Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Requirements

  • Qo requirement
  • absolute requirement
  • accuracy requirement
  • acid requirement
  • additional requirement
  • amino acid requirement
  • anaesthetic requirement
  • analgesia requirement
  • analgesic requirement
  • application requirement
  • arginine requirement
  • average requirement
  • bandwidth requirement
  • bank capital requirement
  • basic requirement
  • blood product requirement
  • blood transfusion requirement
  • ca2+ requirement
  • capacity requirement
  • capital requirement
  • care requirement
  • certification requirement
  • climatic requirement
  • computational requirement
  • conflicting requirement
  • consent requirement
  • conservation requirement
  • continuity requirement
  • critical requirement
  • current requirement
  • customer requirement
  • daily insulin requirement
  • daily requirement
  • data requirement
  • design requirement
  • dietary arginine requirement
  • dietary protein requirement
  • dietary requirement
  • different requirement
  • differential requirement
  • disclosure requirement
  • dose requirement
  • dosing requirement
  • ecological requirement
  • education requirement
  • educational requirement
  • energetic requirement
  • energy requirement
  • environmental requirement
  • essential requirement
  • estimated average requirement
  • flow requirement
  • food requirement
  • functional requirement
  • fundamental requirement
  • general requirement
  • germination requirement
  • governance requirement
  • growth requirement
  • habitat requirement
  • important requirement
  • individual requirement
  • information requirement
  • initial requirement
  • insulin requirement
  • job requirement
  • key requirement
  • knowledge requirement
  • legal requirement
  • light requirement
  • local requirement
  • lysine requirement
  • maintenance energy requirement
  • maintenance requirement
  • major requirement
  • management requirement
  • mandatory requirement
  • margin requirement
  • medication requirement
  • memory requirement
  • metabolic requirement
  • methionine requirement
  • methodological requirement
  • minimal requirement
  • minimum requirement
  • molecular requirement
  • monitoring requirement
  • morphine requirement
  • necessary requirement
  • new requirement
  • nitrogen requirement
  • nutrient requirement
  • nutritional requirement
  • opioid requirement
  • other requirement
  • oxygen requirement
  • p requirement
  • performance requirement
  • phosphorus requirement
  • physiological requirement
  • postoperative analgesic requirement
  • power requirement
  • product requirement
  • professional requirement
  • program requirement
  • protein requirement
  • quality requirement
  • rate requirement
  • rational requirement
  • red cell transfusion requirement
  • regulatory requirement
  • reporting requirement
  • research requirement
  • reserve requirement
  • resource requirement
  • sample size requirement
  • sampling requirement
  • security requirement
  • sequence requirement
  • service requirement
  • several requirement
  • size requirement
  • skill requirement
  • spatial requirement
  • special requirement
  • species requirement
  • specific requirement
  • stability requirement
  • steric requirement
  • storage requirement
  • strict requirement
  • stringent requirement
  • structural requirement
  • system requirement
  • technical requirement
  • temporal requirement
  • thermal requirement
  • time requirement
  • training requirement
  • transfusion requirement
  • transport requirement
  • treatment requirement
  • user requirement
  • vasopressor requirement
  • vernalization requirement
  • water requirement
  • work requirement

  • Terms modified by Requirements

  • requirement analysis
  • requirement engineering

  • Selected Abstracts


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2006
    Dori CohenArticle first published online: 11 SEP 200
    Divorce proceedings have had a negative reputation due to their adversarial nature. Litigation in the family law field has exacerbated an already emotionally charged atmosphere. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has grown in importance over the past three decades and has helped to alleviate some of the animosity which accompanies divorce and child custody matters. Parents in particular are aided by the benefits of options such as mediation and collaborative divorce, obtaining increased control over their agreements in situations where the relationships will be continuous due to shared parenting responsibilities. However, much more could be done to increase the use of ADR in family law proceedings. Current family law practitioners could fill many roles, including mediator, advocate during mediation, collaborative negotiator, arbitrator, and counselor regarding which process to implement. Knowledge about these different roles, with their attendant skills and ethical issues, has become imperative. This Note will advocate for a mandatory continuing legal education requirement in ADR for matrimonial attorneys, as well as for the inclusion of ADR as a topic on state bar examinations. An increased knowledge of ADR will benefit divorcing parents and their children, ease an overcrowded court system, and lead to greater personal and professional satisfaction for the family law practitioner. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
    One of the central tasks of meta-ethical inquiry is to accommodate the common-sense assumptions deeply embedded in our moral discourse. A comparison of the potential of secular and theistic ethics shows that, in the end, theists have a greater facility in achieving this accommodation task; it is easier to appreciate the action-guiding authority and binding nature of morality in a theistic rather than in a secular context. Theistic ethics has a further advantage in being able to accommodate not only this essential conceptual feature of morality, but also the existence of moral requirements and their source of normativity. [source]


    Jean-Francois Rey
    Background:, There are circumstances when a colonoscopy should be repeated after a short interval following the first endoscopic procedure which has not completely fulfilled its objective. Review of the literature:, A second look colonoscopy is proposed when there remains a doubt about missed neoplastic lesions, either because the intestinal preparation was poor or because the video-endoscope did not achieved a complete course in the colon. The second look colonoscopy is also proposed at a short interval when it is suspected that the endoscopic removal of a single or of multiple neoplastic lesions was incomplete and that a complement of treatment is required. When the initial endoscopic procedure has completely fulfilled its objective, a second look colonoscopy can be proposed at longer intervals in surveillance programs. The intervals in surveillance after polypectomy are now adapted to the initial findings according to established guidelines. This also applies to the surveillance of incident focal cancer in patients suffering from a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusion:, Finally, in most developed countries, a priority is attributed to screening of colorectal cancer and focus is given on quality assurance of colonoscopy which is considered as the gold standard procedure in the secondary prevention of colorectal cancer. [source]


    Natalie Stoeckl
    Economic models have long been used as a way of organising and presenting information for policy makers interested in large regions,e.g. nations,and recent advances in information technology make the goal of developing models for decision makers in other locales a realistic one. The research on which this paper focuses was part of large project investigating the feasibility and desirability of developing a multi-disciplinary computer model of the Australian Savannas. In the large project, researchers were broken in to three teams: those considering the biophysical, demographic, and economic aspects of the modelling problem. This paper presents findings from part of the economic component of the investigation: that which sought information from key local ,stakeholders' about the type of information that would be useful to them. Responses indicate that many of Australia's existing economic models are capable of providing the ,right' type of information; but at too coarse a geographic scale for those in remote regions. Evidently, there is a need for developing other models. [source]


    Phillip Hellier
    The decline in enrolments in economics degrees and majors has been the focus of much concern in recent times. In 2001, two of the current researchers published a paper outlining a framework with which future investigation into the issue could be conducted (Keneley and Hellier 2001). Essentially this paper argued that a market orientated approach, which takes into account the value students and employers place on economics studies may point the way to a solution to the problem. As a first step in developing such an approach it is necessary to determine what employers require of the economics graduates they hire. With the support of the Economics Society of Australia such a survey was conducted in 2002. This paper presents the results of this survey and discusses some of the ramifications for the teaching of undergraduate economics. [source]


    Diamond and Dybvig provide a model of intermediation in which deposit insurance can avoid socially undesirable bank runs. We extend the Diamond,Dybvig model to evaluate the costs and benefits of deposit insurance in the presence of moral hazard by banks and monitoring by depositors. We find that complete deposit insurance alone will not support the first-best outcome: depositors will not have adequate incentives for monitoring and banks will invest in excessively risky projects. However, an additional capital requirement for banks can restore the first-best allocation. [source]


    Ines Drumond
    Abstract In order to survey the mechanisms through which the introduction of Basel II bank capital requirements is likely to accentuate the procyclical tendencies of banking, this paper brings together the theoretical literature on the bank capital channel of propagation of exogenous shocks and the literature on the regulatory framework of capital requirements under the Basel Accords. We conclude that the theoretical models that revisit the bank capital channel under the new accord generally support the Basel II procyclicality hypothesis and that the magnitude of the procyclical effects essentially depends on (i) the composition of banks' asset portfolios, (ii) the approach adopted by banks to compute their minimum capital requirements, (iii) the nature of the rating system used by banks, (iv) the view adopted concerning how credit risk evolves through time, (v) the capital buffers over the regulatory minimum held by the banking institutions, (vi) the improvements in credit risk management and (vii) the supervisor and market intervention under Basel II. The recent events and instability in financial markets all over the world have led the procyclicality issue to enter the agendas of several political international,fora,and some measures to mitigate procyclicality are being put forward. The bank capital channel literature should now play an important role in evaluating their effectiveness. [source]


    Business academics have focused their attention on empirical investigation of programs' effect on organizational competitive performance. These studies primarily emphasize theory building. With the many definitions of theory, academics are not certain whether their research papers meet the specific requirements for theory development required by the academic field of the philosophy of science. Certainly, supply chain academics generally believe that their academic articles fulfill the requirements of theory building. Although many of these articles do have elements of theory, more focus is needed on the specific requirements of theory to assure that academic research is "good" theory building. The primary purpose of this research paper is to logically develop a set of guidelines to assist empirical researchers to assure that their studies fulfill the requirements of good theory based upon traditional scientific theory building. By fulfilling the requirements of good theory, researchers will develop studies that will have a lasting impact on their academic field. To achieve a lasting impact on an academic field, it is necessary to follow a logical plan. This article provides a plan for logical guidelines for developing an understanding of how and why "good" theory building is achieved. This article logically develops a formal conceptual definition of theory along with its related properties to understand these guidelines. Next, it analyzes the requirements of theory, "good" theory, and their properties. These guidelines are included in the existing philosophy of science publications. However, this article consolidates these sources and logically explains why these guidelines are needed. In the conclusion, the guidelines are summarized to serve as a summary checklist for supply chain researchers to use for ensuring their articles will be recognized as a contribution to the academic field. So in that sense, this article does not develop a revolutionary new insight into theory-building empirical articles, but rather integrates diverse traditional philosophy of science requirements into a much simpler set of guidelines. Through logical development of these guidelines, researchers will understand the structure of theory and how to ensure their studies can be modified to have a lasting impact on the field of supply chain management. [source]


    John Brunero
    Niko Kolodny has argued that some (local) rational requirements are narrow-scope requirements. Against this, I argue here that all (local) rational requirements are wide-scope requirements. I present a new objection to the narrow-scope interpretations of the four specific rational requirements which Kolodny considers. His argument for the narrow-scope interpretations of these four requirements rests on a false assumption, that an attitude which puts in place a narrow-scope rational requirement somewhere thereby puts in place a narrow-scope rational requirement everywhere. My argument against Kolodny is analogous to arguments which use holism about reasons to defend moral particularism. [source]


    Michael Bergmann
    Internalists tend to impose on justification higher-level requirements, according to which a belief is justified only if the subject has a higher-level belief (i.e., a belief about the epistemic credentials of a belief). I offer an error theory that explains the appeal of this requirement: analytically, a belief is not justified if we have a defeater for it, but contingently, it is often the case that to avoid having defeaters, our belief must satisfy a higher-level requirement. I respond to the objection that externalists who endorse this error theory will be forced to accept a radical form of scepticism. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2000
    For several decades, interpreting technical variations in the physical characteristics of pottery has followed two major trends: the ,cultural'approach and the ,behavioural or ,techno-functionalist'approach. Using data collected during extensive ethnographic fieldwork, I will consider the relative importance of social and technical requirements in the field of clay processing techniques in the Faro area (northern Cameroon) 1 will show that environmental and techno-functional constraints cannot explain technical variations, while cultural factors appear determinant. However, faking the discussion one step further, I will show the complexity of the social/cultural mechanism involved in the regional distribution of these techniques. [source]

    Requirement for ,B1-crystallin promoter of Xenopus laevis in embryonic lens development and lens regeneration

    Nobuhiko Mizuno
    Regulation of the lens-specific ,B1-crystallin promoter in Xenopus laevis was investigated using transgenic larvae and tadpoles. Comparison of the promoter sequence with that of chicken ,B1-crystallin gene indicates significant sequence similarity over a span of several hundred base pairs starting from the transcriptional start site. Remarkably, PL-1 and PL-2 sequences identified in the chicken promoter as essential binding sites of MAF, Pax6 and Prox1 transcription factors were conserved. Mutations of X (Xenopus) PL-1 and XPL-2 sequences eliminated the promoter activity, indicating a conserved mechanism regulating ,B1-crystallin promoter among vertebrate species. A stepwise deletion of the promoter sequence starting from 2800 bp indicated that the proximal 260 bp directly upstream of the transcription initiation site is sufficient for eliciting lens-specific expression, but the 150 bp promoter sequence is inactive despite it containing the XPL-1 and XPL-2 sequences, suggesting the presence of an additional and essential regulatory sequence located between ,150 and ,260 bp. Activity of the ,B1-crystallin promoter during lens regeneration from cornea was examined using transgenic tadpoles and found to have the same dependence on promoter regions as in embryonic lens development, indicating that gene regulation is largely shared by the two lens-generating processes. [source]

    An Approach to Fulfilling the Systems-based Practice Competency Requirement

    David Doezema MD
    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-identified core competency of systems-based practice requires the demonstration of an awareness of the larger context and system of health care, and the ability to call on system resources to provide optimum care. This article describes an approach to teaching and fulfilling the requirement of this core competency in an emergency medicine residency. Beginning residents are oriented to community resources that are important to the larger context of care outside the emergency department. Each resident completes a community project during his or her residency. Readings and discussions concerning community-oriented medical care and the literature of research and injury prevention in emergency medicine precede the project development. Several projects are described in detail. Such projects help to teach not only awareness of the community resources of the greater context of medical practice outside the emergency department, but also how to use those resources. Projects could be a main component of a resident portfolio. This approach to teaching the core competency of systems-based practice is proposed as an innovative and substantial contribution toward satisfying the requirement of the core competency. [source]

    Requirement of phospholipase C-,2 (PLC,2) for Dectin-1-induced antigen presentation and induction of TH1/TH17 polarization

    Ilaria Tassi
    Abstract DC recognize microbial components through an array of receptors known as PRR. PRR initiate intracellular signals, which engender DC with the capacity to stimulate T-cell responses. Dectin-1 is a PRR that recognizes ,-glucan, a major constituent of many fungi's outer cell wall. Here we show that Dectin-1 activates DC through phospholipase (PLC),2 signaling. PLC,2-deficient DC were unable to expand antigen-specific T cells and induce TH1 and TH17 differentiation in response to ,-glucan. Mechanistically, PLC,2-deficiency impaired the capacity of DC to secrete polarizing cytokines following exposure to ,-glucan. Dectin-1 required PLC,2 to activate MAPK, AP-1 and NF-,B, which induce cytokine gene expression. Moreover, PLC,2 controlled Dectin-1-mediated NFAT activation and induction of NFAT-dependent genes such as IL-2, cyclooxigenase-2 and Egr transcription factors. We conclude that PLC,2 is a crucial signaling mediator that modifies DC gene expression program to activate DC responses to ,-glucan-containing pathogens. [source]

    Requirement of HMGB1 and RAGE for the maturation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) are key components of innate and adaptive immune responses. Plasmacytoid DC (PDC) are a specialized DC subset that produce high amounts of type I interferons in response to microbes. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is an abundant nuclear protein, which acts as a potent pro-inflammatory factor when released extracellularly. We show that HMGB1 leaves the nucleus of maturing PDC following TLR9 activation, and that PDC express on the plasma membrane the best-characterized receptor for HMGB1, RAGE. Maturation and type I IFN secretion of PDC is hindered when the HMGB1/RAGE pathway is disrupted. These results reveal HMGB1 and RAGE as the first known autocrine loop modulating the maturation of PDC, and suggest that antagonists of HMGB1/RAGE might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of systemic human diseases. [source]

    Requirement for Q226, but not multiple charged residues, in the class I MHC CD loop/D strand for TCR-activated CD8 accessory function

    Micheal Durairaj
    Abstract Activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes typically begins with recognition of class I MHC-peptide complexes by the TCR and CD8 as a coreceptor. In its coreceptor role, CD8 binds thesame class I-peptide antigen complex as the TCR, enhancing the strength of TCR-class I interaction. Subsequent to initial TCR engagement, CD8 acts as an accessory molecule by binding any properly conformed class I molecules on the target cell surface, leading to CD8-mediated adhesion and cosignaling functions. We expressed and isolated a number of mutant class I molecules in which one or moreacidic or polar residues in the class I ,3 domain CD loop and D strand region, or ,2 domain were altered. Using solid phase CTL adhesion and degranulation assays with isolated class I molecules, we demonstrate that multiple acidic residues in the ,3 domain, although involved in CD8 coreceptor interaction, are not required for TCR-activated CD8 accessory interactions. Instead, we show that Q226, a polar group on the end of the CD loop, is required for TCR-activated CD8 accessory functions. These results indicate that CD8 coreceptor and accessory interactions differ substantially and suggest that TCR activation results in changes that alter the structural constraints for CD8 accessory interactions. [source]

    Requirement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons for appropriate development of corticothalamic and thalamocortical projections

    Chia-Shan Wu
    Abstract A role for endocannabinoid signaling in neuronal morphogenesis as the brain develops has recently been suggested. Here we used the developing somatosensory circuit as a model system to examine the role of endocannabinoid signaling in neural circuit formation. We first show that a deficiency in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R), but not G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), leads to aberrant fasciculation and pathfinding in both corticothalamic and thalamocortical axons despite normal target recognition. Next, we localized CB1R expression to developing corticothalamic projections and found little if any expression in thalamocortical axons, using a newly established reporter mouse expressing GFP in thalamocortical projections. A similar thalamocortical projection phenotype was observed following removal of CB1R from cortical principal neurons, clearly demonstrating that CB1R in corticothalamic axons was required to instruct their complimentary connections, thalamocortical axons. When reciprocal thalamic and cortical connections meet, CB1R-containing corticothalamic axons are intimately associated with elongating thalamocortical projections containing DGL,, a 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) synthesizing enzyme. Thus, 2-AG produced in thalamocortical axons and acting at CB1Rs on corticothalamic axons is likely to modulate axonal patterning. The presence of monoglyceride lipase, a 2-AG degrading enzyme, in both thalamocortical and corticothalamic tracts probably serves to restrict 2-AG availability. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that endocannabinoids are a modulator for the proposed ,handshake' interactions between corticothalamic and thalamocortical axons, especially for fasciculation. These findings are important in understanding the long-term consequences of alterations in CB1R activity during development, a potential etiology for the mental health disorders linked to prenatal cannabis use. [source]

    Requirement of the tumour suppressor APC for the clustering of PSD-95 and AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons

    Atsushi Shimomura
    Abstract Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and sporadic colorectal tumours. The APC gene is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues, especially throughout the large intestine and central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, the expression of the APC protein is highest during embryonic and early postnatal development. APC associates through its C-terminal region with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, a neuronal protein that participates in synapse development. Here, we examined the involvement of APC in synaptogenesis. In cultured hippocampal neurons, both overexpression of a dominant-negative construct that disrupts the APC,PSD-95 interaction and knockdown of APC expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the clustering of PSD-95 and a glutamate receptor subunit, and reduced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-induced activity of AMPA receptors; however, the clustering of an N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit was unaffected. These results are suggestive of APC involvement in the development of glutamatergic synapses. [source]

    Requirement of NMDA receptor reactivation for consolidation and storage of nondeclarative taste memory revealed by inducible NR1 knockout

    Zhenzhong Cui
    Abstract We employed an inducible, reversible and region-specific gene knockout technique to investigate the requirements for cortical NMDA receptors (NMDAR) during the various stages (acquisition, consolidation and storage, and retrieval) of nondeclarative, hippocampal-independent memory in mice using a conditioned taste aversion memory paradigm. Here we show that temporary knockout of the cortical NMDAR during either the learning or postlearning consolidation stage, but not during the retrieval stage, causes severe performance deficits in the 1-month taste memory retention tests. More importantly, we found that the consolidation and storage of the long-term nondeclarative taste memories requires cortical NMDAR reactivation. Thus, the dynamic engagement of the NMDAR during the postlearning stage leads us to postulate that NMDAR reactivation-mediated synaptic re-entry reinforcement is crucial for overcoming the destabilizing effects intrinsic to synaptic protein turnover and for achieving consolidation and storage of nondeclarative memories in the brain. [source]

    College Students Classified as Having Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Foreign Language Requirement

    Richard L. Sparks EdD
    College students classified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often assumed by educators and service providers to have problems that impair FL learning. To date, no empirical studies have investigated this assumption. In the two studies reported here, college students classified as LD or as both LD and having ADHD (LD/ADHD) who had either substituted courses for the FL requirement (petition) or had fulfilled the requirement by passing FL courses (nonpetition) were compared in terms of demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement profiles, and FL grades. In the first study, few differences were found in demographic, cognitive, and achievement profiles between petition students classified as LD or LD/ADHD. In the second study, no significant differences in demographic profiles were found among groups classified as petition LD, petition LD/ADHD, nonpetition LD, and nonpetition LD/ADHD. On cognitive and academic achievement measures, the nonpetition LD/ADHD group scored significantly higher than the petition LD group on measures of IQ, reading, math, and scholastic achievement (ACT). The results of both studies appear to be counterintuitive because students with two disabilities (LD and ADHD) were found to exhibit cognitive ability, academic achievement, and FL grades greater than or equal to students with LD alone. Findings suggest that students classified as both LD and ADHD may not necessarily experience serious problems with FL learning. [source]

    Requirement of Runx1/AML1/PEBP2,B for the generation of haematopoietic cells from endothelial cells

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 1 2001
    Tomomasa Yokomizo
    Recent studies revealing that endothelial cells derived from E8.5-E10.5 mouse embryos give rise to haematopoietic cells appear to correspond to previous histological observations that haematopoietic cell clusters are attached to the ventral aspect of dorsal aorta in such a way as if they were budding from the endothelial cell layer. Gene disruption studies have revealed that Runx1/AML1 is required for definitive haematopoiesis but not for primitive haematopoiesis, but the precise stage of gene function is not yet known. We found that mice deficient in Runx1/AML1 (an , subunit of the transcription factor PEBP2/CBF) lack c-Kit+ haematopoietic cell clusters in the dorsal aorta, omphalomesenteric and umbilical arteries, as well as yolk sac vessels. Moreover, endothelial cells sorted from the embryo proper and the yolk sac of AML1,/, embryos are unable to differentiate into haematopoietic cells on OP9 stromal cells, whereas colonies of AML1,/, endothelial cells can be formed in culture. These results strongly suggest that the emergence of haematopoietic cells from endothelial cells represents a major pathway of definitive haematopoiesis and is an event that also occurs in the yolk sac in vivo, as suggested by earlier in vitro experiments. [source]

    Inflammatory bowel disease in young people: The case for transitional clinics

    J. Goodhand MRCP
    Abstract Background: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing among adolescents. In all, 25% of patients are diagnosed before the age of 16, when they are traditionally transferred from the pediatric to the adult service. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-controlled study to characterize patients treated in a novel transitional adolescent,young adult IBD clinic. This compared disease extent, radiation exposure, therapeutic strategy, and requirement for surgery in 100 adolescents with controls from our adult IBD clinic matched for disease duration. Results: The median (range) ages for the adolescent and adult population was 19 (16,28) and 43 (24,84), with a median age at diagnosis of 15 (3,26) and 39 (13,82) respectively (P < 0.001). Crohn's disease was significantly more common in the adolescents. Disease distribution was ileocolonic in 69% of adolescents and 28% of adults, restricted to the ileum in 20% of adolescents and 47% of adults, and colonic only in 11% and 22%, respectively. Upper gastrointestinal involvement occurred in 23% of adolescents, but was not seen in adults (P < 0.01). Total ulcerative colitis was seen in 67% of adolescents and 44% of adults (P < 0.01). Contrary to previous data adolescents did not receive more ionizing radiation than adults. Requirement for immunosuppressive therapy was higher in the adolescent group (53% versus 31%, respectively, P < 0.01). Likewise, 20% of adolescents had required biological therapy compared to only 8% in the adult cohort (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Gastroenterologists should recognize that IBD is more complex when presenting in adolescence and our data support the creation of specific adolescent transitional clinics. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009 [source]

    Risk Factors for Requirement of Permanent Pacemaker Implantation After Aortic Valve Replacement

    Hasan Basri Erdogan M.D.
    Methods: Among 465 patients operated between 1994 and 2004, 19(4.1%) patients with a mean age 49.9 ± 17.2 years required the implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Eleven of them were female (57.9%). The main indication was aortic stenosis (89.5%). Severe annular calcification was documented in 78.9% of them, and the aortic valve was bicuspid in 57.9%. Results: Risk factors for permanent pacing after aortic valve replacement (AVR) identified by univariate analysis were female sex, hypertension, preoperative ejection fraction, aortic stenosis, annular calcification, bicuspid aorta, presence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) or left bundle branch block (LBBB), prolonged aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times, and preoperative use of calcium channel blockers. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (p = 0.01, OR; 5.21, 95% CI: 1.48-18.34), annular calcification (p < 0.001, OR; 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.24), bicuspid aortic valve (p = 0.02, OR; 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07-0.84), presence of RBBB (p = 0.009, OR; 0.03, 95% CI: 0.003-0.44) or LBBB (p = 0.01, OR; 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02-0.69), hypertension (p = 0.03, OR; 0.22, 95%CI: 0.05-0.89), and total perfusion time (p = 0.002, OR; 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08) were associated risk factors. Conclusion: Irreversible atrioventricular block requiring a permanent pacemaker implantation is an uncommon complication after AVR. Risk factors are annular calcification, bicuspid aorta, female sex, presence of RBBB or LBBB, prolonged total perfusion time, and hypertension. [source]

    The Characterization and Geographical Distribution of the Genes Responsible for Vernalization Requirement in Chinese Bread Wheat

    Qing-Ming Sun
    Abstract The frequency and distribution of the major vernalization requirement genes and their effects on growth habits were studied. Of the 551 bread wheat genotypes tested, seven allelic combinations of the three Vrn-1 genes were found to be responsible for the spring habit, three for the facultative habit and one for the winter habit. The three Vrn-1 genes behaved additively with the dominant allele of Vrn-A1 exerting the strongest effect. The allele combinations of the facultative genotypes and the discovery of spring genotypes with "winter" allele of Vrn-1 implied the presence of as yet unidentified alleles/genes for vernalization response. The dominant alleles of the three Vrn-1 genes were found in all ten ecological regions where wheat is cultivated in China, with Vrn-D1 as the most common allele in nine and Vrn-A1 in one. The combination of vrn-A1vrn-B1Vrn-D1 was the predominant genotype in seven of the regions. Compared with landraces, improved varieties contain a higher proportion of the spring type. This was attributed by a higher frequency of the dominant Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 alleles in the latter. Correlations between Vrn-1 allelic constitutions and heading date, spike length, plant type as well as cold tolerance were established. [source]

    Environmental Cues, Alcohol Seeking, and Consumption in Baboons: Effects of Response Requirement and Duration of Alcohol Abstinence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2006
    Elise M. Weerts
    Background: Environmental stimuli (cues) that have been paired with alcohol drinking may evoke classically conditioned states that in turn influence alcohol consumption and relapse to heavy drinking. Animal models using chained schedules of alcohol reinforcement may be useful for examining such complex interactions. Methods: Alcohol drinking was established in 4 baboons. A sequence of lights and tones was presented during daily 3-hour sessions. First, cues were presented alone and no programmed contingencies were in effect. Second, cues were paired with 3 linked components consisting of different behavioral contingencies leading to and concluding with access to alcohol for self-administration in the last component (i.e., a chained schedule of alcohol reinforcement). Third, the effects of withholding alcohol access (i.e., forced abstinence) and increasing the number of lever responses required per drink were evaluated. Results: Cues paired with a chained schedule of alcohol reinforcement engendered behaviors that brought baboons into contact with alcohol-related cues and occasioned operant responding that facilitated access to alcohol (alcohol seeking) during components that preceded alcohol access. Increasing the response requirement for each drink decreased the number of drinks and volume of alcohol consumed, but did not alter alcohol seeking. On the first session after 14 days of alcohol abstinence, latency to complete the operant requirement that produced alcohol access was decreased while both alcohol self-administration and volume of alcohol consumed were increased. Conclusions: Alcohol self-administration and consumption were sensitive to increases in response requirement and duration of alcohol abstinence, while seeking was only enhanced by duration of alcohol abstinence. This animal model may be useful to further examine the interactions between environmental cues and behaviors associated with seeking and consumption of alcohol and to evaluate the efficacy of potential alcohol treatment drugs on these behaviors. [source]

    A user-centered functional metadata evaluation of moving image collections

    Ying Zhang
    In this article, the authors report a series of evaluations of two metadata schemes developed for Moving Image Collections (MIC), an integrated online catalog of moving images. Through two online surveys and one experiment spanning various stages of metadata implementation, the MIC evaluation team explored a user-centered approach in which the four generic user tasks suggested by IFLA FRBR (International Association of Library Associations Functional Requirement for Bibliographic Records) were embedded in data collection and analyses. Diverse groups of users rated usefulness of individual metadata fields for finding, identifying, selecting, and obtaining moving images. The results demonstrate a consistency across these evaluations with respect to (a) identification of a set of useful metadata fields highly rated by target users for each of the FRBR generic tasks, and (b) indication of a significant interaction between MIC metadata fields and the FRBR generic tasks. The findings provide timely feedback for the MIC implementation specifically, and valuable suggestions to other similar metadata application settings in general. They also suggest the feasibility of using the four IFLA FRBR generic tasks as a framework for user-centered functional metadata evaluations. [source]

    Estimating Amino Acid Requirement of Brazilian Freshwater Fish from Muscle Amino Acid Profile

    ÁLvaro José De Almeida Bicudo
    Information on nutritional requirement of some Brazilian farmed fish species, especially essential amino acids (EAA) requirements, is scarce. The estimation of amino acids requirements based on amino acid composition of fish is a fast and reliable alternative. Matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus, and curimbata, Prochilodus lineatus, are two important Brazilian fish with potential for aquaculture. The objective of the present study was to estimate amino acid requirements of these species and analyze similarities among amino acid composition of different fish species by cluster analysis. To estimate amino acid requirement, the following formula was used: amino acid requirement = [(amount of an individual amino acid in fish muscle tissue) × (average totalEAA requirement among channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio)]/(average fish muscle totalEAA). Most values found lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, in exception of leucine requirement estimated for both species, and arginine requirement estimated for matrinxa alone. Rather than writing off the need for regular dose,response assays under the ideal protein concept to determine EAA requirements of curimbata and matrinxa, results set solid base for the study of tropical species dietary amino acids requirements. [source]

    Reevaluation of the Dietary Protein Requirement of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Kangwoong Kim
    An experiment was conducted to determine the dietary protein requirement by different analysis methods and to study the effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed white fish meal and casein-based diets for 8 wk. After a 1-wk conditioning period, one of six isocaloric diets containing 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60% crude protein (CP) was fed to fish at approximately 4,5% of wet body weight on a dry matter basis to triplicate groups of 15 fish averaging 13.3 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD). After 8 wk of the feeding trial, weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) from fish fed 48% CP diet were similar to those from fish fed 42% and 54% CP diets, and were significantly higher than those from fish fed 30, 36 and 60% CP diets (P < 0.05). Fish fed 48 and 54% CP diets had a significant higher specific growth rate (SGR) than did fish fed 30 and 36% CP diets (P 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was inversely related to the dietary protein level. No significant differences existed in hematocrit (PCV) and survival rate among the dietary treatments. Broken-line model analysis indicated that the optimum dietary protein level could be 44.0 ± 3.0% for maximum WG in Japanese flounder. Polynomial regression analysis of the dose-response showed that maximum WG occurred at 50.2% (R2= 0.94) based on WG, and the second-order polynomial regression analysis with 95% confidence limits revealed that the range of minimum protein requirement was between 38.9% and 40.3% based on WG. Therefore, these findings suggest that the optimum dietary protein requirement for maximum growth of Japanese flounder is greater than 40%, but less than 44% CP in the fish meal and casein-based diets containing 17.0 kJ/g of energy. [source]

    Requirement of spermidine for developmental transitions in Aspergillus nidulans

    Yuan Jin
    Summary Deletion of the spermidine synthase gene in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans results in a strain, ,spdA, which requires spermidine for growth and accumulates putrescine as the sole polyamine. Vegetative growth but not sporulation or sterigmatocystin production is observed when ,spdA is grown on media supplemented with 0.05,0.10 mM exogenous spermidine. Supplementation of ,spdA with , 0.10 mM spermidine restores sterigmatocystin production and , 0.50 mM spermidine produces a phenotype with denser asexual spore production and decreased radial hyphal growth compared with the wild type. ,spdA spores germinate in unsupplemented media but germ tube growth ceases after 8 h upon which time the spores swell to approximately three times their normal diameter. Hyphal growth is resumed upon addition of 1.0 mM spermidine. Suppression of a G protein signalling pathway could not force asexual sporulation and sterigmatocystin production in ,spdA strains grown in media lacking spermidine but could force both processes in ,spdA strains supplemented with 0.05 mM spermidine. These results show that increasing levels of spermidine are required for the transitions from (i) germ tube to hyphal growth and (ii) hyphal growth to tissue differentiation and secondary metabolism. Suppression of G protein signalling can over-ride the spermidine requirement for the latter but not the former transition. [source]

    When is an Individual an Individual Versus a Member of a Group?

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 5 2006
    An Issue in the Application of the Dietary Reference Intakes
    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) present a new paradigm for the description of nutrient requirements. Tradition and the DRI reports themselves have created an erroneous impression that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is intended for use with individuals and the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is to be used with populations. Two recent IOM committee reports (one on nutrition labeling and one on Women, Infants and Children [WIC] food packages) challenge that interpretation, revealing the critical issues surrounding individuals versus groups or populations. The present paper examines the issues and concludes that the median requirement and Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) are the critical reference values for both individuals and populations. The RDA is both unneeded and lacking a sound scientific basis. [source]