Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Representation

  • accurate representation
  • adequate representation
  • alternative representation
  • analytical representation
  • approximate representation
  • attachment representation
  • categorical representation
  • children representation
  • circuit representation
  • cognitive representation
  • compact representation
  • conceptual representation
  • cortical representation
  • cultural representation
  • democratic representation
  • diagrammatic representation
  • discrete representation
  • dominant representation
  • efficient representation
  • employee representation
  • equal representation
  • explicit representation
  • female representation
  • field representation
  • functional representation
  • good representation
  • graphic representation
  • graphical representation
  • group representation
  • hand representation
  • hierarchical representation
  • historical representation
  • illness representation
  • image representation
  • integral representation
  • interest representation
  • internal representation
  • irreducible representation
  • knowledge representation
  • literary representation
  • magnitude representation
  • maternal representation
  • mathematical representation
  • matrix representation
  • media representation
  • memory representation
  • mental representation
  • mixture representation
  • model representation
  • molecular representation
  • multiple representation
  • neural representation
  • novel representation
  • numerical representation
  • object representation
  • parsimonious representation
  • phonological representation
  • pictorial representation
  • political representation
  • poor representation
  • problem representation
  • process representation
  • proportional representation
  • schematic representation
  • series representation
  • social representation
  • space representation
  • spatial representation
  • species representation
  • statistical representation
  • stochastic representation
  • substantive representation
  • surface representation
  • textual representation
  • three-dimensional representation
  • tonotopic representation
  • vector representation
  • visual representation
  • women representation
  • worker representation

  • Terms modified by Representation

  • representation area
  • representation formula
  • representation scheme
  • representation system
  • representation theorem
  • representation theory
  • representation used

  • Selected Abstracts


    This article looks at disagreement within the Federal Reserve's monetary policy committee, the Federal Open Market Committee or FOMC, following a change in transparency practices taken in 1993 to publish verbatim transcripts of FOMC meetings. Other literature has examined the effects of opening the FOMC's deliberations to public view and provided empirical evidence that the publication of transcripts made policymakers less willing to voice disagreement with the chairman's policy proposal. This article adds to that work by examining whether regional variables are important to the analysis and whether the transcription effects are robust to the inclusion of regional variables. The results indicate that transcription effects are indeed robust, regardless of the regional indicator used, and that larger Federal Reserve districts may be more likely to voice agreement with a given policy proposal. (JEL E42, E58, E65, F33) [source]


    J. Ventre-Dominey
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2009
    LaShanda Taylor
    The article begins with a due process analysis concluding that children are legally entitled to counsel and continues by presenting examples of federal and state legislation, court decisions, and public policy arguments that support this right. The article then goes a step further to advocate for a traditional, client-directed model of representation, which empowers children and leads to better judicial decision making. Finally, the article discusses the impact of high caseloads and lack of training on attorney performance. This article serves as an important addition to the academic literature examining the need for and role of the child's attorney in dependency proceedings. [source]


    John J. Lawless
    The use of the Internet is growing at a staggering pace. One significant use of the Internet is for potential students and the parents of potential students to explore educational possibilities. Along these lines potential marriage and family therapy students may have many questions that include a program's commitment to cultural diversity. This study utilized qualitative content analysis methodology in combination with critical race theory to examine how Commission On Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE) accredited doctoral programs represented cultural text on their World Wide Web pages. Findings indicate that many COAMFTE-accredited doctoral programs re-present programmatic information about diversity that appear to be incongruent with cultural sensitivity. These apparent incongruities are highlighted by the codification, inconsistent, and isolated use of cultural text. In addition, cultural text related to social justice was absent. Implications and suggestions are discussed. [source]


    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2009
    Abstract: The emergence of cross-border communities and transnational associations requires new ways of thinking about the norms involved in democracy in a globalized world. Given the significance of human rights fulfillment, including social and economic rights, I argue here for giving weight to the claims of political communities while also recognizing the need for input by distant others into the decisions of global governance institutions that affect them. I develop two criteria for addressing the scope of democratization in transnational contexts,common activities and impact on basic human rights,and argue for their compatibility. I then consider some practical implications for institutional transformation and design, including new forms of transnational representation. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    This essay approaches the complex structure of the Christian's identity from the perspective of the crucifixion of Christ. Central to this approach are the concepts of recognition and representation, which are employed to clarify presuppositions of Christian identity that can be seen as theologically and philosophically prior to the doctrinal conceptions of reconciliation and atonement. The cross can be seen as a gift only if it is simultaneously conceived of as a possibility for receiving a new identity through the recognition of God both as the other represented and representing the human on the cross. On the basis of recognition and representation, implications concerning the more doctrinal formulation of Christology, anthropology and soteriology are spelled out. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2009
    The subject of Giovanni Bellini's St Francis, currently housed at the Frick Collection in New York, has perplexed viewers for more than five centuries. Scholars have suggested several possible texts, but none of these has been proven unequivocally to be Bellini's reference. Instead of proposing a new written source, this paper focuses on the formal aspects of the painting. It will thus appear that Bellini bent the representational conventions of his time to produce a work of pictorial intelligence. The formal quality of the Frick St Francis is assessed through an analysis of the laurel tree in the left of the painting. Overlooked by many, the tree is the key element of the Frick panel. It is the tree that justifies the variety of exegetical readings, exemplifying as it does a conflation of forms and an experienced handling of visual effects. [source]


    Article first published online: 16 MAR 200
    First page of article [source]

    Granularity in Relational Formalisms,With Application to Time and Space Representation

    Jérôme Euzenat
    Temporal and spatial phenomena can be seen at a more or less precise granularity, depending on the kind of perceivable details. As a consequence, the relationship between two objects may differ depending on the granularity considered. When merging representations of different granularity, this may raise problems. This paper presents general rules of granularity conversion in relation algebras. Granularity is considered independently of the specific relation algebra, by investigating operators for converting a representation from one granularity to another and presenting six constraints that they must satisfy. The constraints are shown to be independent and consistent and general results about the existence of such operators are provided. The constraints are used to generate the unique pairs of operators for converting qualitative temporal relationships (upward and downward) from one granularity to another. Then two fundamental constructors (product and weakening) are presented: they permit the generation of new qualitative systems (e.g. space algebra) from existing ones. They are shown to preserve most of the properties of granularity conversion operators. [source]

    Adaptive Logarithmic Mapping For Displaying High Contrast Scenes

    F. Drago
    We propose a fast, high quality tone mapping technique to display high contrast images on devices with limited dynamicrange of luminance values. The method is based on logarithmic compression of luminance values, imitatingthe human response to light. A bias power function is introduced to adaptively vary logarithmic bases, resultingin good preservation of details and contrast. To improve contrast in dark areas, changes to the gamma correctionprocedure are proposed. Our adaptive logarithmic mapping technique is capable of producing perceptually tunedimages with high dynamic content and works at interactive speed. We demonstrate a successful application of ourtone mapping technique with a high dynamic range video player enabling to adjust optimal viewing conditions forany kind of display while taking into account user preference concerning brightness, contrast compression, anddetail reproduction. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Image Processing and Computer Vision]: Image Representation [source]

    Multiresolution Surface Representation Based on Displacement Volumes

    Mario Botsch
    We propose a new representation for multiresolution models which uses volume elements enclosed between thedifferent resolution levels to encode the detail information. Keeping these displacement volumes locally constantduring a deformation of the base surface leads to a natural behaviour of the detail features. The correspondingreconstruction operator can be implemented efficiently by a hierarchical iterative relaxation scheme, providingclose to interactive response times for moderately complex models. Based on this representation we implement a multiresolution editing tool for irregular polygon meshes that allowsthe designer to freely edit the base surface of a multiresolution model without having to care about self-intersectionsin the respective detailed surface. We demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the reconstructionby several examples with real-world data. [source]

    Representation of Pseudo Inter-reflection and Transparency by Considering Characteristics of Human Vision

    H. Matsuoka
    We have succeeded in developing a quick and fully automated system that can generate photo-realistic 3D CG data based on a real object. A major factor in this success comes from our findings through psychophysical experiments that human observers do not have an accurate idea of what should be actually reflected as inter-reflections on the surface of an object. Taking advantage of this characteristic of human vision, we propose a new inter-reflection representation technique in which inter-reflections are simulated by allowing the same quantity of reflection components as there are in the background to pass through the object. Since inter-reflection and transparency are calculated by the same algorithm, our system can capture 3D CG data from various real objects having a strong inter-reflection, such as plastic and porcelain items or translucent glass and acrylic resin objects. The synthetic images from the 3D CG data generated with this pseudo inter-reflection and transparency look very natural. In addition, the 3D CG data and synthetic images are produced quickly at a lower cost. [source]

    Mapping the Feminist Imagination:From Redistribution to Recognition to Representation

    Nancy Fraser
    First page of article [source]

    Diagrammatic Representation in Geometry

    DIALECTICA, Issue 4 2006
    Dennis Potter
    In this paper I offer a theory about the nature of diagrammatic representation in geometry. On my view, diagrammatic representaiton differs from pictorial representation in that neither the resemblance between the diagram and its object nor the experience of such a resemblance plays an essential role. Instead, the diagrammatic representation is arises from the role the components of the diagram play in a diagramatic practice that allows us to draws inferences based on them about the ojbects they represent. [source]

    Ambiguity Aversion, Robustness, and the Variational Representation of Preferences

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 6 2006
    Fabio Maccheroni
    We characterize, in the Anscombe,Aumann framework, the preferences for which there are a utility functionu on outcomes and an ambiguity indexc on the set of probabilities on the states of the world such that, for all acts f and g, . The function u represents the decision maker's risk attitudes, while the index c captures his ambiguity attitudes. These preferences include the multiple priors preferences of Gilboa and Schmeidler and the multiplier preferences of Hansen and Sargent. This provides a rigorous decision-theoretic foundation for the latter model, which has been widely used in macroeconomics and finance. [source]

    From Representation to Emergence: Complexity's challenge to the epistemology of schooling

    Deborah Osberg
    Abstract In modern, Western societies the purpose of schooling is to ensure that school-goers acquire knowledge of pre-existing practices, events, entities and so on. The knowledge that is learned is then tested to see if the learner has acquired a correct or adequate understanding of it. For this reason, it can be argued that schooling is organised around a representational epistemology: one which holds that knowledge is an accurate representation of something that is separate from knowledge itself. Since the object of knowledge is assumed to exist separately from the knowledge itself, this epistemology can also be considered ,spatial.' In this paper we show how ideas from complexity have challenged the ,spatial epistemology' of representation and we explore possibilities for an alternative ,temporal' understanding of knowledge in its relationship to reality. In addition to complexity, our alternative takes its inspiration from Deweyan ,transactional realism' and deconstruction. We suggest that ,knowledge' and ,reality' should not be understood as separate systems which somehow have to be brought into alignment with each other, but that they are part of the same emerging complex system which is never fully ,present' in any (discrete) moment in time. This not only introduces the notion of time into our understanding of the relationship between knowledge and reality, but also points to the importance of acknowledging the role of the ,unrepresentable' or ,incalculable'. With this understanding knowledge reaches us not as something we receive but as a response, which brings forth new worlds because it necessarily adds something (which was not present anywhere before it appeared) to what came before. This understanding of knowledge suggests that the acquisition of curricular content should not be considered an end in itself. Rather, curricular content should be used to bring forth that which is incalculable from the perspective of the present. The epistemology of emergence therefore calls for a switch in focus for curricular thinking, away from questions about presentation and representation and towards questions about engagement and response. [source]

    Seeking a Place to Rest: Representation of Bounded Movement among Russian-Jewish Homecomers

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2002
    Edna Lomsky-Feder
    This study explores person-place relations in the context of the crisscross movement of Russian-Jewish immigrants (university students) who came to Israel in the early 1990s and who subsequently returned to their homeland on a visit. Readings of the immigrants' "visiting tales" uncovered a repertoire of five identity practices, each of which constitutes a different analytical type of person-place relation. Our analysis attests to the existence of a multiplicity of ways by which immigrants orient to the existence of place(s) and experience places while they re-constitute their relationship with both the old and the new country. Furthermore, it elucidates how they seek a place in which to rest rather than being constantly on the move. This article shows how national homecoming is a living metanarrative that regulates immigrants' relations to place even in the transnational era. It suggests that postmodern thought should be more attentive to the manner in which metanarratives (national, ethnic, ecological) produce identity practices that orchestrate movement in space and endow meaning to person-place relations. [source]

    Mapping responses to frequency sweeps and tones in the inferior colliculus of house mice

    Steffen R. Hage
    Abstract In auditory maps of the primary auditory cortex, neural response properties are arranged in a systematic way over the cortical surface. As in the visual system, such maps may play a critical role in the representation of sounds for perception and cognition. By recording from single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the mouse, we present the first evidence for spatial organizations of parameters of frequency sweeps (sweep speed, upward/downward sweep direction) and of whole-field tone response patterns together with a map of frequency tuning curve shape. The maps of sweep speed, tone response patterns and tuning curve shape are concentrically arranged on frequency band laminae of the ICC with the representation of slow speeds, build up response types and sharp tuning mainly in the centre of a lamina, and all (including high) speeds, phasic response types and broad tuning mainly in the periphery. Representation of sweep direction shows preferences for upward sweeps medially and laterally and downward sweeps mainly centrally in the ICC (either striped or concentric map). These maps are compatible with the idea of a gradient of decreasing inhibition from the centre to the periphery of the ICC and by gradients of intrinsic neuronal properties (onset or sustained responding). The maps in the inferior colliculus compare favourably with corresponding maps in the primary auditory cortex, and we show how the maps of sweep speed and direction selectivity of the primary auditory cortex could be derived from the here-found maps of the inferior colliculus. [source]

    Representation of accuracy in the dorsal premotor cortex

    Jose E. Gomez
    Abstract The endpoint accuracy of a reaching movement strongly affects kinematics, particularly during the final phases of movement. However, where and how accuracy is represented in the central nervous system remains unknown. In this study, the discharge of 150 neurons located primarily in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), were recorded from monkeys performing an instructed delay, centre-out reaching task in which movement direction and target size were systematically varied. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the dependence of movement kinematics and cell discharge on target direction, size and tangential velocity (i.e. speed). The speed and timing of the movement were dependent on both direction and target size. Initially direction was the dominant predictor whilst target size became more important as the hand reached the target. A temporal multiple linear regression analysis found significant correlations with target size in 99 of 150 cells. The discharge of 134 cells was directionally tuned and 83 cells modulated with mean speed. Significant correlations of discharge with target size occurred throughout the task as did correlations with direction. However, correlations with direction preferentially occurred early in the task, prior to movement onset, whilst correlations with target size tended to occur late, well after movement onset. This temporal dependency of the firing in relationship to target direction and size mirrored that observed for the kinematics. We conclude that the discharge of PMd cells is highly correlated with the accuracy requirement of the movement. The timing of the correlations suggest that accuracy information is available for the planning and for the on-line control of endpoint accuracy. [source]

    Stereotyping in the Representation of Narrative Texts Through Visual Reformulations

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Melina Porto MA
    Two hundred nineteen visual reformulations produced in response to three narrative texts about Christmas celebrations were analyzed (one in Spanish, the subjects' native tongue, and two in English as a foreign language). Subjects were Argentine college students (prospective teachers and translators of English, Caucasian, mostly female, middle-class) between 19 and 21 years of age enrolled in English Language II at the National University of La Plata in Argentina. Stereotypes in the visual reformulations were classified into two large groups: those corresponding to the native culture and those referring to the target (alien) culture. Stereotypes were further classified into three categories of reference: main characters (personality and/or physical appearance), the Christmas celebration itself, and the storyline. A selection of typical visual reformulations is analyzed here. In general, the visual reformulations did not sufficiently capture the cultural content of the texts and embodied a superficial approach plagued with stereotypes. The students' perceptions of otherness were limited to what was exotic or exciting and did not reflect genuine efforts to become familiar with what was strange. The study thus revealed the learners' inability to transcend their cultural biases and points to an urgent need to address stereotypes in the classroom. [source]

    A Pragmatic Response to an Unexpected Constraint: Problem Representation in a Complex Humanitarian Emergency

    Thomas Knecht
    This paper elaborates a model of problem representation first presented by Billings and Hermann (1998). The foreign policy process begins when decision-makers specify policy goals and identify relevant constraints in response to a perceived problem. Although this initial problem representation often sets the course for subsequent policy, unanticipated constraints can arise that catch decision makers off-guard. Finding themselves in a context they did not anticipate to be in, decision makers may choose to alter their representation of the problem and/or change the course of policy. Billings and Hermann offer one piece of this puzzle by examining how decision makers re-represent problems; this paper provides the second piece by assessing how policies, not representations, change in response to new constraints. A case study of the U.S. response to the Ethiopian famine in the mid 1980s demonstrates that policy does not always follow problem representation. [source]

    Problem Representation and Conflict Dynamics in the Middle East and Northern Ireland

    Donald A. Sylvan
    In an effort to explain conflictual and cooperative actions in the Middle East and Northern Ireland at a time (1995,1999) when international structural factors were relatively constant, this article focuses on cognitive factors. Specifically, statements of leaders representing multiple actors in the Israeli,Palestinian and Northern Ireland relationship are examined. Texts from these leaders serve as data for the independent variable, problem representation. Hypotheses argue that the existence and centrality of actor problem representations can help explain behavior, in a manner that adds to more widely used scholarly explanations. More specifically, the article explores the relationship among leaders' "problem representations" and conflict between the entities they lead. Problem representation is measured in three dimensions using Foreign Broadcast Information Service (World News Connection) texts: (1) centrality of enemy image, (2) how inclusive/exclusive the leader is in describing the in-group and principal outgroup, and (3) the key definition of the problem (coded in terms of three strategies: justice, governance, or threat). Conflict, the dependent variable, is measured in terms of KEDS-TABARI event data on deeds (not words) in the Israeli,Palestinian and Northern Ireland conflicts. Strikingly, the analysis finds that Israeli actions are strongly related to prior and current Palestinian leaders' problem representations, much more than they are to Israeli leaders' problem representations. Similarly, Palestinian actions are found to have a clear relationship with prior and current Israeli leaders' problem representations, much more than they are with Palestinian leaders' problem representations. These results are particularly strong when the problem representation is one of the overall political leadership on the "other" side. Additionally, in-group and out-group inclusivity are the most significant predictors of actions. For Northern Ireland, the same two themes prevail, although not as strongly: there is a clear statistical relationship between each side's problem representations and the other side's actions, stronger in fact than the relationship between their own side's representations and actions. Also, in-group and out-group inclusivity produce a strong statistical relationship with conflict and cooperation. Finally, results are compared with a "tit-for-tat" hypothesis, and found to embellish that hypothesis. [source]

    The Temperance Temple and Architectural Representation in Late Nineteenth-Century Chicago

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2005
    Paula Young Lee
    First page of article [source]

    Making it Work: Supporting Group Representation in a Liberal Democratic Organization

    Anne McBride
    Providing oppressed social groups with rights of representation is one suggestion for counteracting bias towards privileged groups in society. In order to counteract a bias towards their white, male, heterosexual, able-bodied membership, a number of trade unions have provided social groups with resources to self-organize and represent their group interests to mainstream decision-makers. However, enabling group representation at the same time as individual representation is problematic in trade unions that are organized along liberal democratic lines. This case study of UNISON shows that while the union supported the self-organization of oppressed social groups, these groups were excluded from matters affecting pay and working conditions. The article argues that this outcome reflects the difficulty of reconciling the representation of social groups with the representation of individuals in a liberal democratic organization. The implications of this organizational framework are illustrated by contrasting the organizing strategies of two women's self-organized groups. While one strategy (the organization of women shop stewards) fits the prevailing organizational structure, the other (the organization of all women) attempts to be different and may have more potential for counteracting the bias towards privileged groups in the future. The article argues that a radical organizational framework is required if oppressed social groups are to gain real power within trade unions. [source]

    Juggling Burdens of Representation: Black, Red, Gold and Turquoise

    Tom Cheesman
    ABSTRACT This essay suggests an alternative to the usual practice of categorising migrant writers by generation, in order to counter the teleological tendency in some recent commentaries on German-Turkish writing which celebrate the youngest writers as the most ,advanced'. Instead I put forward the idea that different writers (and writers at different stages in their careers) adopt different strategies in order to cope with the ,burden of representation' which is imposed on them as migrant/minority artists by the public. I survey German-Turkish novelists, outlining a tentative typology of such strategies. ,Axial writing' (directly thematising migrant experience) is the commonest, and has many sub-varieties, but the alternatives are just as interesting. [source]

    Hofmannsthal, Elektra and the Representation of Women'sBehaviour Through Myth

    Philip Marshall Ward
    In Elektra Hofmannsthal created a drama more of its time than he cared to admit, but he concealed this specificity in the ,eternal' materials of myth. The play came into being in response to the promptings of a director (Max Reinhardt) and an actress (Gertrud Eysoldt). Contemporaries received the play as a revision, either for good or bad, of accepted ideas of the Greeks. In a climate which identified a parallel between the ,cathartic' effect of Greek tragedy and the ,cathartic' treat-ment of hysteria in the new psychoanalysis, Elektra was readily understandable as an ,hysteric'. Hofmannsthal does not present her specifically as such but participates in a fin de siécle trend to use hysteria as a synecdoche for female behaviours which challenged the status quo. Hofmannsthal's own attitudes to women imply an anxiety about counter-cultural behaviour which, in Elektra, he mediates through two literary precedents: Sophocles's Electra and Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris. The article concludes by illustrating how Hofmannsthal constructs Elektra's behaviour as ,improper'. [source]

    How Likely is Proportional Representation in the House of Commons?

    Lessons from International Experience
    This article asks what international evidence suggests about the likelihood of major reform of the system used to elect the British House of Commons. It identifies four paths that have generated major electoral reform or come close to doing so in established democracies in recent decades and examines how likely each is to lead to reform in the UK. It argues that, on this evidence, reform in the UK is unlikely but not impossible. [source]

    Political Representation in Leader Democracy1

    András Körösényi
    The essay focuses on the neglected problem of democratic politics, i.e. on the role of leadership. Although in democracies public office holders are controlled to a certain extent, leaders still have wide room for political manoeuvre and decide without any ,instruction' of the citizens. Re-working Weber's and Schumpeter's theory, the author aims to build the model of leader democracy. He highlights the major traits of it in a comparison with the deliberative and the aggregative,utilitarian concepts of democratic theory. The theory of leader democracy is applied to the problem of representation, which, in contrast to mechanical mirroring, gains a new, dynamic and qualitative meaning. [source]

    Representation of place by monkey hippocampal neurons in real and virtual translocation

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2003
    Etsuro Hori
    Abstract The hippocampal formation (HF) is hypothesized as a neuronal substrate of a cognitive map, which represents environmental spatial information by an ensemble of neural activity. However, the relationships between the hippocampal place cells and the cognitive map have not been clarified in monkeys. The present study was designed to investigate how activity patterns of place-selective neurons encode spatial relationships of various environmental stimuli; to do this, we used multidimensional scaling (MDS) for hippocampal neuronal activity in the monkey during the performance of real and virtual translocation. Of 389 neurons recorded from the monkey HF and parahippocampal gyrus (PH), 166 had place fields that displayed increased activity in a specific area of an experimental field and/or on a monitor (place-selective neurons). The MDS transformed relationships among the 16 places in the experimental field and the monitor, expressed as correlation coefficients between all possible pairs of two places based on the 166 place-selective responses, into geometric relationships in a two-dimensional MDS space. In the real translocation tasks, the 16 places were distributed throughout the MDS space, and their relative positions were well correlated to real positions in the experimental laboratory. However, the correlation between the MDS space and real arrangements was significantly smaller in virtual than real translocation tasks. The present results strongly suggest that activity patterns of the HF and PH neurons represent spatial information and might provide a neurophysiological basis for a cognitive map. Hippocampus 2003;13:190,196. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    English Church Monuments in the Middle Ages: History and Representation , By Nigel Saul

    HISTORY, Issue 318 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]