Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Reproduction

  • affect reproduction
  • asexual reproduction
  • assisted reproduction
  • avian reproduction
  • clonal reproduction
  • cultural reproduction
  • current reproduction
  • de reproduction
  • delayed reproduction
  • direct reproduction
  • early reproduction
  • female reproduction
  • first reproduction
  • fish reproduction
  • future reproduction
  • human reproduction
  • insect reproduction
  • male reproduction
  • parthenogenetic reproduction
  • plant reproduction
  • seasonal reproduction
  • sexual reproduction
  • social reproduction
  • successful reproduction
  • vegetative reproduction
  • worker reproduction

  • Terms modified by Reproduction

  • reproduction process
  • reproduction rate
  • reproduction techniques
  • reproduction technology
  • reproduction treatment

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2010
    Rafal Mostowy
    Host,parasite coevolution has been studied extensively in the context of the evolution of sex. Although hosts typically coevolve with several parasites, most studies considered one-host/one-parasite interactions. Here, we study population-genetic models in which hosts interact with two parasites. We find that host/multiple-parasite models differ nontrivially from host/single-parasite models. Selection for sex resulting from interactions with a single parasite is often outweighed by detrimental effects due to the interaction between parasites if coinfection affects the host more severely than expected based on single infections, and/or if double infections are more common than expected based on single infections. The resulting selection against sex is caused by strong linkage-disequilibria of constant sign that arise between host loci interacting with different parasites. In contrast, if coinfection affects hosts less severely than expected and double infections are less common than expected, selection for sex due to interactions with individual parasites can now be reinforced by additional rapid linkage-disequilibrium oscillations with changing sign. Thus, our findings indicate that the presence of an additional parasite can strongly affect the evolution of sex in ways that cannot be predicted from single-parasite models, and that thus host/multiparasite models are an important extension of the Red Queen Hypothesis. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2010
    Sofia Adolfsson
    Transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction are often coupled with elevations in ploidy. As a consequence, the importance of ploidy per se for the maintenance and spread of asexual populations is unclear. To examine the effects of ploidy and asexual reproduction as independent determinants of the success of asexual lineages, we sampled diploid sexual, diploid asexual, and triploid asexual Eucypris virens ostracods across a European wide range. Applying nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we found that E. virens consists of genetically highly differentiated diploid sexual populations, to the extent that these sexual clades could be considered as cryptic species. All sexual populations were found in southern Europe and North Africa and we found that both diploid asexual and triploid asexual lineages have originated multiple times from several sexual lineages. Therefore, the asexual lineages show a wide variety of genetic backgrounds and very strong population genetic structure across the wide geographic range. Finally, we found that triploid, but not diploid, asexual clones dominate habitats in northern Europe. The limited distribution of diploid asexual lineages, despite their shared ancestry with triploid asexual lineages, strongly suggests that the wider geographic distribution of triploids is due to elevated ploidy rather than to asexuality. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2008
    Stacey Lee Thompson
    Asexual reproduction has the potential to promote population structuring through matings between clones as well as through limited dispersal of related progeny. Here we present an application of three-gene identity coefficients that tests whether clonal reproduction promotes inbreeding and spatial relatedness within populations. With this method, the first two genes are sampled to estimate pairwise relatedness or inbreeding, whereas the third gene is sampled from either a clone or a sexually derived individual. If three-gene coefficients are significantly greater for clones than nonclones, then clonality contributes excessively to genetic structure. First, we describe an estimator of three-gene identity and briefly evaluate its properties. We then use this estimator to test the effect of clonality on the genetic structure within populations of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) using a molecular marker survey. Five microsatellite loci were genotyped for 485 trees sampled from nine populations. Our three-gene analyses show that clonal ramets promote inbreeding and spatial structure in most populations. Among-population correlations between clonal extent and genetic structure generally support these trends, yet with less statistical significance. Clones appear to contribute to genetic structure through the limited dispersal of offspring from replicated ramets of the same clonal genet, whereas this structure is likely maintained by mating among these relatives. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2003
    Abstract., Males of many insect species increase the fecundity and/or egg size of their mates through the amount or composition of their nuptial gifts or ejaculate. The genetic bases of such male effects on fecundity or egg size are generally unknown, and thus their ability to evolve remains speculative. Likewise, the genetic relationship between male and female investment into reproduction in dioecious species, which is expected to be positive if effects on fecundity are controlled by at least some of the same genes in males and females, is also unknown. Males of the seed beetle Stator limbatus contribute large ejaculates to females during mating, and the amount of donated ejaculate is positively correlated with male body mass. Females mated to large males lay more eggs in their lifetime than females mated to small males. We describe an experiment in which we quantify genetic variation in the number of eggs sired by males (mated to a single female) and found that a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance in the number of eggs sired by males was explained by their genotype. Additionally, the number of eggs sired by a male was highly positively genetically correlated with his body mass. The between-sex genetic correlation, that is, the genetic correlation between the number of eggs sired by males and the number of eggs laid by females, was highly positive when eggs were laid on Acacia greggii seeds. This indicates that males that sire many eggs have sisters that lay many eggs. Thus, some of the genes that control male ejaculate size (or some other fecundity-enhancing factor) when expressed in males appear to control fecundity when expressed in females. We found no significant interaction between male and female genotype on fecundity. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2000
    Donald B. Miles
    Abstract. A reduction in the locomotor capacity of gravid females is considered to be a cost of reproduction if it leads to an increased risk of mortality. In this study, we measured the change in endurance between gravid and postgravid female side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) as a test of the cost of reproduction. We also altered reproductive investment in some females by direct ovarian manipulation (yolkectomy), which decreased reproductive burden by 30%. Regardless of experimental treatment, all females had lower endurance when gravid. Endurance was 28% lower in gravid females from the yolkectomy treatment and 31% lower in the unmanipulated females relative to postoviposition females. The experimental reduction in clutch mass resulted in a 21% increase in endurance of gravid yolkectomy females relative to control females. Postovipositional endurance was significantly higher in the yolkectomized females than unmanipulated females, which suggests that the cost of reproduction carries over to postoviposition performance. Unmanipulated females exhibited a significant negative association between endurance and size-specific burden. Endurance was not correlated with clutch size or size-specific burden in the yolkectomy females. Survivorship to the second clutch was higher in the yolkectomy females. The results from a logistic regression showed the probability of survival to the second clutch was significantly and positively associated with endurance after controlling for the effects of treatment. Our analyses demonstrated that the decrement in performance associated with current reproductive investment represents a cost of reproduction expressed as diminished locomotor performance and lowered survivorship to the next clutch. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2000
    John M. Burke
    Abstract., The plant genera in which natural hybridization is most prevalent tend to be outcrossing perennials with some mechanism for clonal (i.e., asexual) reproduction. Although clonal reproduction in fertile, sexually reproducing hybrid populations could have important evolutionary consequences, little attention has been paid to quantifying this parameter in such populations. In the present study, we examined the frequency and spatial patterning of clonal reproduction in two Louisiana iris hybrid populations. Allozyme analysis of both populations revealed relatively high levels of genotypic diversity. However, a considerable amount of clonality was apparent. Nearly half of all genets (47%) in one population and more than half (61%) in the other had multiple ramets. Furthermore, both populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic structuring, a pattern that resulted from the aggregation of clonal ramets. The occurrence of clonal reproduction in hybrid populations could not only facilitate introgression through an increase in the number of flowering ramets per genet and/or the survivorship of early generation hybrids, but might also influence the mating system of such populations. Any potential increase in the selfing rate due to cross-pollination among ramets of the same genet may, in turn, increase the likelihood of homoploid hybrid speciation. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Carla Monteiro
    Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an invasive species that is firmly established on intertidal and subtidal rocky shores of Europe and the Pacific coast of North America. Local success and spread of S. muticum is thought to rely on its reproductive potential that seems dependent on exogenous factors like tidal and lunar cycles. This study is the first to compare the reproductive patterns (periodicity of egg expulsion and embryo settlement) of this invader in two different habitats: the middle and low intertidal. The combination of monthly, daily, and tidal samples at triplicate sites within each habitat showed a semilunar periodicity of egg expulsion and embryo settlement coincident with increasing tidal amplitude just before full and new moons. In both habitats, duration of each egg expulsion event was ,1 week, and embryo settlement occurred during the first daily low tide and with the incoming high tide during spring tides. However, both expulsion and settlement started 1,2 d earlier, expulsion saturation was faster, and settlement was higher in the mid- compared to the low intertidal. Our results suggest that the exact timing of gamete expulsion and embryo release of S. muticum responds to local factors, including tidal cues, which result in differences between mid- and low-intertidal habitats. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Victor A. Chepurnov
    Thalassiosira species are common components of marine planktonic communities worldwide and are used intensively as model experimental organisms. However, data on life cycles and sexuality within the genus are fragmentary. A clone of the cosmopolitan marine diatom Thalassiosira punctigera Cleve emend. Hasle was isolated from the North Sea and oogamous sexual reproduction was observed in culture. Cells approximately 45 ,m and smaller became sexualized. Oogonia were produced preferentially and spermatogenesis was infrequent. Unfertilized oogonia always aborted and their development was apparently arrested at prophase of meiosis I. Further progression through meiosis and auxospore formation occurred only after a sperm had penetrated into the oocyte. Many cells of the new large-celled generation (approximately 90,120 ,m in size) immediately became sexualized again but only oogonia were produced. A few of the large oogonia became auxospores and produced initial cells 132,153 ,m in diameter. The second step of auxosporulation probably involved fertilization of large-celled oocytes by the sperm of the small-celled spermatogonangia that were still present in the culture. An F1 clone obtained after selfing within the small-celled auxosporulation size range was investigated. Like the parent clone, the F1 clone was homothallic but no auxosporulation was observed: spermatogonangia were unable to produce viable sperm, apparently because of inbreeding depression. Aggregation and interaction of oogonia were documented, and may be relevant for understanding the mechanisms of signaling and recognition between sexualized cells and the evolution of sexuality in pennate diatoms. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Walter H. Adey
    Lithothamnion tophiforme (Esper) Unger is a dominant, arctic, saxicolous species that extends southward, albeit with reduced cover, into the deeper colder waters of the North Atlantic subarctic, where it also occurs in significant rhodolith deposits with L. glaciale. The external appearance of L. tophiforme is distinctive, but typification, anatomy, reproduction, ecology, and biogeography have not been previously analyzed. These topics are now addressed, with extensive use of SEM, in comparison with other North Atlantic arctic and subarctic melobesioid genera and species. The species considered in this article comprise 95% of the coralline biomass of the colder North Atlantic and adjacent arctic (i.e. less than 12° C summer and less than 0° C winter). In the outer thallus region of coralline algae, crust extension proceeds, calcification develops, surface sloughing and grazing occur, and reproductive structures are initiated. Analysis of the ultrastructure of the outer thallus region (epithallium, meristem, and perithallium) of L. tophiforme shows distinctive generic similarities and specific differences from the other Lithothamnion species discussed here. Considerable generic differences from the Clathromorpum and Leptophytum species also encountered in the region considered are highlighted as well. We discuss the functional and taxonomic implications of these distinguishing features and recommend that they be more widely considered in future research on coralline algae to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of the Corallinales. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    ET SP.
    Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta) is described for a minute endo/epiphyte that is commonly associated with members of the Liagoraceae ( Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Algae are discoid or subspherical and grow to a maximum diameter of 400 ,m. Attachment is via isolated elongate rhizoids that penetrate into the loosely filamentous structure of the host or by a pad of several coalesced rhizoids where the host has a more cohesive cortex. Elongate surface hairs are common. Gametophytes are dioecious, the spermatangia arising on surface cells, and carpogonia with elongate trichogynes borne directly on undifferentiated surface supporting cells. Large sporangia form on stalk cells across the upper surface of the plants, these appearing to be either monosporangial or the result of fertilization of the carpogonia and equivalent to undivided zygotosporangia. Carposporophytes and tetrasporangia are unknown. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that Pihiella constitutes a clade of long branch length most closely related to the Ahnfeltiales. The unique morphology and reproduction of Pihiella, combined with a substantial genetic divergence from the Ahnfeltiales, suggest that it is sufficiently distinct to warrant placement in a new family and order. We therefore describe the family Pihiellaceae and the order Pihiellales to accommodate the new genus. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    M. Elbrächter
    First page of article [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Victor A. Chepurnov
    Cell division, the mating system, and auxosporulation were studied in the marine epipelic diatom Seminavis cf. robusta Danielidis & D. G. Mann. The interphase protoplast contains two girdle-appressed chloroplasts, each with an elongate bar-like pyrenoid, and also a central nucleus, located in a bridge between two vacuoles. Before cell division, the chloroplasts divide transversely and translocate onto the valves. The nucleus relocates to the ventral side for mitosis. After cytokinesis and valve formation, the chloroplasts move back to the girdle, showing a constant clockwise movement relative to the epitheca of the daughter cell. Seminavis cf. robusta is dioecious, and sexual reproduction is possible once cells are less than 50 ,m. In crosses of compatible clones, gametangia pair laterally, without the formation of a copulation envelope, and produce two gametes apiece. The intensity of sexualization increases as cells reduce further in size below the 50-,m threshold. At plasmogamy, the gametangia dehisce fully and the gametes, which were morphologically and behaviorally isogamous, fuse in the space between the gametangial thecae. The auxospore forms a transverse and longitudinal perizonium. After expansion is complete, there is an unequal contraction of the protoplast within the perizonium, creating the asymmetrical shape of the vegetative cell. Apart from this last feature, almost all characteristics exhibited by the live cell and auxospores of Seminavis agree with what is found in Navicula sensu stricto, supporting the classification of both in the Naviculaceae. Haploid parthenogenesis and polyploid auxospores were found, lending support to the view that change in ploidy may be a significant mechanism in diatom evolution. [source]


    A TEST
    Abstract A long-term study of botos (inia geoffrensis) in the Brazilian Amazon permitted the comparison of survival and reproduction between 51 adults fitted with radio transmitters and an equal number that were captured and handled in the same way but released without a transmitter. For both sexes combined, 47 radio tagged botos (92.2%) survived at least three years after release compared with 42 (82.4%) without radios, equating to annual survival of 97.3% and 93.6% respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. Eight of 15 closely monitored radio tagged females were lactating at capture, and all their calves weaned successfully. Two that were pregnant at capture subsequently gave birth. The mean number of calves per year born to these 15 females after first release was 0.172 (SD = 0.107) and to 17 non-tagged was 0.174 (SD = 0.095), again a non-significant difference. These results indicate that the anchoring of packages to the dorsal fin of dolphins can be accomplished with no measurable impact on their subsequent survival or reproductive output. However, botos may be unusually robust to handling, and this study should not be used to justify using similar techniques on other species without customary caution, diligence, and expert guidance. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2008
    E. GOTTI
    The authors have completed structural and compositional analysis of Roman hydraulic concrete using large cores taken from a variety of maritime structures. In 2005 an 8 m3 block of hydraulic, pozzolanic concrete was built in the sea at Brindisi (Italy), applying the materials and procedures specified by the Roman architect Vitruvius. Cores were taken at 6 months and 12 months after construction and subjected to the same analyses as the first-century bc cores from pilae associated with the Villa of the Domitii Ahenobarbi at Santa Liberata. Results show that a slight variation on the Vitruvian formula yields results closest to the Roman material, and that substantial curing requires 12 months. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 2 2006
    The article examines replications of Greek monuments of cult in the fifth and fourth centuries bce. It considers the process which allows a grand statue to be copied and analyses specific cases of replications of Phidias's Athena ,Partnenos' to demonstrate how an image of the god, which was not easily viewable at any time, could become an iconic emblem that was embedded in daily experience outside the realm of ritual. In addition to the ,Parthenos', the paper explores a literary text of the fourth century bce, Xenophon's account of his establishment of a sanctuary to Ephesian Artemis. By visually marking the propagation of the cult itself, replications of cult monuments in ancient Greece could be instrumental for the establishment of filial cults and the creation of cultic affiliations, a phenomenon in Greek religion which was inextricably bound up with the politics of pre-Roman classical antiquity. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
    ABSTRACT The concept of ,intimate citizenship' stresses the right of people to choose how they organize their personal lives and claim identities. Support and interest groups are seen as playing an important role in the pursuit of recognition for these intimate choices, by elaborating visible and positive cultures that invade broader public spheres. Most studies on intimate citizenship take into consideration the exclusions these groups encounter when negotiating their differences with society at large. However, much less attention is paid to the ways in which these groups internalize the surrounding ideologies, identity categories and hierarchies that pervade society and constrain their recognition as full citizens. In contrast, this paper aims to emphasize the reproduction of otherness within alternative spheres of life, and to reveal the ambiguities and complexities involved in their dialectic relationship with society at large. To address this issue, the paper focuses on the role that ,adoption cultures' of Flemish adoptive parents with children from Ethiopia play in the pursuit of being recognized as ,proper' families and full citizens. The ethnographic research among adoptive parents and adoption professionals shows a defensive discourse and action that aims at empowering against potential problems, as well as a tendency to other the adoptive child by pathologizing its non-normativity. By showing the strong embeddedness of adoptive families' practices of familial and cultural construction in larger cultural frames of selfing and othering, characterized by biologism and nativism, one begins to understand the limits of their capacity to realize full citizenship. [source]

    Threatened Peripheral Populations in Context: Geographical Variation in Population Frequency and Size and Sexual Reproduction in a Clonal Woody Shrub

    especies en riesgo; límites de distribución; poblaciones periféricas; reproducción sexual; Vaccinium stamineum Abstract:,Geographically peripheral populations of widespread species are often the focus of conservation because they are locally rare within political jurisdictions. Yet the ecology and genetics of these populations are rarely evaluated in a broader geographic context. Most expectations concerning the ecology and evolution of peripheral populations derive from the abundant-center model, which predicts that peripheral populations should be less frequent, smaller, less dense, and have a lower reproductive rate than central populations. We tested these predictions and in doing so evaluated the conservation value of peripheral populations for the clonal shrub Vaccinium stamineum L. (Ericaceae, deerberry), which is listed as threatened in Canada. Based on 51 populations sampled from the center to the northern range limits over 2 years, population frequency and size declined toward the range limit, but ramet density increased. Sexual reproductive output varied widely among populations and between years, with many populations producing very few seeds, but did not decline toward range margins. In fact seed mass increased steadily toward range limit, and this was associated with faster germination and seedling growth, which may be adaptive in seasonal northern environments. Our results did not support the prediction that clonal reproduction is more prevalent in peripheral populations or that it contributed antagonistically to the wide variation in seed production. Peripheral populations of V. stamineum are as productive as central populations and may be locally adapted to northern environments. This emphasizes the importance of a broad geographical perspective for evaluating the ecology, evolution, and conservation of peripheral populations. Resumen:,Las poblaciones geográficamente periféricas de una especie de amplia distribución a menudo son el foco de conservación porque son raras localmente dentro de jurisdicciones políticas. Sin embargo, la ecología y genética de estas poblaciones son evaluadas poco frecuentemente en un contexto geográfico más amplio. La mayoría de las expectaciones relacionadas con la ecología y evolución de las poblaciones periféricas se derivan del modelo centro-abundante, que predice que las poblaciones periféricas son menos frecuentes, más pequeñas, menos densas y menor tasa reproductiva que poblaciones centrales. Probamos estas predicciones y al hacerlo evaluamos el valor de conservación de poblaciones periféricas de una especie de arbusto clonal (Vaccinium stamineum L., Ericaceae), que está enlistada como amenazada en Canadá. Con base en 51 poblaciones muestreadas del centro hacia los límites norteños de su distribución durante 2 años, la frecuencia y tamaño poblacional declinó hacia los límites de su distribución, pero la densidad de rametos aumentó. La reproducción sexual varió ampliamente entre las poblaciones y entre años, con muchas poblaciones produciendo muy pocas semillas, pero no declinó hacia los límites de su distribución. De hecho, la masa de semillas incrementó sostenidamente hacia los límites, y esto se asoció a una acelerada germinación y crecimiento de plántulas, lo cual puede ser adaptativo en ambientes norteños estacionales. Nuestros resultados no sustentaron la predicción de que la reproducción clonal es más prevaleciente en poblaciones periféricas o que contribuye antagónicamente a la amplia variación en la producción de semillas. Las poblaciones periféricas de V. stamineum son tan productivas como las poblaciones centrales y pueden estar adaptadas localmente a ambientes norteños. Esto enfatiza la importancia de una perspectiva geográfica amplia cuando se evalúa la ecología, evolución y conservación de poblaciones periféricas. [source]

    Reproduction in three species of rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae) from rainforest streams in northern Queensland, Australia

    B. J. Pusey
    Abstract , The reproductive biology of three species of rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae) in northeastern Australian rainforest streams was investigated. Two species, Melanotaenia eachamensis and Cairnsichthys rhombosomoides are endemic to the area, whereas the third, M. splendida splendida, is more widespread. The species were all highly fecund, producing many hundreds of eggs between 1.10 and 1.24 mm in diameter. Melanotaenia eachamensis was the most fecund, produced the largest eggs of the three species, and consequently exhibited the greatest maternal investment (as measured by gonadosomatic index). The majority of reproductive effort occurred during the dry season, although reproductively active fish were present year-round for each of the species, but particularly so for M. s. splendida and C. rhombosomoides. No evidence for a role by temperature or photoperiod as environmental cues for reproduction was found, and it was suggested that gonad development was strongly tied to somatic growth. The concentration of reproduction to the dry season ensures that larvae are produced during a period of relatively stable and benign physical conditions. Comparison of temporal changes in gonadosomatic index values suggest that the spawning season of M. eachamensis, which occurs in high-elevation streams, is more restricted and commences about 1 month earlier than either other species. A similar phenology was observed for the M. s. splendida population found at high elevation and highlights the potential for spatial differences in stream productivity to influence life history., [source]

    Reproduction and metabolism at , 10°C of bacteria isolated from Siberian permafrost

    Corien Bakermans
    Summary We report the isolation and properties of several species of bacteria from Siberian permafrost. Half of the isolates were spore-forming bacteria unable to grow or metabolize at subzero temperatures. Other Gram-positive isolates metabolized, but never exhibited any growth at , 10°C. One Gram-negative isolate metabolized and grew at , 10°C, with a measured doubling time of 39 days. Metabolic studies of several isolates suggested that as temperature decreased below + 4°C, the partitioning of energy changes with much more energy being used for cell maintenance as the temperature decreases. In addition, cells grown at , 10°C exhibited major morphological changes at the ultrastructural level. [source]

    Exposure of three generations of the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to the androgen, 17,-trenbolone: Effects on survival, development, and reproduction

    Geraldine M. Cripe
    Abstract Estimating long-term effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on a species is important to assessing the overall risk to the populations. The present study reports the results of a 42-week exposure of estuarine sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) to the androgen, 17,-trenbolone (Tb) conducted to determine if partial-(F0) or single-generation (F1) fish exposures identify multigenerational (F0,F3) effects of androgens on fish. Adult F0 fish were exposed to 0.007, 0.027, 0.13, 0.87,and 4.1,µg Tb/L, the F1 generation to ,0.87,µg Tb/L, the F2 fish to ,0.13,µg Tb/L, and the F3 fish to ,0.027,µg Tb/L. The highest concentrations with reproducing populations at the end of the F0, F1, and F2 generations were 4.1, 0.87, and 0.027,µg Tb/L, respectively. Reproduction in the F0, F1, and F2 generations was significantly reduced at 0.87, 0.027, and 0.027,µg Tb/L, respectively. Fish were significantly masculinized in the F1 generation exposed to 0.13 µg Tb/L or greater. Female plasma vitellogenin was significantly reduced in F0 fish exposed to ,0.87,µg Tb/L. Gonadosomatic indices of the F0 and F1 generations were significantly increased at 0.87 and 0.13 µg Tb/L in the F0 and F1 generation, respectively, and were accompanied by ovarian histological changes. Reproduction was the most consistently sensitive measure of androgen effects and, after a life-cycle exposure, the daily reproductive rate predicted concentrations affecting successive generations. The present study provides evidence that a multiple generation exposure of fish to some endocrine-disrupting chemicals can result in developmental and reproductive changes that have a much greater impact on the success of a species than was indicated from shorter term exposures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2079,2087. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Influence of soil type and organic matter content on the bioavailability, accumulation, and toxicity of ,-cypermethrin in the springtail Folsomia candida

    Bjarne Styrishave
    Abstract The influence of organic matter (OM) content on ,-cypermethrin porewater concentrations and springtail Folsomia candida accumulation was investigated in two soils with different levels of organic matter, a forest soil with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 5.0% (OM,=,11.5%) and an agricultural soil with a TOC content of 1.3% (OM,=,4.0%). Also, the effects of ,-cypermethrin concentrations in soil and pore water and the influence of soil aging on springtail reproduction were investigated. Springtail reproduction was severely affected by increasing ,-cypermethrin in soil with 1.3% TOC; the median effective concentration value (EC50) was estimated to 23.4,mg/kg (dry wt). Reproduction was only marginally affected in the soil with 5.0% TOC, and no EC50 value could be estimated. However, when expressing ,-cypermethrin accumulation as a function of soil ,-cypermethrin concentrations, no difference was found between the two soil types, and no additional ,-cypermethrin uptake was observed at soil concentrations above approximately 200,mg/kg (dry wt). By using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), it could be demonstrated that ,-cypermethrin porewater concentrations were higher in the soil with low organic matter (LOM) content than in the soil with high organic matter (HOM) content. Furthermore, a clear relationship was found between ,-cypermethrin concentrations in springtails and porewater. Soil aging was not found to exert any effect on ,-cypermethrin toxicity toward springtails. The study indicates that the springtail's accumulation of ,-cypermethrin and reproduction is governed by ,-cypermethrin porewater concentrations rather than the total ,-cypermethrin concentration in soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1084,1090. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Single- and two-species tests to study effects of the anthelmintics ivermectin and morantel and the coccidiostatic monensin on soil invertebrates

    John Jensen
    Abstract Soil invertebrates in arable land are potentially exposed to veterinary medicines excreted by husbandry. The toxicity of three widely used pharmaceuticals was therefore investigated with the use of common soil invertebrates exposed in the laboratory in single- or two-species test system. The anthelmintic morantel did not cause significant mortality to either Folsomia fimetaria or Enchytraeus crypticus even at the highest tested concentration of 900 mg kg,1 dry soil. The coccidiostatic monensin affected the reproduction of F. fimetaria and E. crypticus with soil concentrations estimated to cause a 10% effect at values of approximately 109 and 71.8 mg kg,1 dry soil, respectively, but caused no mortality to adult. The anthelmintic ivermectin did not affect the survival of adult Hypoaspis aculeifer. Reproduction of H. aculeifer declined approximately 45% in response to ivermectin exposure of 5 mg kg,1 dry soil. Ivermectin was highly toxic to F. fimetaria and affected the survival of adults with soil concentrations estimated to cause a 50% mortality at values of 5.3 mg kg,1 dry soil in the single-species test system and 0.14 mg kg,1 dry soil in the two-species test system. Reproduction of F. fimetaria was reduced by ivermectin with 10% effective concentration at 0.19 mg kg,1 dry soil in the single-species test system and 0.02 mg kg,1 dry soil in two-species test system. It was shown that species interactions may influence the response of test organisms to toxic substances. The data from this study and previously published data showed that, whereas ivermectin is likely to pose a risk to soil-dwelling invertebrates, adverse effects of morantel and monensin are unlikely to occur as a result of residue excretion from treated farm animals. [source]

    Wastewater treatment polymers identified as the toxic component of a diamond mine effluent

    Simone J. C. de Rosemond
    Abstract The EkatiÔ Diamond Mine, located approximately 300 km northeast of Yellowknife in Canada's Northwest Territories, uses mechanical crushing and washing processes to extract diamonds from kimberlite ore. The processing plant's effluent contains kimberlite ore particles (,0.5 mm), wastewater, and two wastewater treatment polymers, a cationic polydiallydimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) polymer and an anionic sodium acrylate polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer. A series of acute (48-h) and chronic (7-d) toxicity tests determined the processed kimberlite effluent (PKE) was chronically, but not acutely, toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Reproduction of C. dubia was inhibited significantly at concentrations as low as 12.5% PKE. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were initiated to identify the toxic component of PKE. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium thiosulfate, aeration, and solid phase extraction with C-18 manipulations failed to reduce PKE toxicity. Toxicity was reduced significantly by pH adjustments to pH 3 or 11 followed by filtration. Toxicity testing with C. dubia determined that the cationic DADMAC polymer had a 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.32 mg/L and 7-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.014 mg/L. The anionic PAM polymer had a 48-h LC50 of 218 mg/L. A weight-of-evidence approach, using the data obtained from the TIE, the polymer toxicity experiments, the estimated concentration of the cationic polymer in the kimberlite effluent, and the behavior of kimberlite minerals in pH-adjusted solutions provided sufficient evidence to identify the cationic DADMAC polymer as the toxic component of the diamond mine PKE. [source]

    Integrated condition indices as a measure of whole effluent toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Roel Smolders
    Abstract Toxic exposure of organisms interferes with organismal integrity at the biochemical level and ultimately gives rise to effects at the individual level. These effects may result in reductions in ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction, and survival. A chronic toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted where fish were exposed to 50, 75, and 100% effluent for 28 d under flow-through conditions. Effects of effluent exposure were determined using endpoints of physiological (respiration during swimming), growth (condition, length, and weight), and reproductive (spawning and hatching) processes within the same population. Results clearly indicate that the condition and growth of zebrafish is depressed by exposure to the effluent. Also, increased oxygen consumption was found after 14, 21, and 28 d of exposure. Reproduction proved to correlate well with the condition of the motherfish in the control, and spawning and hatching were significantly depressed by effluent exposure. These results indicate that the evaluation of endpoints describing different ecologically relevant processes provides a rational assessment of the cause,effect relationships of effluent toxicity. This approach can quantify effects on different biological processes and can determine the interactions that occur between these different processes. [source]

    Size-Related Advantages for Reproduction in a Slightly Dimorphic Raptor: Opposite Trends between the Sexes

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Fabrizio Sergio
    Despite many comparative analyses and more than 20 proposed hypotheses, there is still little consensus over the factors promoting the evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism (RSD) in raptorial species. Furthermore, intrapopulation studies, which may elucidate how RSD is maintained once evolved, have been surprisingly scarce and only focused on a handful of species with medium to high dimorphism. We examined the reproductive advantages associated with body size and condition, measured in the pre-laying period, in a diurnal raptor with low sexual dimorphism, the black kite (Milvus migrans). The study population was essentially monomorphic in size. For females, there was an evidence of reproductive benefits associated with larger size and/or with better body condition. Larger females had also access to higher quality partners and territories, consistent with the ,intrasexual selection' hypothesis, by which members of the larger sex enjoy size-related advantages in intrasexual competition over a scarce resource, the smaller sex. Opposite trends emerged for males: smaller, leaner males had higher breeding output, consistent with the ,small efficient male' hypothesis. Overall, the fact that we observed in an essentially monomorphic population the same selection pressures previously found in species with marked dimorphism suggests that such reproductive advantages may be counterbalanced in our study model by opposite selection pressures during other stages of the life cycle. This casts some doubts on the evolutionary significance of studies focusing exclusively on reproduction and calls for the need of more comprehensive analyses incorporating trait-mediated differentials in survival and recruitment. [source]

    The Effects of Experimentally Induced Polyandry on Female Reproduction in a Monandrous Mating System

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 8 2006
    Göran Arnqvist
    Females of most insect species maximize their fitness by mating more than once. Yet, some taxa are monandrous and there are two distinct scenarios for the maintenance of monandry. While males should always benefit from inducing permanent non-receptivity to further mating in their mate, this is not necessarily true for females. Since females benefit from remating in many species, cases of monandry may reflect successful male manipulation of female remating (i.e. sexual conflict). Alternatively, monandry may favor both mates, if females maximize their fitness by mating only once in their life. These two hypotheses for the maintenance of monandry make contrasting predictions with regards to the effects of remating on female fitness. Here, we present an experimental test of the above hypotheses, using the monandrous housefly (Musca domestica) as a model system. Our results showed that accessory seminal fluid substances that males transfer to females during copulation have a dual effect: they trigger female non-receptivity but also seem to have a nutritional effect that could potentially enhance female fitness. These results suggest that monandry is maintained in house flies despite potential benefits that females would gain by mating multiply. [source]

    Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates, Volume XI: Progress in Asexual Reproduction

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    Stephen M. Shuster
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Practice of War: Production, Reproduction, and Communication of Armed Violence.

    ETHOS, Issue 2 2009
    Aparna Rao, Michael Bollig, Monika Böck
    First page of article [source]

    Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity: how do pathogenic microorganisms develop cross-kingdom host jumps?

    Peter Van Baarlen
    Abstract It is common knowledge that pathogenic viruses can change hosts, with avian influenza, the HIV, and the causal agent of variant Creutzfeldt,Jacob encephalitis as well-known examples. Less well known, however, is that host jumps also occur with more complex pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. In extreme cases, these host jumps even cross kingdom of life barriers. A number of requirements need to be met to enable a microorganism to cross such kingdom barriers. Potential cross-kingdom pathogenic microorganisms must be able to come into close and frequent contact with potential hosts, and must be able to overcome or evade host defences. Reproduction on, in, or near the new host will ensure the transmission or release of successful genotypes. An unexpectedly high number of cross-kingdom host shifts of bacterial and fungal pathogens are described in the literature. Interestingly, the molecular mechanisms underlying these shifts show commonalities. The evolution of pathogenicity towards novel hosts may be based on traits that were originally developed to ensure survival in the microorganism's original habitat, including former hosts. [source]

    Aseasonality in the abundance and life history of an ecologically dominant freshwater crab in the Rift Valley, Kenya

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Summary 1. Freshwater crabs appear to show at least two alternative life history patterns, which differ in the timing of seasonal reproduction. Reproduction occurs during low flow among temperate lotic species, but during high water levels among wetland species. Crab biomass is often very high and both strategies would lead to spatial and temporal pulses in density and biomass. The life history and reproductive strategy adopted by tropical lotic species is poorly known, however, despite their importance in community and ecosystem dynamics. 2. In this study, we determined annual patterns of life history, density and biomass of a lotic freshwater crab in a small headwater stream in the East African highlands where it maintains high biomass. This crab is an as yet undescribed species of Potamonautes, here referred to as the Chinga crab. 3. Crabs were sampled non-destructively for 15 months using baited traps and benthic sampling with a Surber sampler. At the end of the study, an intensive hand search was carried out. Each method was biased towards different size classes of crabs and the efficiency of both long-term methods varied according to water levels in the stream. The intensive search was more effective than benthic sampling, but failed to record the large individuals caught by baited traps. 4. Population density and biomass remained constantly high throughout the study period. Reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of ovigerous females and small free-living juveniles, also showed no seasonality. As a consequence, the population size structure (size-frequency distribution) of crabs remained constant throughout the year. 5. The Chinga crab illustrates a third life history pattern, with no clear breeding season, and this may be common among tropical species. This is probably a consequence of the non-seasonal nature of its habitat: temperature varied little throughout the year and rainfall fluctuations were relatively small. This strategy allows the species to maintain high biomass without seasonal pulses and, perhaps, to dominate community and ecosystem processes. [source]