sediment surface (250 colonies,·,mL sediment,1) and also at depths of 25,35 cm (2300 colonies·mL sediment,1) and 70 cm (600 colonies,·,mL sediment,1). Measurements of radioactive isotopes (7Be, 137Cs, and 241Am) along with photographic analysis of the core were used to date the deep layers: the layer located at ,30 cm dates from summer 2003, and that located at ,70 cm from 1990 to 1991. The physiological and morphological conditions of those benthic colonies were compared with those of planktonic colonies using several techniques (environmental scanning electron microscopy [ESEM], TEM, DNA markers, cellular esterases, and toxins). The ESEM observations showed that, as these colonies age, peripheral cells disappear, with no cells remaining in the mucilage of the deepest colonies (70 cm), an indication of the survival thresholds of these organisms. In the benthic phase, the physiological conditions (enzyme activity, cell division, and intracellular toxins) and ultrastructure (particularly the gas vesicles) of the cells surviving in the heart of the colony are comparable to those of the planktonic form, with all the potential needed for growth. Maintaining cellular integrity requires a process that can provide sufficient energy and is expressed in the reduced, but still existing, enzymatic activity that we measured, which is equivalent to a quiescent state. [source]

    Comparative folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis of four teleost fish from a Reservoir in south-eastern Brazil

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    Yuri Simões Martins
    Abstract Martins, Y.S., Moura, D.F., Santos, G.B., Rizzo, E. and Bazzoli, N. 2009. Comparative folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis of four teleost fish from a Reservoir in south-eastern Brazil. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm). 91: 466,473. This study provides a comparative analysis of gametogenesis of neotropical teleosts Metynnis maculatus, Megalancistrus parananus, Cichla kelberi and Satanoperca pappaterra, through histological, histochemical and histometric techniques. In the ooplasm of C. kelberi and S. pappaterra conspicuous lipid vesicles were observed, which are characteristic of pelagic eggs produced by marine fishes. Perinucleolar oocytes were identified in the testis of S. pappaterra suggesting that this species is protogynous without functional hermaphroditism, an unusual pattern for neotropical fresh-water fishes. The spermatozoa of the studied species have rounded heads, a characteristic of fish that externally fertilise their eggs. The follicular (granulosa) cells of the vitellogenic oocytes from the studied species were cuboidal or columnar, however, in C. kelberi there were columnar follicular cells at the vegetal pole and cuboidal cells at the animal pole. Variations of the histochemical content were detected in the cortical alveoli and follicular cells of vitellogenic oocytes showing differences in the mechanisms to block polyspermy and egg adhesiveness. Larger oocytes were recorded in species which demonstrated parental care behaviour and smaller oocytes were noted in those species with fractioned spawning. [source]

    Historic and contemporary sediment transfer in an upland Pennine catchment, UK

    V. J. Holliday
    Abstract A sediment budget for an upland catchment,reservoir system at Burnhope Reservoir, North Pennines, UK has been developed. This provides a framework for quantifying historic and contemporary sediment yields and drainage basin response to disturbance from climate change and human activities in the recent past. Bathymetric survey, core sampling, 137Cs dating and aerial photographs have been used to assess sediment accumulation in the reservoir. The average reservoir sedimentation rate is 1·24 cm yr,1 (annual sediment yield 33·3 t km,2 yr,1 ± 10%, trap efficiency 92%). Mean annual reservoir sedimentation over the 67 year period has been estimated at 592 t ± 10%. Inputs of suspended sediment from direct catchwater streams account for 54% of sediment supply to the budget (best estimate yield of 318 t yr,1 ± 129%), while those from actively eroding reservoir shorelines contribute 328 t yr,1 ± 92%. Sediment yield estimates from stream monitoring and reservoir sedimentation are an order of magnitude lower than those reported from South Pennine reservoirs of comparable drainage basin area. Analysis of historical rainfall series for the catchment shows fluctuations in winter and summer rainfall patterns over the past 62 years. From 1976 to 1998 there has been a diverging trend between winter and summer rainfall, with a large increase in winter and a gradual decrease in summer totals. Periods of maximum variation occur during the summer drought events of the late 1970s, early 1980s and mid-1990s. Analysis of the particle size of core sediments highlights abrupt increases in sand-sized particles in the top 20 cm of the core. Based on the 137Cs chronology, these layers were deposited from the late 1970s onwards and relate to these diverging rainfall records and rapidly fluctuating reservoir levels. This provides evidence of potential sediment reworking within the reservoir by rapid water-level rise after drought. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Feeding ecology of fishes associated with Egeria spp. patches in a tropical reservoir, Brazil

    F. M. Pelicice
    Abstract ,, This research characterised feeding ecology of fishes associated with patches of Egeria najas and Egeria densa, two submerged macrophytes, in Rosana Reservoir, Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Fishes were sampled using a 1 m2 throw trap in patches of different macrophyte biomass and in three diel periods during a wet season. Fish diet (10 species) was primarily composed of autochthonous items (zooplankton, algae and aquatic insect larvae). Almost all intra-specific diet patterns had moderate to low levels of diet similarity, indicating a high variability in diet. Some species showed no diel patterns in feeding activity, whereas others were primarily diurnal or nocturnal. No differences in feeding activity were observed among habitats of medium and high macrophyte biomasses, and species tended to feed on the same items among these habitats. The most abundant fish species demonstrated low inter-specific diet overlap and appear not to compete for food resources. We suggest that Egeria patches are feeding grounds and shelter for small-sized fish species. Resumen 1. Esta investigación caracterizó la ecología trófica de las especies de peces asociadas a manchas de Egeria najas e E. densa, dos macrofitas sub-aquaticas, en la represa de Rosana (alto Río Paraná, Brasil). Los peces fueron colectados con un throw trap de 1 m2 en manchas con distintas biomasas de macrófitas y en tres períodos del día, durante la estación lluviosa. 2. La dieta de 10 especies estuvo compuesta principalmente de componentes autóctonos (zooplancton, algas y larva de insectos acuáticos). Casi todas las especies presentaron patrones de dieta intra-específica con similitudes moderadas o bajas (elevada variabilidad). Algunas especies no mostraron ningún patrón de actividad alimenticia durante el día mientras que otras fueron principalmente diurnas o nocturnas. No se observó ninguna diferencia de actividad alimenticia entre los habitats de media y alta biomasa de macrófitas, y las especies tendieron a alimentarse de los mismos componentes entre estos habitats. 3. Las especies de peces más abundantes mostraron un solapamiento alimenticio bajo y parecen no competir por recursos alimenticios. Sugerimos que las manchas de Egeria funcionan como lugar de alimentación y abrigo para los peces de pequeño tamaño. [source]

    Speciation and Environmental Fate of Chromium in Rivers Contaminated with Tannery Effluents

    J. Dominik
    Abstract Redox and size speciation of chromium in rivers contaminated with tannery wastewater was carried out to provide insight into its transport and removal mechanisms. Total chromium was determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and Cr,(VI) with Catalytic Adsorption Stripping Voltammetry. For the size speciation, particles were retained with a cartridge filter (cut-off 1.2,,m) and the total filterable fraction was further fractionated with Tangential Flow Filtration to determine the concentrations of chromium associated with the High Molecular Weight Colloidal (HMWC), Low Molecular Weight Colloidal (LMWC) and Truly Dissolved (TD) fractions. Two fluvial systems of similar sizes, but located in contrasting climatic zones, were selected for comparison: the Sebou-Fez system in Morocco and Dunajec River-Czorsztyn Reservoir system in Poland. Particulate Cr dominated in the Sebou-Fez system (about 90,%); while in the Dunajec-Czorsztyn system, it represented only 17,53,% of the total chromium in raw water. Still, the partition coefficients [Kd] were of the same magnitude. Chromium,(III) was the only form detected in Sebou-Fez, whereas in Dunajec-Czorsztyn Cr,(VI) was also present with its proportion increasing downstream from the input of tannery wastewater due to the preferential removal of Cr,(III). In the filtered water in Morocco a large fraction of Cr occurred in the HMWC fraction (50,70,%) at the two most contaminated sites, while the LMWC and TD forms prevailed at the non-contaminated sites in the Sebou River. At a very high concentration, in the water in the proximity of tanneries (well above the theoretical saturation level) Cr precipitated as polynuclear Cr-hydroxide. In Dunajec-Czorsztyn, the partition of Cr,(III) was approximately equal between the HMWC, LMWC and TD fractions, in contrast to Cr,(VI) which occurred almost exclusively in the TD fraction. In both systems, Cr,(III) was rapidly removed from the water to the sediments. The confluence of the Sebou with the Fez and the Czorsztyn reservoir trapped efficiently Cr,(III) preventing its spreading over long distances. Cr,(VI) showed conservative behavior and bypassed the Czorsztyn Reservoir. This study provides a first set of data on the partitioning of Cr,(III) and Cr,(VI) between the particulate, the colloidal and truly dissolved fractions in fluvial systems contaminated with tannery effluents. It also suggests that, in these systems, truly dissolved Cr,(III) can be adequately modeled from the total filterable concentrations. [source]

    Occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in San Roque Reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina): A field and chemometric study

    María Valeria Amé
    Abstract We evaluated the presence of cyanobacterial blooms in San Roque Reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina). Cyanobacterial blooms and water samples were collected over 4 years (1998,2002). We confirmed the presence of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR in 97% of these blooms. The total amount of microcystin (MC) ranged between 5.8 and 2400.0 ,g g,1 of freeze-dried bloom material. These values suggest that guidelines for safe water consumption and recreational use should be established for this reservoir. Twenty-eight physical and chemical parameters were measured in water samples and evaluated by discriminant analysis (DA). A first DA was used to evaluate the factors promoting cyanobacteria occurrence, identifying nine parameters following three patterns associated with cyanobacterial growth. Inorganic phosphorous was found to promote the presence of blooms, whereas the highest proliferation of cyanobacteria was observed in the presence of smaller amounts of carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and fecal coliform bacteria. The results observed during our fieldwork, analyzed using DA, agreed with the results of other laboratory studies, thus confirming the usefulness of DA to help with the evaluation of a complicated environmental data matrix. A second DA, using only water samples collected during the presence of cyanobacteria blooms, identified another nine parameters. The analysis of these parameters allowed us to identify certain environmental factors that could lead to the dominance of toxic strains, thus increasing the amount of MC. The results showed that, in our case, an increase in the water temperature was associated with higher amounts of MC per dry weight unit, whereas an increase in the concentrations of ammonia,nitrogen and iron were associated with lower amounts of MC, thus disfavoring the dominance of toxic strains. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 192,201, 2003. [source]

    Application of toxicity identification evaluation to sediment in a highly contaminated water reservoir in southeastern Brazil

    Rosalina P. A. Araújo
    Abstract Rasgão Reservoir, located close to the Metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, has been analyzed previously, and its sediment was found to be highly toxic, with high levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a complete absence of benthic life. Polychlorinated biphenyls also were present, as was mutagenic activity, detected with the Salmonella/microsome assay. Because of the extremely complex mixture of contaminants in these sediments, a toxicity identification evaluation was performed on the pore water and elutriate using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Vibrio fischeri. Toxicity characterization, identification, and confirmation procedures were performed in one representative sample of the reservoir, and the results indicated that ammonia was the main cause of the toxicity detected with C. dubia in both sediment pore water and elutriate. Chemical analysis corroborated this observation by revealing un-ionized ammonia concentrations as high as 5.14 mg/L in pore water and 2.06 mg/L in elutriate. These high ammonia levels masked possible toxicity caused by other classes of compounds. The toxicity detected with V. fischeri decreased with the time of sample storage and was related to the organic fraction of the pore water and the elutriate, in which compounds such as benzothiazole and nonylphenol were detected. [source]

    Variance estimation for spatially balanced samples of environmental resources

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 6 2003
    Don L. Stevens Jr
    Abstract The spatial distribution of a natural resource is an important consideration in designing an efficient survey or monitoring program for the resource. We review a unified strategy for designing probability samples of discrete, finite resource populations, such as lakes within some geographical region; linear populations, such as a stream network in a drainage basin, and continuous, two-dimensional populations, such as forests. The strategy can be viewed as a generalization of spatial stratification. In this article, we develop a local neighborhood variance estimator based on that perspective, and examine its behavior via simulation. The simulations indicate that the local neighborhood estimator is unbiased and stable. The Horvitz,Thompson variance estimator based on assuming independent random sampling (IRS) may be two times the magnitude of the local neighborhood estimate. An example using data from a generalized random-tessellation stratified design on the Oahe Reservoir resulted in local variance estimates being 22 to 58 percent smaller than Horvitz,Thompson IRS variance estimates. Variables with stronger spatial patterns had greater reductions in variance, as expected. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Chiral Diphosphite-Modified Rhodium(0) Nanoparticles: Catalyst Reservoir for Styrene Hydroformylation

    M. Rosa Axet
    Abstract The organometallic synthesis of rhodium nanoparticles stabilized with diphosphite ligands is described. These nanoparticles were investigated as catalysts in the styrene hydroformylation reaction, and their activity and selectivity were compared with those of similar molecular complexes. NMR spectroscopic studies performed during the course of the catalytic reaction showed that the synthesized nanoparticles are not stable and produce molecular species. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Distribution and biomass of an underfished vendace, Coregonus albula, population in a mesotrophic German reservoir

    Abstract, The distribution and overall biomass of an underfished vendace, Coregonus albula L., population in the mesotrophic Henne Reservoir (Germany) was studied using hydroacoustics and gill nets. Additionally, midwater trawling was carried out. Overall fish biomass, based on five hydroacoustic surveys (June to September 2002), ranged from 188 kg ha,1 in early August to 302 kg ha,1 in September 2002. The overall mean fish biomass was 256 kg ha,1 (±48 kg ha,1 SD). Biomass of fish smaller than 25 cm total length (mostly vendace) varied from 56 kg ha,1 in August to 99 kg ha,1 in September, with an overall mean fish biomass of 74 kg ha,1 (±17 kg ha,1 SD). The echograms showed temporal variation in fish distribution in Henne Reservoir. In June, fish were fairly evenly distributed over the whole reservoir but in September a dense aggregation of fish (mostly vendace) was found in the deeper water layers near the dam. The distribution of vendace stock, its impact on water quality and fisheries management, biomanipulation and effort for mass removal are discussed. [source]

    Yield, growth and mortality rate of the Thai river sprat, Clupeichthys aesarnensis, in Sirinthorn Reservoir, Thailand

    T. Jutagate
    Abstract The Thai river sprat, Clupeichthys aesarnensis Wongratana, is a clupeid with a short life span, and supports artisanal fisheries in a number of reservoirs in the Mekong Basin. The growth parameters, mortality rates and the status of the Thai river sprat in Sirinthorn Reservoir (28 800 ha), NE Thailand (15°N; 105°E), are presented. The fishery is based on lured lift-nets, operated 7,14 days in the new moon period, September to April each year. It was shown that the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) model was Lt (mm) = 78.43[1 , exp{,0.211[t , (,0.7996)]}] and its growth conformed to an isometric pattern. Natural mortality rate (month,1) was 0.13 month,1. Total mortality rates ranged from 0.69 to 1.53 month,1 depending on the weather and the fishing season. Recruitment was continuous throughout the year but peaked in June and July. The yield per recruit model indicated that the exploitation rate of this fishery is probably too high. [source]

    The effects of water-level manipulation on the benthic invertebrates of a managed reservoir

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Summary 1. Reservoir creation and management can enhance many ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems, but may alter the natural conditions to which aquatic biota have adapted. Benthic macroinvertebrates often reflect environmental conditions, and this community may be particularly susceptible to water-level changes that alter sediment exposure, temperature regime, wave-induced sediment redistribution and basal productivity. 2. Using a before,after control,impact experimental design, we assessed changes in macroinvertebrate community structure corresponding with changes in water-level management in two lentic systems in the Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, U.S.A. Littoral zone (depths 1,5 m) benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in Rainy Lake (control system) and Namakan Reservoir (impact system) in 1984,85, and again in 2004,05 following a change in water-level management that began in January 2000. The new regime reduced the magnitude of winter drawdown in Namakan Reservoir from 2.5 to 1.5 m, and allowed the reservoir to fill to capacity in late May, a month earlier than under the prior regime. Rainy Lake water levels were not altered substantially. 3. We found changes in macroinvertebrate community structure in Namakan Reservoir relative to Rainy Lake at 1,2 m depths but not at 3,5 m depths. These shallower depths would have been most directly affected by changes in sediment exposure and ice formation. 4. In 2004,05, Namakan Reservoir benthos showed lower overall abundance, more large-bodied taxa and an increase in non-insect invertebrates relative to 1984,85, without corresponding changes in Rainy Lake. 5. Changes in the benthic community in Namakan may reflect cooler water in spring and early summer as well as lower resource availability (both autochthonous production and allochthonous inputs) under the new regime. [source]

    Interaction between wind-induced seiches and convective cooling governs algal distribution in a canyon-shaped reservoir

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
    Summary 1. Wind is considered the dominant factor controlling phytoplankton distribution in lentic environments. In canyon-shaped reservoirs, wind tends to blow along the main axis generating internal seiches and advective water movements that jointly with biological features of algae can produce a heterogeneous phytoplankton distribution. Turbulence generated by wind stress and convection will also affect the vertical distribution of algae, depending on their sinking properties. 2. We investigated the vertical and horizontal distribution of phytoplankton during the stratification period in Sau Reservoir (NE Spain). Sites along the main reservoir axis were sampled every 4 h for 3 days, and profiles of chlorophyll- a and temperature were made using a fluorescent FluoroProbe, which can discriminate among the main algal groups. Convective and wind shear velocity scales, and energy dissipation were calculated from meteorological data, and simulation experiments were performed to describe non-measured processes, like vertical advection and sinking velocity of phytoplankton. 3. Wind direction changed from day to night, producing a diel thermocline oscillation and an internal seiche. Energy dissipation was moderate during the night, and mainly attributed to convective cooling. During the day the energy dissipation was entirely attributed to wind shear, but values indicated low turbulence intensity. 4. The epilimnetic algal community was mainly composed of diatoms and chlorophytes. Chlorophytes showed a homogeneous distribution on the horizontal and vertical planes. Diatom horizontal pattern was also homogeneous, because the horizontal advective velocities generated by wind forcing were not high enough to develop phytoplankton gradients along the reservoir. 5. Diatom vertical distribution was heterogeneous in space and time. Different processes dominated in different regions of the reservoir, due to the interaction between seiching and the daily cycle of convective-mediated turbulence. As the meteorological forcing followed a clear daily pattern, we found very different diatom sedimentation dynamics between day and night. Remarkably, these dynamics were asynchronous in the extremes of the seiche, implying that under the same meteorological forcing a diatom population can show contrasting sedimentation dynamics at small spatial scales (approximately 103 m). This finding should be taken into account when interpreting paleolimnological records from different locations in a lake. 6. Vertical distribution of non-motile algae is a complex process including turbulence, vertical and horizontal advection, variations in the depth of the mixing layer and the intrinsic sinking properties of the organisms. Thus, simplistic interpretations considering only one of these factors should be regarded with caution. The results of this work also suggest that diatoms can persist in stratified water because of a synergistic effect between seiching and convective turbulence. [source]

    How internal waves influence the vertical distribution of zooplankton

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Summary 1. We present data with a high spatio-temporal resolution from a 72-h field survey in Bautzen Reservoir (Saxony, Germany). The aims of this survey were to observe hydrophysical processes during a period of unstable stratification in spring and investigate the effect of wind-induced internal waves on the vertical distribution of zooplankton. 2. Wind velocities up to 10 m s,1 caused a strong downwelling event of warm water at the sampling site and led to the generation of internal waves with an amplitude of 4 m. 3. The zooplankton community, which was dominated by Daphnia galeata, inhabited epilimnetic waters. Downwelling enlarged the thickness of the epilimnetic layer and, hence, led to high zooplankton abundances down to relatively deep water strata indicating lateral transport of zooplankton. As a consequence, area-specific zooplankton abundances increased considerably (max. fourfold) during downwelling. 4. We conclude that classical limnological field sampling, such as for monitoring purposes, can lead to severely biased estimates of zooplankton abundance due to the interfering effects of hydrophysical processes like internal waves. 5. Backscattering strengths measured by a simultaneously deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (600 kHz) were found to be correlated with estimated zooplankton abundances based on plankton samples. [source]

    Rainfall network design using kriging and entropy

    Yen-Chang Chen
    Abstract The spatial distribution of rainfall is related to meteorological and topographical factors. An understanding of the weather and topography is required to select the locations of the rain gauge stations in the catchment to obtain the optimum information. In theory, a well-designed rainfall network can accurately represent and provide the needed information of rainfall in the catchment. However, the available rainfall data are rarely adequate in the mountainous area of Taiwan. In order to provide enough rainfall data to assure the success of water projects, the rainfall network based on the existing rain gauge stations has to be redesigned. A method composed of kriging and entropy that can determine the optimum number and spatial distribution of rain gauge stations in catchments is proposed. Kriging as an interpolator, which performs linear averaging to reconstruct the rainfall over the catchment on the basis of the observed rainfall, is used to compute the spatial variations of rainfall. Thus, the rainfall data at the locations of the candidate rain gauge stations can be reconstructed. The information entropy reveals the rainfall information of the each rain gauge station in the catchment. By calculating the joint entropy and the transmitted information, the candidate rain gauge stations are prioritized. In addition, the saturation of rainfall information can be used to add or remove the rain gauge stations. Thus, the optimum spatial distribution and the minimum number of rain gauge stations in the network can be determined. The catchment of the Shimen Reservoir in Taiwan is used to illustrate the method. The result shows that only seven rain gauge stations are needed to provide the necessary information. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The influence of hydroelectrical development on the flow regime of the karstic river Cetina

    Ognjen Bonacci
    Abstract The Cetina River is a typical karst watercourse in the deep and well-developed Dinaric karst. The total length of the Cetina River open streamflow from its spring to the mouth is about 105 km. Estimated mean annual rainfall is 1380 mm. The Cetina catchment is built of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous carbonate strata. The western part of the catchment by the Cetina River is referred to as the ,direct' or topographic catchment. It was defined based on surface morphologic forms, by connection between mountain chain peaks. This part of the catchment is almost entirely situated in the Republic of Croatia. The eastern part of the catchment is referred to as the ,indirect' catchment, and is mainly situated in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Water from the ,indirect' catchment emerges from the western ,direct' catchment in numerous permanent and temporary karst springs. Since 1960, numerous hydrotechnical works have been carried out on the Cetina River and within its catchment. Five hydroelectric power plants (HEPPs), five reservoirs, and three long tunnels and pipelines have been built. Their operation has significantly altered the natural hydrological regime. The Cetina River is divided into two hydrological reaches. In the 65 km upstream, the hydrological regime was redistributed within the year: low flows had increased and high flows had decreased, although the mean annual discharge remained the same. Part of the Cetina watercourse downstream from the Pran,evi,i Reservoir lost the majority of its flow. The mean annual discharges dropped from 100 m3 s,1 to less than 10 m3 s,1 because of the Zaku,ac HEPP development. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A modified support vector machine based prediction model on streamflow at the Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan

    Pei-Hao Li
    Abstract The uncertainty of the availability of water resources during the boreal winter has led to significant economic losses in recent years in Taiwan. A modified support vector machine (SVM) based prediction framework is thus proposed to improve the predictability of the inflow to Shihmen reservoir in December and January, using climate data from the prior period. Highly correlated climate precursors are first identified and adopted to predict water availability in North Taiwan. A genetic algorithm based parameter determination procedure is implemented to the SVM parameters to learn the non-linear pattern underlying climate systems more flexibly. Bagging is then applied to construct various SVM models to reduce the variance in the prediction by the median of forecasts from the constructed models. The enhanced prediction ability of the proposed modified SVM-based model with respect to a bagged multiple linear regression (MLR), simple SVM, and simple MLR model is also demonstrated. The results show that the proposed modified SVM-based model outperforms the prediction ability of the other models in all of the adopted evaluation scores. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    A probable case of metastatic carcinoma from the late prehistoric eastern Tennessee River Valley

    Maria Ostendorf Smith
    Abstract There are few described cases of metastatic carcinoma from the prehistoric eastern United States and none primarily differentially diagnosed from the southeast. A mature adult female exhibiting several large lytic cranial lesions suggestive of neoplastic disease was identified in a late prehistoric Mississippian Period (AD 1200,1600) context. Burial 371 is from Ledford Island, a Mouse Creek phase (AD 1400,1500) site from the Chickamauga Reservoir of southeastern Tennessee. It is the only case in this reservoir (total adult n = 843). The radiographs of the otherwise asymptomatic postcranium yielded radiolucencies in both proximal femora, both medial clavicles, the sternum, the surviving humeral metaphysis and fragmentary innominate. The locations are all consistent with metastasized carcinoma. The identity of the possible primary lesion is argumentative. Age, sex and the mixed nature of the osseous response are consistent with carcinoma of the breast but not to the exclusion of bronchogenic, thyroid, or kidney cancers. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Temporal Coherence of Chlorophyll a during a Spring Phytoplankton Bloom in Xiangxi Bay of Three-Gorges Reservoir, China

    Yao-Yang Xu
    Abstract Algal bloom phenomenon was defined as "the rapid growth of one or more phytoplankton species which leads to a rapid increase in the biomass of phytoplankton", yet most estimates of temporal coherence are based on yearly or monthly sampling frequencies and little is known of how synchrony varies among phytoplankton or of the causes of temporal coherence during spring algal bloom. In this study, data of chlorophyll a and related environmental parameters were weekly gathered at 15 sampling sites in Xiangxi Bay of Three-Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) to evaluate patterns of temporal coherence for phytoplankton during spring bloom and test if spatial heterogeneity of nutrient and inorganic suspended particles within a single ecosystem influences synchrony of spring phytoplankton dynamics. There is a clear spatial and temporal variation in chlorophyll a across Xiangxi Bay. The degree of temporal coherence for chlorophyll a between pairs of sites located in Xiangxi Bay ranged from ,0.367 to 0.952 with mean and median values of 0.349 and 0.321, respectively. Low levels of temporal coherence were often detected among the three stretches of the bay (Down reach, middle reach and upper reach), while high levels of temporal coherence were often found within the same reach of the bay. The relative difference of DIN between pair sites was the strong predictor of temporal coherence for chlorophyll a in down and middle reach of the bay, while the relative difference in Anorganic Suspended Solids was the important factor regulating temporal coherence in middle and upper reach. Contrary to many studies, these results illustrate that, in a small geographic area (a single reservoir bay of approximately 25 km), spatial heterogeneity influence synchrony of phytoplankton dynamics during spring bloom and local processes may override the effects of regional processes or dispersal. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Rotifers in Xiangxi Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Shuchan Zhou
    Abstract From July 2003 to June 2005, investigations of rotifer temporal and spatial distributions were car-ried out in a bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir, Xiangxi Bay, which is the downstream segment of the Xiangxi River and the nearest bay to the Three Gorges Reservoir dam in Hubei Province, China. Thirteen sampling sites were selected. The results revealed a high species diversity, with 76 species, and 14 dominant species; i.e., Polyarthra vulgaris, Keratella cochlearis, Keratella valga, Synchaeta tremula, Synchaeta stylata, Trichocerca lophoessa, Trichocerca pusilla, Brachionus angularis, Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus forficula forficula, Ascomorpha ovalis, Conochilus unicornis, Ploesoma truncatum and Anuraeopsis fissa. After the first year of the reservoir impoundment, the rotifer community was dominated by ten species; one year later it was dominated by eight species. The community in 2003/2004 was dissimilar to that in 2004/2005, which resulted from the succes-sion of the dominant species. The rotifer community exhibited a patchy distribution, with significant heterogeneity observed along the longitudinal axis. All rotifer communities could be divided into three groups, corresponding to the riverine, the transition and the lacustrine zone, respectively. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Species Composition and Distribution of Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods in the Off-Channel Microhabitats of a Temperate, Lowland Dam Reservoir

    Jaros, ytkowicz
    Abstract The W,oc,awek Dam Reservoir located on the lower Vistula River (central Poland) is part of the central corridor used by Ponto-Caspian species to migrate in Europe. It provides a number of habitats suitable for sustaining populations of several non-indigenous taxa. Four Ponto-Caspian amphipod species were recorded in the reservoir: Chaetogammarus ischnus, Chelicorophium curvispinum, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes and Pontogammarus robustoides. We found significant differences in amphipod densities and species composition among various microhabitats in off-channel areas. P. robustoides was the only amphipod species that occurred on very shallow (<1 m) sandy bottom near the shore. It inhabited also other sites but its share in the total number of amphipods and abundance decreased with the distance from the shore. Furthermore, at sites more distant from shore its affinity for plant substratum was higher. D. haemobaphes, C. ischnus and C. curvispinum clearly preferred sites distant from shore, overgrown by macrophytes or covered by mussel shells. Furthermore, the abundance of C. ischnus was negatively correlated with the presence of P. robustoides. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Post-Impoundment Biomass and Composition of Phytoplankton in the Yangtze River

    Hui Zeng
    Abstract Damming, and thus alteration of stream flow, promotes higher phytoplankton populations and encourages algal blooms (density >106 cells L,1) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Phytoplankton composition and biomass were studied in the Yangtze River from March 2004 to May 2005. 107 taxa were identified. Diatoms were the dominant group, followed by Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. In the Yangtze River, algal abundance varied from 3.13 × 103 to 3.83 × 106 cells L,1, and algal biomass was in the range of 0.06 to 659 mg C m,3. Levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and silica did not show consistent longitudinal changes along the river and were not correlated with phytoplankton parameters. Phytoplankton abundance was negatively correlated with main channel discharge (Spearman r = ,1.000, P < 0.01). Phytoplankton abundance and biomass in the Yangtze River are mainly determined by the hydrological conditions rather than by nutrient concentrations. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Day-Night Vertical Distribution and Feeding Patterns of Fourth Instar ofChaoborus Larvae in a Neotropical Reservoir (Socuy Reservoir, Venezuela)

    Carlos López
    Abstract The day-night vertical distribution, diel feeding activity and diet of fourth instar of Chaoborus larvae were analyzed in lacustrine zone of a neotropical reservoir which shows seasonally contrasting hypolimnetic oxygen conditions. Larvae stayed in sediment and water bottom during day and ascended to surface during night. Results indicate that feeding activity is limited mainly to the plankton population. Phytoplankton, rotifers or remains of Chaoborus larvae were not found in crops. With the exception of ostracods, all crustacean prey available in the zooplankton occurred in the guts. Ceriodaphnia cornuta and Moina micrura were the most frequent food items (about 75% of occurrence frequency) and were positively selected. The remainder crustacean zooplankton taxa were negatively selected by larvae. The most intense feeding activity in larvae occurred near midnight and sunrise, in dates when the hypolimnion was anoxic. When oxygen was available on the bottom, a higher and not changing diel feeding activity was detected. Our results indicate that vertical migration may promote a spatial separation between larvae and zooplankton, and feeding activity of larvae occurred only when both overlapped. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Distribution patterns of fish biomass by acoustic survey in three Tunisian man-made lakes

    I. Djemali
    Summary In order to test the hypothesis that fish distribution is related to water depth, three exploited reservoirs were sampled at day and at night using a Simrad EK60 echosounder. Acoustic surveys were carried out between February and June 2008, which focused on the fish size, species density (fish per ha) and biomass (kg ha,1) along vertical and longitudinal gradients. It was evident in the surface layer (0,3 m) during daytime that the larger fish sizes occupy waters near the dam or the middle of Lakhmess and Sejnane reservoirs. In the upper layer at nighttime, a gradient of fish size is shown proportional to the depth at Lakhmess Reservoir and inversely proportional at the man-made Sejnane Lake. At Lakhmess and Laabid reservoirs, fish density was significantly higher in deep water (3926 ± 1409 and 624 ± 258 fish per ha) rather than in the upper layer (988 ± 2 and 8 ± 2 fish per ha in daytime, respectively), while at Sejnane Reservoir the number of fish per area was similar along the vertical gradient. The biomass was significantly higher in waters deeper than 3 m at Sejnane Reservoir whereas at Lakhmess it was higher in the surface layer. Fish biomass increased from upstream (0.16 ± 0.05 kg ha,1) to middle (3.07 ± 2.96 kg ha,1) and downstream (3.82 ± 2.30 kg ha,1 at night) areas in the man-made Laabid Lake while a similar longitudinal gradient occurred in the deepest Sejnane Reservoir. The vertical gradient in fish distribution is discussed. From the dam to the tributary of the entire water column, it was concluded that fish biomass distribution was governed by depth and was most abundant in areas with deep waters. [source]

    Migratory movements of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in the highly impounded Paraná River

    M. C. Makrakis
    Summary A mark-recapture study was conducted in 1997,2005 to investigate movements of stocked pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in the Paraná River Basin of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. Fish raised in cages within the Itaipu Reservoir and in ponds were tagged externally (n = 2976) and released in the Itaipu Reservoir (53.2%) and bays of its major tributaries (46.8%). In total, 367 fish (12.3%) were recaptured. In all, 91% of the pacu moved away from the release site; upstream movements were more extensive than downstream movements. Pacu traveled upstream a maximum of 422 km (average of 41.3 km) at a maximum rate of 26.4 km day,1 (av. 0.8). Downstream movements were limited in terms of number of individuals and distance moved. Fish released during the wet season moved farther than those released during the dry season, and feeding rather than spawning might have been the compelling reason for movement. Although fish passed downstream through dams, none of the marked fish were detected to have moved upstream through the passage facilities. Pacu showed movement patterns not radically different from those of other neotropical migratory species, but their migratory movements may not be as extensive as those of other large migratory species in the basin. [source]