Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Remedies

  • cold remedy
  • herbal remedy
  • potential remedy

  • Selected Abstracts


    To alleviate the negative effects of workplace unfairness and resulting conflict, organizations can take remedial action to atone for a perceived injustice. We argue that the effectiveness of organizational remedies may depend on the match between type of injustice perceived and type of remedy offered. Specifically, based on the multiple needs model of justice (Cropanzano, Byrne, Bobocel, & Rupp, 2001), we expect procedural injustice to be particularly associated with preference for instrumental remedies that address the need for control. On the other hand, interactional injustice should be particularly associated with preference for punitive remedies that address the need for meaning. Confirming this hypothesis, a field study involving recently terminated employees found that procedural injustice was positively associated with preference for an instrumental remedy (monetary compensation) and interactional injustice was positively associated with preference for a punitive remedy (disciplinary action against those involved in the termination). Further supporting the hypothesis, a laboratory experiment manipulating the unfairness of performance feedback found greater preference for an instrumental remedy relative to a punitive remedy following a procedural injustice than following an interactional injustice. In discussing these results, we present a taxonomy of organizational remedies as they relate to the multiple needs model of justice. Practical implications are discussed. [source]

    The Financial Crisis of 2007-2009: Causes and Remedies

    Viral Acharya
    First page of article [source]

    The New Men's History and the Peculiar Absence of Gendered Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2004
    Toby L. Ditz
    Historians with feminist commitments have expressed reservations about men's history and men's studies. This unease has existed more or less from the first appearance of men's history as a specialised area of inquiry, and shows no signs of abating. The first part of this article explores the sources of this unease. It discusses several guiding premises of men's history and shows that they tend to lead to the occlusion of men's gendered power over women. Nonetheless, the scrutiny of the gender of men is the logical outgrowth of several decades of theoretical and empirical work on gender,witness the many historians of women and gender who have recently turned their attention to the systematic study of manliness and masculinity. With the help of examples drawn from the scholarship on the history of the British colonies in America and the early United States, the second part of this article enumerates several strategies for successfully highlighting men's gendered power in histories of manliness and masculinity. [source]

    Nonreplication in Genetic Studies of Complex Diseases,Lessons Learned From Studies of Osteoporosis and Tentative Remedies,

    Hui Shen
    Abstract Inconsistent results have accumulated in genetic studies of complex diseases/traits over the past decade. Using osteoporosis as an example, we address major potential factors for the nonreplication results and propose some potential remedies. Over the past decade, numerous linkage and association studies have been performed to search for genes predisposing to complex human diseases. However, relatively little success has been achieved, and inconsistent results have accumulated. We argue that those nonreplication results are not unexpected, given the complicated nature of complex diseases and a number of confounding factors. In this article, based on our experience in genetic studies of osteoporosis, we discuss major potential factors for the inconsistent results and propose some potential remedies. We believe that one of the main reasons for this lack of reproducibility is overinterpretation of nominally significant results from studies with insufficient statistical power. We indicate that the power of a study is not only influenced by the sample size, but also by genetic heterogeneity, the extent and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the markers tested and the causal variants, and the allele frequency differences between them. We also discuss the effects of other confounding factors, including population stratification, phenotype difference, genotype and phenotype quality control, multiple testing, and genuine biological differences. In addition, we note that with low statistical power, even a "replicated" finding is still likely to be a false positive. We believe that with rigorous control of study design and interpretation of different outcomes, inconsistency will be largely reduced, and the chances of successfully revealing genetic components of complex diseases will be greatly improved. [source]

    Women's Decision Making About the Use of Hormonal and Nonhormonal Remedies for the Menopausal Transition

    Rosemary Theroux
    Objective: To critically review qualitative research on women's decision making about the use of hormonal and nonhormonal remedies for the menopausal transition. Data Sources: Computerized searches in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Medscape, and PsychINFO databases, using the keywords decision making, hormone therapy, herbal remedies, attitude toward hormone therapy, and qualitative research; and ancestral bibliographies. Study Selection: Articles from indexed journals from 1982 to 2001 in the English language relevant to the keywords were evaluated. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Data Extraction: Study findings were organized into several categories and compared and contrasted across publications and categories. Data Synthesis: Half of the researchers described decision making as a weighing of benefits and risks. Women's considerations, beliefs, and values, as well as interaction with the environment, were primary influences on the process. Conclusions: Major gaps in care for midlife women were identified. Women need information about the process of menopause and the range of available options for menopause management. Nurses can play a major role in providing information, counseling, and developing decision aids. Women's values and beliefs, cultures, life contexts, and desire for involvement in the decision should guide interventions. [source]

    Monetary remedies in public law , misdiagnosis and misprescription

    LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2006
    Roderick Bagshaw
    This paper argues that the Law Commission's discussion paper Monetary Remedies in Public Law was vitiated by three flaws prevalent in the critical literature that it surveyed. The first, and most significant, flaw is a tendency to proceed by dislocating legal rules from their context then comparing them as abstract verbal formulae. This is made apparent through a comparison between unreasonableness in the tort of negligence and Wednesbury unreasonableness. The second flaw is the presentation of evaluative conclusions without a sufficient defence of the criteria used to reach them. The third flaw is the adoption of an unhelpfully static perspective as to the purpose of public-law liability rules, which neglects the positive role that they play in structuring good public decision making. The paper concludes by providing a sketch for the design of a research project which transcends these flaws. [source]

    Remedies and Alternative Contracts

    Benjamin Alarie
    First page of article [source]

    Wisconsin's Budget Deficit: Size, Causes, Remedies, and Consequences

    James K. Conant
    Wisconsin's lawmakers increased spending and cut taxes during the 1990s. Then, in January of 2001, they faced an estimated $2.4 billion budget gap or deficit for the FY 2001,2003 biennium. They cut spending and generated additional revenue by borrowing against future tobacco settlement income. Still, by January of 2002, the estimated deficit had grown by an additional $1.3 billion, and more cutting and borrowing took place. Despite these actions, a $3.5 billion deficit was projected for FY 2003,2005. In this study, the causes of the deficit, the "remedies" selected, and their effects are examined. "Lessons" highlighted by Wisconsin's experience include the risks associated with nonincremental policy making, the high costs of excessive political partisanship, and the corrosive effects of "fiscal brinksmanship." [source]

    Contemporary Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia: History, Causes and Remedies , By Adam J. Young

    John A. Tures

    Allegiance Effects in Assessment: Unresolved Questions, Potential Explanations, and Constructive Remedies

    Scott O. Lilienfeld
    The provocative results of Blair, Marcus, and Boccaccini (2008) suggest that the allegiance effect, previously suggested in psychotherapy outcome studies, may apply to studies of actuarial risk assessment. Despite this finding, the mechanisms of the effect, particularly in assessment research, are unknown and warrant further investigation. We discuss the file drawer effect, selective reporting, and "data massaging" as three potential explanations for allegiance effects in the assessment domain. Furthermore, we offer four suggestions for minimizing allegiance effects and their impact: routinely coding for allegiance in meta-analytic studies, operationalizing allegiance in multiple ways, encouraging collaborations among authors with differing allegiances, and creating study registries to track all dependent variables measured in studies. [source]

    Landscapes of the Law: Injury, Remedy, and Social Change in Thailand

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    David M. Engel
    Sociolegal theorists since Weber have postulated that state law operates by interacting with and responding to nonstate legal orders. This article, examining conceptions of injury and compensation in Thailand, analyzes two ways of mapping law onto the landscape. The first is associated with state law and legal institutions established at the turn of the twentieth century. The state legal system imagines space from the outside in, drawing a boundary line and applying law uniformly throughout the jurisdiction it has enclosed. A second type of mapping, which has been more familiar over the centuries to ordinary Thai people, imagines space from the inside out. Nonstate legal orders are associated with sacred centers and radiate outward, diminishing in intensity and effectiveness with distance. This article, based on extensive interviews with injured persons and other actors and observers in northern Thailand, examines the interconnections between these two ways of imagining the landscape of law. It suggests that recent transformations of Thai society have rendered ineffective the norms and procedures associated with the law of sacred centers. Consequently, state law no longer interacts with or responds to nonstate law and surprisingly plays a diminished role in the lives of ordinary people who suffer injuries. [source]

    Repurification: Rescue Rather Than Routine Remedy

    Bernhard J. Hering
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The coumarin herniarin as a sensitizer in German chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Compositae]

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2010
    Evy Paulsen
    Background: Although German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) is considered a weak sensitizer, recent studies have shown several possible non-sesquiterpene lactone allergens in tea (infusions) from the plant. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the results of patch testing with herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin), which is one of the possible coumarin allergens in chamomile. Patients/materials/methods: Between 1991 and 2009, selected patients with known or suspected Compositae contact allergy were patch tested with herniarin 1% petrolatum. Results: Among 36 patients tested, there was one positive and three doubtful positive reactions to herniarin. All 4 patients had a relevant contact allergy to German chamomile, whereas the majority of the remaining 32 patients had chamomile allergy of unknown relevance. Conclusions: The clinical results suggest that herniarin indeed is one of the non-sesquiterpene lactone sensitizers in German chamomile and that sensitization may occur through, for example, external use of chamomile tea or use of chamomile-containing topical herbal remedies. [source]

    Erythema multiforme-like generalized allergic contact dermatitis caused by Alpinia galanga

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2006
    Song Jen Hong
    This study reports a case of localized contact dermatitis and subsequently generalized erythema multiforme-like eruptions after topical application of herbal remedies. Patch tests showed there was an allergen in fresh and dried Alpinia galanga, which is also a popular spice in Southeast Asian cuisines. [source]

    Contact sensitization from Compositae-containing herbal remedies and cosmetics

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2002
    Evy Paulsen
    The Compositae (Asteraceae) family of plants is currently an important cause of allergic plant contact dermatitis in Europe. The family comprises some of the oldest and most valued medicinal plants, and the increasing popularity of herbal medicine and cosmetics may theoretically result in a growing number of Compositae sensitizations from these sources. According to the literature at least 15 species, including among others arnica (Arnica montana), German and Roman chamomile (Chamomilla recutita and Chamaemelum nobile), marigold (Calendula officinalis), Echinacea and elecampane (Inula helenium), have been suspected of sensitization or elicitation of Compositae dermatitis. Epidemiological data are available for 2 species only, arnica and German chamomile, the rest of the evidence being anecdotal. Based on this, sensitization seems to occur relatively frequently with a few species such as arnica and elecampane, and occurs rarely with the majority, especially the widely used German chamomile. Sesquiterpene lactones are the most important allergens, but there are a few cases of sensitization from a coumarin, a sesquiterpene alcohol and a thiophene. The risk of elicitation of dermatitis by using Compositae-containing products in Compositae-sensitive individuals is by-and-large unknown. [source]

    Hemangiomas: Evaluation and Treatment

    Scott M. Dinehart MD
    Background. Hemangiomas are common skin tumors of infancy that have undergone recent changes in nomenclature, methods of evaluation, and treatment. Objective. To review the nomenclature, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of common hemangiomas. Methods. A literature search was conducted utilizing MEDLINE and the Cochrane library databases. Text search words used were "hemangioma" and "infancy." The clinical experience of the authors was also used to formulate the review. Results. There have been many advances in nomenclature and therapeutic options for children with hemangiomas. Hemangiomas are proliferative tumors of infancy that should be distinguished from structural malformations, such as port-wine stains and lymphangiomas. Conclusion. Natural involution remains a viable treatment option for the majority of patients with uncomplicated hemangiomas. Excisional surgery, laser, and pharmacologic remedies are indicated for a subset of complicated hemangioma patients. [source]

    Alternative therapy in pruritus

    Larry E. Millikan
    ABSTRACT: Because of its multitude of origins, the symptom complex of pruritus has a plethora of purported remedies and few therapeutic indications. Very few topical and systemic FDA approved medications have the indication of pruritus. Specific therapy still awaits a better definition of the exact physiologic events in chronic pruritus. Hence most medications actually focus on the central nervous system,the peripheral receptors,and the lack of specific physiologic targets has inhibited pharmacologic development. The resulting gap has opened the door to a variety of alternative therapies. [source]

    Serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal medicines , a systematic review

    E. Ernst
    Objective: Psychiatric and neurological patients frequently try herbal medicines often under the assumption that they are safe. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a summary of recent data on severe psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal remedies. Method: Computerized literature searches were carried out to identify all reports of psychiatric and neurological adverse effects associated with herbal medicines. These data were subsequently extracted, validated and summarized in narrative and tabular form. Results: Numerous case reports comprise a diverse array of adverse events including cerebral arteritis, cerebral oedema, delirium, coma, confusion, encephalopathy, hallucinations, intracerebral haemorrhage, and other types of cerebrovascular accidents, movement disorders, mood disturbances, muscle weakness, paresthesiae and seizures. Several fatalities are on record. They are caused by improper use, toxicity of herbal ingredients, contamination and adulteration of preparations and herb/drug interactions. Conclusion: Herbal medicines can cause serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects. [source]

    Disaster management and mitigation: the telecommunications infrastructure

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2009
    Frédéric Patricelli
    Among the most typical consequences of disasters is the near or complete collapse of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructures (especially the distribution network,the ,last mile') and their concomitant unavailability to the rescuers and the higher echelons of mitigation teams. Even when such damage does not take place, the communications overload/congestion resulting from significantly elevated traffic generated by affected residents can be highly disturbing. The paper proposes innovative remedies to the telecommunications difficulties in disaster struck regions. The offered solutions are network-centric operations-cap able, and can be employed in management of disasters of any magnitude (local to national or international). Their implementation provide ground rescue teams (such as law enforcement, firemen, healthcare personnel, civilian authorities) with tactical connectivity among themselves, and, through the Next Generation Network backbone, ensure the essential bidirectional free flow of information and distribution of Actionable Knowledge among ground units, command/control centres, and civilian and military agencies participating in the rescue effort. [source]


    Scholars argue that violence will not occur in the presence of efficient property rights institutions. Empirical evidence from the Riverina district in New South Wales between 1855 and 1870 contradicts this claim. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of evidence to explain this apparent inconsistency. Violence was directed at upstream users who dammed rivers, preventing flow to downstream users. Evidence suggests violence was a form of social control referred to as self-help employed to enforce conventions of fairness. Dams were perceived as unfair because they reduced the distributive equity embodied in the common law of riparian rights that established water-use rules to allocate water between competing users. Violence in the form of dam destruction occurred primarily during drought years and was the preferred over common law remedies because of the lag time between seeking court intervention and obtaining a remedy. Coasean bargaining was not possible because of high transaction costs. The findings suggest that violence may occur in the presence of efficient property rights institutions if actors violate conventions of fairness. Violence may be more likely if property rights themselves embody these conventions. [source]

    Cooperative forms of governance: Problems of democratic accountability in complex environments

    Various schools of research in public policy (the literature on ,governance' and its continental counterparts) are converging to focus on the growth of policy styles based on cooperation and partnership in networks, instead of on vertical control by the state. This article focuses on issues of democratic accountability and responsiveness with these governance arrangements. It argues that until recently the legitimacy of governance networks was not at the forefront of theoretical developments, even though the ,democratic deficit' of governance is problematic both for normative and for pragmatic reasons. There is now increased sensitivity to this problem, but the remedies presented in the literature are unsatisfactory, and critiques of governance presuppose a somewhat idealised image of representative democracy in terms of accountability or responsiveness of decision-makers. They also fail to offer adequate solutions to some of the central legitimacy problems of policy-making in complex societies. [source]

    Transnationalism as a Motif in Family Stories

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2005
    Elizabeth Stone Ph.D.
    Family stories have long been recognized as a vehicle for assessing components of a family's emotional and social life, including the degree to which an immigrant family has been willing to assimilate. Transnationalism, defined as living in one or more cultures and maintaining connections to both, is now increasingly common. A qualitative study of family stories in the family of those who appear completely "American" suggests that an affiliation with one's home country is nevertheless detectable in the stories via motifs such as (1) positively connotated home remedies, (2) continuing denigration of home country "enemies," (3) extensive knowledge of the home country history and politics, (4) praise of endogamy and negative assessment of exogamy, (5) superiority of home country to America, and (6) beauty of home country. Furthermore, an awareness of which model,assimilationist or transnational,governs a family's experience may help clarify a clinician's understanding of a family's strengths, vulnerabilities, and mode of framing their cultural experiences. [source]

    The efficacy of herbal medicine , an overview

    Edzard Ernst
    Abstract Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. Even though several differences exist between herbal and conventional pharmacological treatments, herbal medicine can be tested for efficacy using conventional trial methodology. Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though the public is often misled to believe that all natural treatments are inherently safe, herbal medicines do carry risks. Ultimately, we need to know which herbal remedies do more harm than good for which condition. Because of the current popularity of herbal medicine, research in this area should be intensified. [source]

    Markedly attenuated acute and chronic pain responses in mice lacking adenylyl cyclase-5

    K.-S. Kim
    Chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain is often difficult to manage using conventional remedies. The underlying mechanisms and therapeutic strategies required for the management of chronic pain need to be urgently established. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger system has been implicated in the mechanism of nociception, and the inhibition of the cAMP pathway by blocking the activities of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A has been found to prevent chronic pain in animal models. However, little is known regarding which of the 10 known isoforms of AC are involved in nociceptive pathways. Therefore, we investigated the potential pronociceptive function of AC5 in nociception using recently developed AC5 knockout mice (AC5,/,). We found that AC5,/, mice show markedly attenuated pain-like responses in acute thermal and mechanical pain tests as compared with the wildtype control. Also, AC5,/, mice display hypoalgesic responses to inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous formalin injection into hindpaws, and to non-inflammatory and inflammatory visceral pain induced by injecting magnesium sulfate or acetic acid into the abdomen. Moreover, AC5,/, mice show strongly suppressed mechanical and thermal allodynia in two nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain models. These results suggest that AC5 is essential for acute and chronic pain, and that AC5 knockout mice provide a useful model for the evaluation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. [source]

    Funnel-and-Gate Performance in a Moderately Heterogeneous Flow Domain

    Lacrecia C. Bilbrey
    The funnel-and-gate ground water remediation technology (Starr and Cherry 1994) has received increased attention and application as an in situ alternative to the typical pump-and-treat system. Understanding the effects of heterogeneity on system performance can mean the difference between a successful remediation project and one that fails to meet its cleanup goals. In an attempt to characterize and quantify the effects of heterogeneity on funnel-and-gate system performance, a numerical modeling study of 15 simulated heterogeneous flow domains was conducted. Each realization was tested to determine if the predicted capture width met the capture width expected for a homogeneous flow domain with the same hulk properties. This study revealed that the capture width of the funnel-and-gate system varied significantly with the level of heterogeneity of the aquifer. Two possible remedies were investigated for bringing systems with less than acceptable capture widths to acceptable levels of performance. First, it was determined that enlarging the funnel and gate via a factor of safety applied to the design capture width could compensate for the capture width variation in the heterogeneous flow domains. In addition, it was shown that the use of a pumping well downstream of the funnel and gate could compensate for the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on the funnel-and-gate capture width. However, if a pumping well is placed downstream of the funnel and gate to control the hydraulic gradient through the gate, consideration should be given to the gate residence time in relation to the geochemistry of the contaminant removal or destruction process in the gate. [source]

    The State of Christendom: history, political thought and the Essex circle*

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 213 2008
    Alexandra Gajda
    The State of Christendom, published in 1657, is a forgotten Elizabethan treatise, and a significant but neglected work of late Elizabethan scholarship and political thought. It is argued that the treatise was authored by members of the circle of Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex in the mid fifteen-nineties, and that it reflects the political and scholarly concerns of Essex and his followers, especially Anthony Bacon, and their engagement with Catholic politics and polemic. The scholarly methodology of the author and the political arguments of the treatise are analysed, in particular the author's interest in tyranny and the remedies for the restraint of tyrants, which shed light on the contexts that shaped the discussion of political ideas in late Elizabethan England and the mental world of the Essex circle. [source]

    A parliament full of rats?

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 203 2006
    Piers Plowman, the Good Parliament of 137
    This article reconsiders the relationship between the Middle English poem Piers Plowman and the political events of the later fourteenth century. Its contention is that Piers Plowman articulates a profound sense of disappointment in the inability of the late medieval English parliament to rectify the woes of the kingdom. This disillusionment was generated not only by the reversal of the measures taken against the court in the Good Parliament of 1376, but also by a much broader context of failure by the crown to address the petitions presented in parliament by the political community. Ultimately, it was parliament's failure to deliver institutional remedies to these longstanding problems that set the conditions for the ,direct action' of the rebels in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. [source]

    The provincial social survey in Edwardian Britain

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 187 2002
    Mark Freeman
    This article examines three social surveys carried out in English provincial towns after Seebohm Rowntree's study of York and before A. L. Bowley's sample surveys of five towns. The authors emphasized specific local circumstances and suggested local voluntary and municipal remedies for the social problems they described. Their focus was on the community, and although informed by the discourses of ,national efficiency' that also lay behind Rowntree's researches, the solutions to the problems of juvenile life and casual labour that compromised national efficiency were to be found in local endeavour. Poverty was viewed in the context of its impact on the community rather than on the individual. [source]

    Catalposide, a compound isolated from Catalpa Ovata, attenuates induction of intestinal epithelial proinflammatory gene expression and reduces the severity of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice

    Sang-Wook Kim MD
    Abstract Certain irinoid-producing plants have been used as herbal anti-inflammatory remedies. Here we evaluated whether catalposide (CATP), a single compound isolated from irinoid-producing plant Catalpa ovata, has a potential for preventing or ameliorating diseases characterized by mucosal inflammation. Preliminary microarray-based gene expression test revealed that CATP, which alone did not significantly affect expression of any of the >8,000 genes analyzed, attenuated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,)-induced proinflammatory genes including interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells. Down-regulation of IL-8 mRNA accumulation was also reflected by the decreased IL-8 secretion in CATP-treated HT-29 cells. The signal transduction study revealed that CATP significantly attenuates TNF-,-mediated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Further, CATP reduced NF-,B-mediated transcriptional activation as well as I,-B, degradation. To establish the in vivo relevance of these findings, we examined whether CATP could affect intestinal inflammation in vivo using the mouse model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced inflammatory colitis. Intrarectal administration of CATP dramatically reduced the weight loss, colonic damage, and mucosal ulceration that characterize TNBS colitis. Moreover, CATP suppressed the expression of TNF-,, interleukin-1,, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 along with the inhibition of NF-, B p65 translocation into nucleus in TNBS colitis. Collectively, current results demonstrate that CATP may be an effective agent for the treatment of diseases characterized by mucosal inflammation. [source]

    Escalation and de-escalation of commitment: a commitment transformation analysis of an e-government project

    Gary Pan
    Abstract., This paper presents a commitment transformation framework for analysing the change in actors' commitment during the transition from escalation to de-escalation in information technology projects. De-escalation is potentially a more important issue than escalation because de-escalation provides remedies for the ills of escalation. Therefore, it is important to understand how stakeholders may bias facts in the direction of previously accepted beliefs and thus prevent an organization from de-escalating. Here, we adopt Lewin's change theory to examine the commitment transformation during the transition from escalation to de-escalation of an e-government project in a local council in the United Kingdom. By conceiving actors' commitment transformation as an ,unfreezing,changing,refreezing' process, researchers may develop a deeper understanding of how actors may give up previous failing course of action and accept an alternative course of action. Practitioners can also utilize the framework in post-mortem analyses of projects which have faced escalation to devise useful de-escalation strategies for future project development.1 [source]