Renal Transplant Recipients (renal + transplant_recipient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Renal Transplant Recipients

  • adult renal transplant recipient
  • long-term renal transplant recipient
  • pediatric renal transplant recipient

  • Selected Abstracts

    Allotransplantation of Cryopreserved Parathyroid Tissue for Severe Hypocalcemia in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    S. M. Flechner
    We report the successful allotransplantation of cryopreserved parathyroid tissue to reverse hypocalcemia in a kidney transplant recipient. A 36-year-old male received a second deceased donor kidney transplant, and 6 weeks later developed severe bilateral leg numbness and weakness, inability to walk, acute pain in the left knee and wrist tetany. His total calcium was 2.6 mg/dL and parathormone level 5 pg/mL (normal 10,60 pg/mL). He underwent allotransplantation of parathyroid tissue cryopreserved for 8 months into his left brachioradialis muscle. Immunosuppression included tacrolimus (target C0 10,12 ng/mL), mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Within 2 weeks, the left knee pain, leg weakness and numbness resolved, and by 1 month he could walk normally. After a peak at month 2, his parathyroid hormone (PTH) level fell to <10 pg/mL; therefore at month 3 he received a second parathyroid transplant from the same donor. Eight months later (11 months after initial graft) he has a total calcium of 9.3 mg/dL, PTH level 15 pg/mL and is clinically asymptomatic. The amount of parathyroid tissue needed to render a patient normocalcemic is not known. In our case, the need for second transplant suggests that the amount of tissue transferred for an allograft may need to be substantially greater than for an autograft. [source]

    Anti-Factor H Autoantibodies in a Fifth Renal Transplant Recipient with Atypical Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome

    M. Le Quintrec
    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) associated with anti-Factor H (anti-FH) autoantibodies is a recently described pathophysiological entity. Monitoring of anti-FH IgG titer may be a sensitive marker of disease activity and guide treatment to eliminate circulating anti-FH antibodies. We report here a case of atypical HUS (aHUS) in which anti-FH autoantibodies were detected during the course of a fifth kidney transplant, 30 years after the first flare of aHUS. This exceptional case suggests that early, specific management based on immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchanges monitored by anti-FH IgG titer may result in long-term graft survival. [source]

    Pleural Primary Effusion Lymphoma in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    N. C. V. Melo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Is Age Associated with the Number or Types of Medications Prescribed to Renal Transplant Recipients?

    Marie A. Chisholm PharmD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether age influences the number or types of medications prescribed to younger (aged 18,64) and elderly (aged ,65) renal transplant recipients 3 years posttransplant. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study involving renal transplant recipients. SETTING: Medical College of Georgia. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 100 elderly and 100 younger renal transplant recipients who received posttransplant care at the Medical College of Georgia, were on stable immunosuppressant therapy regimens, and were at least 3 years posttransplant. MEASUREMENTS: Medical and pharmacy data of recipients were evaluated for demographics; presence of a lipid-lowering agent; number of antihypertensives, immunosuppressants, antidiabetic agents, and total medications; number of rejections; dose per kilogram of immunosuppressant(s); infection-related hospitalizations; and measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, serum creatinine, serum tacrolimus/cyclosporine concentrations, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. RESULTS: Elderly recipients were more likely to have diabetes mellitus before the transplant and to develop diabetes mellitus afterwards (P=.04) and were prescribed more total medications (12.40±3.72 vs 10.25±4.07, P<.001) and antidiabetic agents (0.89±0.93 vs 0.42±0.77, P<.001) 3 years posttransplant than younger recipients. Elderly recipients also had fewer chronic rejections, more infection-related hospitalizations, lower diastolic blood pressure, and greater fasting blood glucose levels 3 years posttransplant (P<.05) than younger recipients. CONCLUSION: Future investigation should focus on deciphering the implications of the greater numbers of medications prescribed to elderly renal transplant recipients in terms of maximizing desired health outcomes (e.g., graft survival) and minimizing adverse drug-related experiences (e.g., infection). [source]

    Increased Incidence of Colorectal Malignancies in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Case Control Study

    J. M. Park
    This study was to evaluate the frequency of colorectal neoplasia in renal transplant recipients and to investigate the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We compared the frequency of colorectal neoplasia among renal transplant recipients with that of the healthy subjects. Specimens of colorectal neoplasia were examined for EBV and CMV using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Of 796 renal transplantation cohorts, 315 were enrolled. The frequency of colorectal neoplasia among the patients was 22.9%. Compared with the healthy subjects, the odds ratio (OR) for advanced adenoma was 3.32 (95% CI, 1.81,6.10). The frequency of cancer among the patients was 1.9% (OR, 12.0; 95% CI, 1.45,99.7). A long interval between transplantation and colonoscopy was a significant factor in the development of advanced colorectal neoplasia. EBV positivity was detected in 30.6% of colorectal neoplasia specimens from renal transplant recipients, which was higher than that for the controls (p = 0.002). CMV was not detected in any lesions of patients or controls. In conclusion, renal transplant recipients have a significantly increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia. EBV was more frequently found in specimens of advanced colorectal neoplasm obtained from the renal transplant recipients. [source]

    Fumagillin for Treatment of Intestinal Microsporidiosis in Renal Transplant Recipients

    L. Champion
    We report 10 cases of intestinal microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi in renal transplant (RT) recipients who were treated with fumagillin. All patients presented with afebrile subacute diarrhea (median of 2 weeks), associated with abdominal cramps (n = 5), and weight loss (n = 6), a mean of 68 months after RT. The diagnosis was made by the identification of microsporidial spores in stools with the use of appropriate staining and confirmed by a specific polymerase chain reaction assay for E. bieneusi in 7 patients. Median CD4 cell count was 292 cells/mm3. All patients received a median of 14 days of oral fumagillin (20 mg tid), and four patients also discontinued or tapered their immunosuppressive regimen (mycophenolate mofetil in 3, and azathioprine in 2). Clinical symptoms resolved rapidly with the clearance of microsporidial spores from stools in all patients. A severe but reversible thrombocytopenia was observed in one patient during fumagillin therapy, and another patient presented with abdominal cramps. Trough levels of tacrolimus measured in seven patients dropped below 5 ng/mL in six of them after 7,14 days of fumagillin. Intestinal microsporidiosis can cause subacute diarrhea in RT recipients. Fumagillin is an effective treatment with an acceptable safety profile, but monitoring of tacrolimus levels is warranted. [source]

    The Importance of Skin Cancer Prevention in Organ Transplant Patients An Editorial to Paper by Salgo: ,Switch to Sirolimus in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients: Reduced Premalignancies and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in a Controlled, Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study'

    C. Mitchell
    Renal transplant patients should be managed by dermatologists to prevent and manage skin cancer, a common cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant patients. See article by Salgo et al on page 1385. [source]

    Switch to a Sirolimus-Based Immunosuppression in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients: Reduced Rate of (Pre-)Malignancies and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in a Prospective, Randomized, Assessor-Blinded, Controlled Clinical Trial

    R. Salgo
    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have a 50,200-fold higher risk for nonmelanoma-skin cancer (NMSC) causing high rates of morbidity and sometimes mortality. Cohort-studies gave evidence that a sirolimus-based immunosuppression may inhibit skin tumor growth. This single-center, prospective, assessor-blinded, randomized trial investigated if switching to sirolimus treatment inhibits the progression of premalignancies and moreover how many new NMSC occur compared to continuation of the original immunosuppressive therapy. Forty-four RTR (mean age 59.9 years, mean duration of immunosuppression 229.5 months) with skin lesions were randomized to sirolimus or continuation of their original immunosuppression. Blinded dermatological assessment at month 6 and 12 by the same dermatologist evaluated the clinical change compared to baseline. Biopsy was performed in suspected malignancy. Already the 6-month-assessment showed significant superiority of sirolimus-therapy: a stop of progression, even regression of preexisting premalignancies (p < 0.0005). This effect was increased at month 12 (p < 0.0001). Nine patients developed histologically confirmed NMSC: one in the sirolimus group, eight in the control group, p = 0.0176. Sirolimus-based immunosuppression in RTR, even when established many years after transplantation, can delay the development of premalignancies, induce regression of preexisting lesions and decelerate the incidence of new NMSC. [source]

    A Phase III Study of Belatacept-based Immunosuppression Regimens versus Cyclosporine in Renal Transplant Recipients (BENEFIT Study)

    F. Vincenti
    Belatacept, a costimulation blocker, may preserve renal function and improve long-term outcomes versus calcineurin inhibitors in kidney transplantation. This Phase III study (Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression Trial) assessed a more intensive (MI) or less intensive (LI) regimen of belatacept versus cyclosporine in adults receiving a kidney transplant from living or standard criteria deceased donors. The coprimary endpoints at 12 months were patient/graft survival, a composite renal impairment endpoint (percent with a measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at Month 12 or a decrease in mGFR ,10 mL/min/1.73 m2 Month 3,Month 12) and the incidence of acute rejection. At Month 12, both belatacept regimens had similar patient/graft survival versus cyclosporine (MI: 95%, LI: 97% and cyclosporine: 93%), and were associated with superior renal function as measured by the composite renal impairment endpoint (MI: 55%; LI: 54% and cyclosporine: 78%; p , 0.001 MI or LI versus cyclosporine) and by the mGFR (65, 63 and 50 mL/min for MI, LI and cyclosporine; p , 0.001 MI or LI versus cyclosporine). Belatacept patients experienced a higher incidence (MI: 22%, LI: 17% and cyclosporine: 7%) and grade of acute rejection episodes. Safety was generally similar between groups, but posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was more common in the belatacept groups. Belatacept was associated with superior renal function and similar patient/graft survival versus cyclosporine at 1 year posttransplant, despite a higher rate of early acute rejection. [source]

    Azathioprine (AZA) or Mycophenolate in Renal Transplant Recipients?

    Claudio Ponticelli
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Thrombophilic Factors Do Not Predict Outcomes in Renal Transplant Recipients Under Prophylactic Acetylsalicylic Acid

    L. Ghisdal
    A cohort of recipients of renal transplant after 2000 (N = 310) was prospectively screened on the day of transplantation and 1 month later for a panel of 11 thrombophilic factors to assess their effect on posttransplant outcomes. All patients received prophylactic acetylsalicylic acid, started before transplantation. The rate of thromboembolic events or acute rejection episodes during the first posttransplant year (primary composite endpoint) was 16.7% among patients free of thrombophilic factor (N = 60) and 17.2% in those with ,1 thrombophilic factor (N = 250) (p > 0.99). The incidence of the primary endpoint was similar among patients free of thrombophilic factors and those with ,2 (N = 135), or ,3 (N = 53) factors (16.3% and 15.1% respectively; p = 1) and in patients who remained thrombophilic at 1 month (15.7%; p = 0.84). None of the individual thrombophilic factor present at the day of transplantation was associated with the primary endpoint. The incidence of cardiovascular events at 1-year, serum creatinine at 1-year, 4-year actuarial graft and patient survival were not influenced by the presence of ,1 thrombophilic factor at baseline (p = NS). In conclusion, the presence of thrombophilic factors does not influence thromboembolic events, acute rejection, graft or patient survival in patients transplanted after 2000 and receiving prophylactic acetylsalicylic acid. [source]

    Markers of the Hepatic Component of the Metabolic Syndrome as Predictors of Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients

    D. M. Zelle
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is highly prevalent in RTRs. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic component of MS. We investigated associations of NAFLD markers with MS and mortality. RTRs were investigated between 2001 and 2003. NAFLD markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were measured. Bone and nonbone fractions of AP were also determined. Death was recorded until August 2007. Six hundred and two RTRs were studied (age 52 ± 12 years, 55% men). At baseline 388 RTRs had MS. Prevalence of MS was positively associated with liver enzymes. During follow-up for 5.3[4.5,5.7] years, 95 recipients died (49 cardiovascular). In univariate Cox regression analyses, GGT (HR = 1.43[1.21,1.69], p < 0.001) and AP (HR = 1.34[1.11,1.63], p = 0.003) were associated with mortality, whereas ALT was not. Similar associations were found for cardiovascular mortality. Adjustment for potential confounders, including MS, diabetes and traditional risk factors did not materially change these associations. Results for nonbone AP mirrored that for total AP. ALT, GGT and AP are associated with MS. Of these three enzymes, GGT and AP are associated with mortality, independent of MS. These findings suggest that GGT and AP are independently related to mortality in RTRs. [source]

    Immunosuppressant Therapy Adherence and Graft Failure Among Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients

    M. A. Chisholm-Burns
    The study objective was to determine the association between immunosuppressant therapy (IST) adherence and graft failure among pediatric renal transplant recipients (RTRs) using data reported in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), which contains Medicare prescription claims. RTRs (,18 years) who received their only transplant during 1995,2000, experienced graft survival more than 6 months posttransplant, had 36 months of USRDS data (or had data until graft failure or death), utilized Medicare IST coverage, and were prescribed cyclosporine/tacrolimus were included. IST adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR). Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the relationship between time to graft failure and continuous MPR. MPR quartiles were used to examine MPR as a categorical variable (Quartile 4 = adherent group, Quartiles 1,3 = nonadherent group). Kaplan,Meier estimates of time to graft failure were compared between adherent and nonadherent groups. 877 RTRs met inclusion criteria. Cox proportional hazards modeling suggested that greater adherence was significantly associated with longer time to graft failure (p = 0.009), after adjusting for relevant clinical factors. Kaplan,Meier analysis found a difference between adherent and nonadherent groups in graft survival by time (,2= 5.68, p = 0.017). Interventions promoting adherence should be implemented among pediatric RTRs and parents/guardians to optimize graft survival. [source]

    Interstitial Fibrosis Quantification in Renal Transplant Recipients Randomized to Continue Cyclosporine or Convert to Sirolimus

    A. Servais
    Conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus at week 12 after kidney transplantation is associated with a significant improvement in renal function. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of this conversion on interstitial fibrosis (IF), a hallmark of chronic allograft injury, in patients taking part in the CONCEPT trial. This multicenter, prospective, trial included 193 renal recipients randomized at week 12 to switch from CsA to sirolimus or to continue CsA, with mycophenolate mofetil. Routine biopsy with automated, quantified assessment of IF by a program of color segmentation was performed at 1 year in 121 patients. At 1 year, renal function was significantly improved in the conversion group as assessed by estimated GFR (MDRD) and measured GFR. Biopsy results, however, showed no between-group difference in percentage of IF. Calculated GFR at 1 year was significantly associated with the percentage of IF (p = 0.004, R2= 0.07). By multivariate analysis diabetic patients had more fibrosis than non-diabetic patients. In conclusion, although kidney transplant patients converted from CsA to sirolimus showed significant improvement in renal function, we found no difference of IF on 1-year biopsies. [source]

    A Randomized, Double-Blind, Pharmacokinetic Study of Oral Maribavir with Tacrolimus in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients

    M. D. Pescovitz
    Maribavir is being developed as a novel agent for the prevention or treatment of cytomegalovirus infections after stem cell and organ transplantation. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction of concomitant administration of maribavir and tacrolimus. Twenty-five adult renal transplant recipients with stable renal function and stable dosing regimens of tacrolimus were randomized (20 maribavir 400 mg p.o. q12 h: 5 placebo). Tacrolimus whole blood concentration profiles were determined before and after 7 days of co-administration with maribavir. When co-administered with maribavir, tacrolimus mean Cmax increased 38%, tacrolimus trough concentrations (12 h post-dose) increased 57% and tacrolimus AUC(0-,) increased 51%. Apparent oral clearance of tacrolimus decreased 34% and Tmax was delayed by 0.5 h. There were no serious adverse events and no subject prematurely discontinued treatment. Because of the limited 7-day dosing course, the adverse event profile could not be adequately assessed. However, as seen with other maribavir studies, dysgeusia was common (90% of maribavir subjects and 20% of placebo subjects). In conclusion, co-administration of maribavir 400 mg twice daily increases exposure to tacrolimus. Routine therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus blood concentrations should be included both at initiation and completion of maribavir treatment. [source]

    AZA/Tacrolimus Is Associated with Similar Outcomes as MMF/Tacrolimus among Renal Transplant Recipients

    J. D. Schold
    There have been several retrospective studies indicating benefits associated with mycophenalate mofetil (MMF) compared to azathioprine (AZA) for renal transplant recipients. However, these analyses evaluated outcomes prior to changes in utilization patterns of concomitant immunosuppression. Recent prospective trials have indicated similar outcomes among patients treated with MMF and AZA. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes in a broad group of patients in the more recent era. We evaluated adult solitary renal transplant recipients from 1998 to 2006 with the national SRTR database. Primary outcomes were time to patient death and graft loss, complications and renal function. Models were adjusted for potential confounding factors, propensity scores and stratified between higher/lower risk transplants and concomitant immunosuppression. Adjusted models indicated a modest risk among AZA patients for graft loss (AHR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07,1.20); however, this was not apparent among AZA patients also treated with tacrolimus (AHR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.85,1.11]. One-year acute rejection rates were reduced for patients on MMF versus AZA (10 vs. 13%, p < 0.01); there were no statistically significant differences of malignancies, renal function or BK virus at 1 year. The primary findings suggest the association of MMF with improved outcomes may not be apparent in patients also receiving tacrolimus. [source]

    The Effect of Rosuvastatin on Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function in Nondiabetic Renal Transplant Recipients

    A. Sharif
    Interventions to attenuate abnormal glycemia posttransplantation are required. In addition, surrogate markers of declining glycemic control are valuable. Statins may have pleiotropic properties that attenuate abnormal glucose metabolism. We hypothesized statins would improve glucose metabolism and HbA1c would be advantageous as a surrogate for worsening glycemia. We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study in 20 nondiabetic renal transplant recipients at low risk for NODAT and compared effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion/sensitivity. Mathematical model analysis of an intravenous glucose tolerance test determined first-phase insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and disposition index. Second-phase insulin secretion was determined with a meal tolerance test. Biochemical/clinical parameters were also assessed. Rosuvastatin significantly improved total cholesterol (,30%, p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (,44%, p < 0.001) and triglycerides (,19%, p = 0.013). C-reactive protein decreased but failed to achieve statistical significance (,31%, p = 0.097). Rosuvastatin failed to influence any glycemic physiological parameter, although an inadequate timeframe to allow pleiotropic mechanisms to clinically manifest raises the possibility of a type II statistical error. On multivariate analysis, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) correlated with disposition index (R2= 0.201, p = 0.006), first-phase insulin secretion (R2= 0.106, p = 0.049) and insulin sensitivity (R2= 0.136, p = 0.029). Rosuvastatin fails to modify glucose metabolism in low-risk patients posttransplantation but HbA1c is a useful surrogate for declining glycemic control. [source]

    Predominant Th1 and Cytotoxic Phenotype in Biopsies from Renal Transplant Recipients with Transplant Glomerulopathy

    S. Homs
    Transplant glomerulopathy (TGP) appears to be a pathogenic feature of chronic antibody-mediated rejection, but the pathogenesis of this histologic entity is still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest the involvement of lymphocytes but the phenotypes of these cells have never been analyzed. Here, we report the first study of mRNAs for specific markers of CD4+ T cells including Th1 (T-bet and INF,), Th2 (IL4 and GATA3), Treg (Foxp3) and Th17 (IL-17 and ROR,t) subsets, cytotoxic CD8 T cells (Granzyme B) and B-cell markers (CD20) in renal biopsies from renal transplant recipients suffering interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) with or without TGP but with a similar inflammatory score and controls including transplant recipients with normal renal function. Only INF,, T-bet (both functionally defined markers of Th1 CD4 T cells) and granzyme B (a CD8 cytotoxic marker) were significantly more strongly expressed in patients with TGP than in patients without TGP and normal controls. These results indicate a role of an active T-mediated inflammatory and cytotoxic process in the pathogenesis of TGP. [source]

    The Effect of Sirolimus on Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Levels in Male Renal Transplant Recipients Without Prostate Cancer

    K. Chamie
    In kidney recipients, the immunosuppressant sirolimus has been associated with a decreased incidence of de novo posttransplant malignancies (including prostate cancer). But the effect of sirolimus on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood level, an important prostate cancer screening tool, remains unknown. We studied male kidney recipients >50 years old (transplanted from January 1994 to December 2006) without clinical evidence for prostate cancer. Pre- and posttransplant PSA levels were analyzed for 97 recipients (n = 19 on sirolimus, n = 78 on tacrolimus [control group]). Pretransplant PSA was similar for sirolimus versus tacrolimus recipients (mean, 1.8 versus 1.7 ng/mL, p = 0.89), but posttransplant PSA was significantly lower for recipients on sirolimus (mean, 0.9 versus 1.9 ng/mL, respectively, p < 0.001). The mean difference between pretransplant and posttransplant PSA was ,0.9 ng/mL (50.0%, p = 0.006) for the sirolimus group versus +0.2 ng/mL (+11.8%, p = 0.24) for the tacrolimus group. By multivariate analysis, only pretransplant PSA and immunosuppression with sirolimus independently impacted posttransplant PSA. Our data strongly suggest that sirolimus is associated with a significant PSA decrease in kidney recipients. Future studies must investigate the clinical implications of our findings for the use of PSA for prostate cancer screening in male kidney recipients on sirolimus. [source]

    Beta-Trace Protein-Based Equations for Calculation of GFR in Renal Transplant Recipients

    U. Pöge
    Recently, we showed that serum beta-trace protein (BTP) is an alternative marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We have now developed three BTP-based GFR formulae derived by multiple regression analyses from the patients who had participated in that study. Currently, we validated the diagnostic performance of these BTP-formulae in 102 consecutive RTR who underwent a technetium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance for GFR measurement in comparison to the re-expressed Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and a recently proposed BTP-based equation (referred to as ,White equation'). The best-performing BTP formula was found to be: GFR = 89.85 × BTP,0.5541× urea,0.3018. This equation estimated true GFR virtually without bias (+0.43 mL/min/1.73 m2, not significant [NS]), while a small, but significant, overestimation was seen for the MDRD formula (+3.43 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.003). Precision and accuracies within 50% of true GFR (93.1% and 88.2%, respectively) tended to be higher for the BTP formula, but the differences did not reach significance. The White equation overestimated the true GFR by 9.43 mL/min/1.73 m2(p = 0.001), and was inferior with respect to precision and 50% accuracy (79.4%). BTP-based GFR calculations are reliable, and may serve as an alternative to the re-expressed MDRD equation. [source]

    Plasma Concentrations of Mycophenolic Acid Acyl Glucuronide Are Not Associated with Diarrhea in Renal Transplant Recipients

    T. Heller
    The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma concentrations of the acyl (AcMPAG) and phenolic (MPAG) glucuronide metabolites of mycophenolic acid (MPA) were related to diarrhoea in renal transplant patients on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with cyclosporine (CsA) or tacrolimus (TCL). Blood samples (0, 30, 120 min) were taken at days 3, 10, week 4, months 3, 6 and 12 for determination of MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG. MPA-AUC was estimated using validated algorithms. Two hour AUCs were calculated for MPAG and AcMPAG. Immunosuppressive therapy consisted of CsA/MMF (n= 110) and of TCL/MMF (n= 180). In 70/290 (24%) patients 86 episodes of diarrhoea were recorded during 12 months. Significantly more patients on TCL (31.1%) suffered from diarrhea compared to CsA (12.7%). MMF dose, MPA-AUC and the 2 h AUCs of MPAG and AcMPAG did not differ between patients with and without diarrhoea. Plasma AcMPAG and MPAG concentrations were substantially higher in patients on CsA compared with TCL, while MPA-AUC was lower in the former group. These data support the concept that CsA inhibits the biliary excretion of MPAG and AcMPAG, thereby potentially reducing the risk of intestinal injury through enterohepatic recycling of MPA and its metabolites. [source]

    Sticky Platelet Syndrome: An Underrecognized Cause of Graft Dysfunction and Thromboembolic Complications in Renal Transplant Recipients

    A. S. Mühlfeld
    Sticky platelet syndrome (SPS) leads to hyperaggregabilty of platelets in response to physiologic stimuli. In this report we describe three patients with clinical symptoms of SPS after renal transplantation. The first patient developed an infarction of her transplant kidney with additional, subsequent renal microinfarctions. The second patient suffered multiple strokes and deep vein thrombosis with episodes of pulmonary embolism and ischemic bowel disease due to colonic microinfarctions. The third patient experienced a long episode of unexplained respiratory and graft dysfunction immediately after transplantation until therapy for SPS was initiated, at which point symptoms resolved quickly. Kidney transplant recipients with SPS may be at increased risk of developing thrombosis, given that most immunosuppressive drugs are known to induce either endothelial cell damage or augment platelet aggregation. All patients awaiting renal transplantation should be screened for a history of thrombosis and, if appropriate, tested for SPS. Affected patients should receive dose-adjusted acetylsalicylic acid. [source]

    BK Viral Loads and Immune Monitoring in Renal Transplant Recipients

    S. F. Lacey
    BK virus-specific T-cell responses in recipients of kidney transplantation are important for control of viral load and protection against polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, but the specific correlates of immune protection are still unclear. See also article by Binggeli et al in this issue on page 1131. [source]

    Immunogenicity of Pneumococcal Vaccine in Renal Transplant Recipients,Three Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial

    D. Kumar
    Routine pneumococcal vaccination is recommended at regular intervals posttransplant. However, there is limited data on durability of vaccine response and the impact of vaccine type on antibody persistence. We determined the durability of response for patients enrolled in a randomized trial of conjugate (PCV7) versus polysaccharide (PPV23) pneumococcal vaccination. Response was defined as a twofold increase from baseline and a titer ,0.35 ,g/mL using a pneumococcal ELISA for seven serotypes (measured at 8 weeks and 3 years). Forty-seven patients were evaluated and had received either PPV23 (n = 24) or PCV7 (n = 23). Response rates and geometric mean titers varied by serotype but declined significantly at 3-years for 6 of 7 serotypes (p < 0.001). No significant difference in durability was found in patients that had received PPV23 versus PCV7. Compared to the 8-week response, 20.6% fewer patients had a response to at least one serotype by 3 years. The largest relative declines were seen for serotype 4 (response dropped from 40.4% at 8 weeks to 17.0% at 3 years) and serotype 9V (44.7% dropping to 21.3%). The only factor predictive of response durability was a strong multiserotype initial response (p < 0.001). In conclusion, vaccine responses decline significantly by 3 years and conjugate vaccine does not improve the durability of response. [source]

    Following Anti-CD25 Treatment, A Functional CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T-Cell Pool Is Present in Renal Transplant Recipients

    E. Kreijveld
    Daclizumab, a humanized antibody directed against the ,-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25), has shown efficacy in the prevention of acute rejection following organ transplantation. However, anti-CD25 therapy can be expected to affect not only alloreactive effector T cells, but also CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells that are shown to play an important role in the induction of transplantation tolerance. Therefore, the size and function of the Treg pool in human renal allograft recipients after single-dose daclizumab administration was investigated in this study. Approximately 8 weeks after administration, daclizumab was cleared from the circulation and the Treg population then present appeared not different from that observed before transplantation. Functional analysis revealed that the Treg possessed a normal capacity to suppress mixed lymphocyte reactions in vitro. These data indicate that after daclizumab therapy a Treg population, normal in number and function, is present in the peripheral blood of renal transplant recipients. [source]

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Has Much to Offer in the Assessment of Renal Transplant Recipients

    P. B. Mark
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Thymoglobulin-Associated Cd4+ T-Cell Depletion and Infection Risk in HIV-Infected Renal Transplant Recipients

    J.T. Carter
    HIV-infected patients are increasingly referred for kidney transplantation, and may be at an increased risk for rejection. Treatment for rejection frequently includes thymoglobulin. We studied thymoglobulin's effect on CD4+ T-cell count, risk of infection and rejection reversal in 20 consecutive HIV-infected kidney recipients. All patients used antiretroviral therapy and opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine. Eleven patients received thymoglobulin (7 for rejection and 4 for delayed/slow graft function) while 9 did not. These two groups were similar in age, gender, race, donor characteristics and immunosuppression. Mean CD4+ T-cell counts remained stable in patients who did not receive thymoglobulin, but became profoundly suppressed in those who did, decreasing from 475 ± 192 to 9 ± 10 cells/,L (p < 0.001). Recovery time ranged from 3 weeks to 2 years despite effective HIV suppression. Although opportunistic infections were successfully suppressed, low CD4+ T-cell count was associated with increased risk of serious infections requiring hospitalization. Rejection reversed in 6 of 7 patients receiving thymoglobulin. We conclude that thymoglobulin reverses acute rejection in HIV-infected kidney recipients, but produces profound and long-lasting suppression of the CD4+ T-cell count associated with increased risk of infections requiring hospitalization. [source]

    Obesity is Associated with Worsening Cardiovascular Risk Factor Profiles and Proteinuria Progression in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Kirsten A. Armstrong
    Obesity is associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) parameters and may be involved in the pathogenesis of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We sought the spectrum of body mass index (BMI) and the relationships between BMI, CV parameters and allograft function in prevalent RTR. Data were collected at baseline and 2 years on 90 RTR (mean age 51 years, 53% male, median transplant duration 7 years), categorized by BMI (normal, BMI , 24.9 kg/m2; pre-obese, BMI 25,29.9 kg/m2; obese, BMI , 30 kg/m2). Proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate (eGFRMDRD) were determined. Nine percent RTR were obese pre-transplantation compared to 30% at baseline (p < 0.001) and follow-up (25 ± 2 months). As BMI increased, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and central obesity increased (12 vs 48 vs 85%, p < 0.001 and 3 vs 42 vs 96%, p < 0.001, respectively). Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipid parameters changed significantly with BMI category and over time. Proteinuria progression occurred in 65% obese RTR (23 (13,59 g/mol creatinine) to 59 (25,120 g/mol creatinine)). BMI was independently associated with proteinuria progression (ß 0.01, p = 0.008) but not with changing eGFRMDRD. In conclusion, obesity is common in RTR and is associated with worsening CV parameters and proteinuria progression. [source]

    Detection of Acute Tubulointerstitial Rejection by Proteomic Analysis of Urinary Samples in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Stefan Wittke
    This study investigates proteomic analysis of urinary samples as a non-invasive method to detect acute rejection of renal allografts. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) was used to analyze urinary samples in 19 patients with different grades of subclinical or clinical acute rejection (BANFF Ia to IIb), 10 patients with urinary tract infection and 29 patients without evidence of rejection or infection. A distinct urinary polypeptide pattern identified 16 out of 17 cases of acute tubolointerstitial rejection, but was absent in two cases of vascular rejection. Urinary tract infection resulted in a different polypeptide pattern that allowed to differentiate between infection and acute rejection in all cases. Potentially confounding variables such as acute tubular lesions, tubular atrophy, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, proteinuria, hematuria, allograft function and different immunosuppressive regimens did not interfere with test results. Blinded analysis of samples with and without rejection showed correct diagnosis by CE-MS in the majority of cases. Detection of acute rejection by CE-MS offers a promising non-invasive tool for the surveillance of renal allograft recipients. Further investigation is needed to establish polypeptide patterns in vascular rejection and to explore whether changes in the urinary proteome occur before the onset of histologically discernible rejection. [source]

    Pre-Transplant IFN-, ELISPOTs Are Associated with Post-Transplant Renal Function in African American Renal Transplant Recipients

    Joshua J. Augustine
    Final crossmatch testing is routinely used to assess the risk of antibody-mediated graft injury/rejection post-transplant. Analogously, we postulated that quantitative measurements of anti-donor effector/memory T cells pre-transplant would independently assess post-transplant risk. To address this hypothesis, we determined the frequencies of pre-transplant, donor-specific interferon-, (IFN-,) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spots (ELISPOTs) and correlated the results with post-transplant outcomes in 37 African American recipients of deceased donor kidney transplants treated with tacrolimus- and sirolimus-based immunosuppression. A positive ELISPOT test (>25 spots/300 000 cells) was detected in 14 (38%) of 37 patients. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection was 50% (7/14) in ELISPOT-positive versus 17% (4/23) in ELISPOT-negative patients (p = 0.036). Calculated glomerular filtration rate (MDRD) at 12 months was 37 ± 16 mL/min in ELISPOT-positive versus 55 ± 20 mL/min in ELISPOT-negative patients (p = 0.01). ELISPOT status remained a correlate of allograft function at 12 months by linear regression analysis (p = 0.001), independent of rejection and other contributing variables. Pre-transplant donor-directed IFN-, ELISPOT assessment of anti-donor cellular immunity may function as a ,cellular crossmatch' and independently correlates with renal allograft function in African Americans receiving tacrolimus- and sirolimus-based immunosuppression. [source]