Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Audience

  • diverse audience
  • intended audience
  • international audience
  • target audience
  • wide audience
  • wider audience

  • Terms modified by Audience

  • audience member
  • audience response

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effect of a Dummy Audience on Male,Male Interactions in Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta splendens

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Teresa L. Dzieweczynski
    Recent research on Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, and other taxa has demonstrated that an audience can cause males to alter their behavior in aggressive interactions. One factor not taken into account in these studies is how exactly the audience influences these interactions. It is possible that a live audience may interact with the subjects, creating an active communication network rather than a signaler,receiver dyad with a passive audience. Here, we used a dummy audience to control for information exchange between the audience and the interactants that might cause them to modify their behavior. Audience treatments included dummies of male and female B. splendens, a dummy cichlid, and a control condition with no audience present. The presence of a dummy audience did not influence male,male interactions. However, males spent the most time near the audience tank when the audience was a dummy of a B. splendens. This suggests that some factor other than the physical presence of the audience is responsible for the modification of behavior found in previous audience effect studies in Siamese fighting fish. However, we cannot rule out definitively that our dummy audience is viewed as unimportant by the opponents and, thus, ignored. Further research is necessary to determine which component of the audience is important for producing audience effects. [source]

    Finding an Audience for Clarel in Matthew Arnold's Essays in Criticism

    LEVIATHAN, Issue 1 2004

    Writing for an International Audience

    Karen D. Holl
    Authors submitting to Restoration Ecology and other international publishing venues need to give careful thought to framing their manuscripts to maximize the relevance of their message to an international audience. I discuss five questions that all authors should reflect upon in framing their papers. Namely, authors should consider which conclusions will be most relevant to an international audience, the scope of systems to which these conclusions apply, and the amount of data supporting these conclusions. Authors should also think about the breadth of the literature cited and the degree of replication of the study. Localized studies are critical to implementing ecological restoration, but all authors, regardless of their intended outlet, need to carefully consider their audience. To publish successfully in an international journal, such as Restoration Ecology, authors need to frame their results within a broad context. [source]

    Screening Messages Not Reaching Critical Audience, Study Finds

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reality TV: Audiences and popular factual television

    Richard Butsch
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Food Safety Education Using Music Parodies

    Carl K. Winter
    ABSTRACT:, Musical parodies of contemporary songs with their lyrics altered to address current food safety issues were incorporated into a variety of food safety educational programs and the effectiveness of the music was evaluated by semiquantitative and qualitative measures. Audiences receiving the music-enriched curricula included school foodservice supervisors, school foodservice managers, culinary arts instructors, culinary arts students, Family and Consumer Sciences teachers, and youth aged 8 to 12 y and studies were conducted in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Delaware. Among school foodservice supervisors, school foodservice managers, and culinary arts students, most participants were able to recall the main points of each song that was introduced in the curriculum. The culinary arts students were less likely to recall the main points of each song than were the other 2 groups, possibly because of the lack of prior knowledge of food safety practices as well as a lack of preference for the style of songs used. Family and Consumer Sciences teachers were enthusiastic about the use of the music but also identified potential barriers to the successful use of the music, due to the potential lack of appropriate audiovisual equipment, a lack of skills in using such equipment, and time constraints for the use of music in curricula due to the strong emphasis on end of year testing. Participants in the summer youth groups demonstrated significant increases between pre- and posttest examinations of safe food handling behaviors and most were able to quote lines or phrases from the songs. [source]

    Newly Imagined Audiences: Folkways' Gay and Lesbian Records

    Cindy Boucher

    You Keep Coming Back Like A Song: Adult Audiences, Taste Panics, and the Idea of the Standard

    Keir Keightley

    Newman and his Audiences: 1825,1845

    W. F. Mandle
    This article examines Newman's communication with others in a variety of modes. It suggests there was a deliberate underlying theme of preaching in whatever he did, not only from the pulpit, where his skills were famous, but in virtually all his other forms of discourse, from letter-writing to his setting up of the "retreat" at Littlemore. He used whatever means were available, including marketing and journalism as well as scholarly work, to bring a concept of public witness to his mission. His social life, as evidenced in his generally scrupulously kept appointments diaries, is analysed to demonstrate that it too was part of his holistic approach. The suggestion is that Newman was much more aggressive and publicly aware than is generally recognized and that he combined an intense personal internalizing with active public performance in a wide range of spheres. [source]

    Use of film for community conservation education in primate habitat countries

    Juliet H. Wright
    Abstract Wildlife films have become an integral part of broadcast schedules in developed countries. As charismatic mammals, primates are frequently the focus of the wildlife filmmaker's attention. Yet the people watching these films tend to be situated on different continents from the species concerned. Communities in primate habitat countries are unlikely to ever have the opportunity to gain such an insight into the species with which they share their environment and the threats these species face. Over recent years, an increasing number of filmmakers are realizing the importance of reaching local audiences through film for conservation purposes. Published research on the impact films can have on eliciting conservation action in developed or developing countries is minimal. The perceived power of wildlife films to change attitudes and behaviors is largely based on anecdotal evidence. This commentary highlights the on-going debate regarding the conservation impact of wildlife films, discusses the work of various NGOs that are using films for conservation purposes in habitat countries and makes recommendations with regards to the film type and situational context necessary to promote positive conservation behavior in communities. Bespoke conservation films convey a specific message to a specific audience at a particular point in time. If produced by trained local conservation educators, these films are likely to have the biggest impact. Films must be shown as a part of a conservation education program that incorporates other education materials and group discussion so that the desired conservation message can be clearly defined and reinforced. Audiences should not be made to feel disillusioned, depressed or vilified by the content of wildlife films. Rather films should increase support for conservation and empower people to act. Once enthusiasm for specific conservation actions has been created, practical assistance and follow-up support is necessary to ensure ideas are implemented. Am. J. Primatol. 72:462,466, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences , By Bernard Lightman

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 2 2010
    Edmund D. Potter
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Watching the Lord of the Rings: Tolkein's World Audiences

    Laurence Raw
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Interactive Graphics for Computer Adaptive Testing

    I. Cheng
    K.3.1 [Computer Milieux]: Computer and Education , Computer Uses in Education; I.3.8 [Computing Methodologies]: Computer Graphics , Application Abstract Interactive graphics are commonly used in games and have been shown to be successful in attracting the general audience. Instead of computer games, animations, cartoons, and videos being used only for entertainment, there is now an interest in using interactive graphics for ,innovative testing'. Rather than traditional pen-and-paper tests, audio, video and graphics are being conceived as alternative means for more effective testing in the future. In this paper, we review some examples of graphics item types for testing. As well, we outline how games can be used to interactively test concepts; discuss designing chemistry item types with interactive 3D graphics; suggest approaches for automatically adjusting difficulty level in interactive graphics based questions; and propose strategies for giving partial marks for incorrect answers. We study how to test different cognitive skills, such as music, using multimedia interfaces; and also evaluate the effectiveness of our model. Methods for estimating difficulty level of a mathematical item type using Item Response Theory (IRT) and a molecule construction item type using Graph Edit Distance are discussed. Evaluation of the graphics item types through extensive testing on some students is described. We also outline the application of using interactive graphics over cell phones. All of the graphics item types used in this paper are developed by members of our research group. [source]

    Teaching, Exploring, Learning,Developing Tutorials for In-Class Teaching and Self-Learning

    S. Beckhaus
    Abstract This paper presents an experience report on a novel approach for a course on intermediate and advanced computer graphics topics. The approach uses Teachlet Tutorials, a combination of traditional seminar,type teaching with interactive exploration of the content by the audience, plus development of self-contained tutorials on the topic. In addition to a presentation, an interactive software tool is developed by the students to assist the audience in learning and exploring the topic's details. This process is guided through set tasks. The resulting course material is developed for two different contexts: (a) for classroom presentation and (b) as an interactive, self-contained, self-learning tutorial. The overall approach results in a more thorough understanding of the topic both for the student teachers as well as for the class participants. In addition to detailing the Teachlet Tutorial approach, this paper presents our experiences implementing the approach in our Advanced Computer Graphics course and presents the resultant projects. Most of the final Teachlet Tutorials were surprisingly good and we had excellent feedback from the students on the approach and course. [source]

    Sensory, clinical and physiological factors in sensitive skin: a review

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2006
    Miranda A. Farage
    Certain individuals experience more intense and frequent adverse sensory effects than the normal population after topical use of personal care products, a phenomenon known in popular usage as sensitive skin. Consumer reports of sensitive skin are self-diagnosed and often not verifiable by objective signs of physical irritation. Companies who manufacture cosmetic and personal care products are challenged to provide safe products to an audience with tremendous differences in skin type, culture and habits. This review examines the still incomplete understanding of this phenomenon with respect to aetiology, diagnosis, appropriate testing methods, possible contributing host factors such as, sex, ethnicity, age, anatomical site, cultural and environmental factors, and the future directions needed for research. [source]

    Corporate social reporting for different audiences: the case of multinational corporations in Spain

    Ladislao Luna Sotorrío
    Abstract The objective of this research is twofold: first, to analyze descriptively the type of social information disclosed and the degree to which multinational corporations (MNCs) disclose it, and second, to empirically test whether there are differences in the reporting policy of this type of company according to the audience (global or local), and to discover the factors that explain these differences. A sample of 26 non-Spanish MNCs operating in Spain was selected from the Spanish Merco reputation index in the period 2004,2007. The results show that there are very significant differences in the degree of disclosure and the type of social information reported by MNCs for each audience, and that a company's visibility and resources, in this order, are relevant factors in explaining these differences. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Factors influencing the publication of social performance information: an Australian case study

    Tony McMurtrie
    Abstract Traditional research into the social responsibility information published by firms has concentrated on the information published in the annual report and has not considered closely the driving forces that have guided the identification and preparation of information that is to be included in that publication. This paper reports on a case study that has examined some of the internal factors that have driven the publication of social responsibility information, and shows that while the annual report is still a major publication medium the internet plays a very significant role in the dissemination of information. Factors that impact on the publication media and the content of the published information in these cases were seen to be the nature of the information system used, the intended audience and their perceived power, and the level of corporate conservatism that guided the companies' management. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Some benefits of dichotomization in psychiatric and criminological research

    Professor David P. Farrington PhD FBA
    Background The product-moment correlation r is widely used in criminology and psychiatry to measure strength of association. However, most criminological and psychiatric variables contravene its underlying assumptions. Aim To compare statistical measures of association based on dichotomous variables with the use of r. Method Explanatory variables for delinquency are investigated in the Pittsburgh Youth Study using a sample of 506 boys aged 13,14. Results Dichotomization does not necessarily cause a decrease in measured strength of associations. Conclusions about the most important explanatory variables for delinquency were not greatly affected by using dichotomous as opposed to continuous variables, by different dichotomization splits, or by using logistic versus OLS multiple regression. Non-linear relationships, interaction effects and multiple risk factor individuals were easily studied using dichotomous data. Conclusions Dichotomization produces meaningful findings that are easily understandable to a wide audience. Measures of association for dichotomous variables, such as the odds ratio, have many advantages and are often more realistic and meaningful measures of strength of relationship than the product-moment correlation r. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    ABSTRACT This essay considers the process of remediation in two North American reproductions of the song-and-dance sequence Jaan Pehechaan Ho from the 1965 "Bollywood" film Gumnaam. The song was used in the opening sequence of the 2001 U.S. independent film Ghost World as a familiar-but-strange object of ironic bewilderment and fantasy for its alienated teenage protagonist Enid. But a decade before Ghost World's release, Jaan Pehechaan Ho had already become the lynchpin of a complex debate about cultural appropriation and multicultural identity for an "alternative" audience in the United States. I illustrate this through an ethnographic analysis of a 1994 videotape of the Heavenly Ten Stems, an experimental rock band in San Francisco, whose performance of the song was disrupted by a group of activists who perceived their reproduction as a mockery. How is Bollywood film song, often itself a kitschy send-up of American popular culture, remediated differently for different projects of reception? How do these cycles of appropriation create overlapping conditions for new identities,whether national, diasporic, or "alternative",within the context of transcultural media consumption? In drawing out the "ghost world" of Bollywood's juxtapositions, I argue that the process of remediation produces more than just new forms and meanings of media, but is constitutive of the cosmopolitan subjects formed in its global circulations. [source]

    SPECTACLES OF SEXUALITY: Televisionary Activism in Nicaragua

    ABSTRACT This article develops the concept of "televisionary" activism,a mediated form of social justice messaging that attempts to transform culture. Focusing on a locally produced and very popular television show in Nicaragua, I consider how social justice knowledge is produced through television characters' scripting and performance. The ideological underpinnings aspire to a dialogic engagement with the audience, as producers aim to both generate public discourse and benefit from audiences' suggestions and active engagement. Several levels of media advocacy interventions are considered including the production, scripting, and translation of transnational material into local registers. Televisionary activism offers challenges to several conservative social values in Nicaragua by placing topics such as abortion, domestic violence, sexual abuse, homosexuality, and lesbianism very explicitly into the public sphere. At the same time, sexual subjects on the small screen must be framed in particular ways, as, for instance, with the homosexual subjects who are carefully coiffed in normalized human dramas. Finally, many of these televisionary tactics draw from and engage with transnational tropes of identity politics, and "gay" and "lesbian" subjectivity in particular, confounding the relationship between real and idealized sexual subjects in Nicaragua. That is, these televisionary tactics "market" transnational identity politics but derive legitimacy through their very "localness." [source]

    Writing the "Show,Me" Standards: Teacher Professionalism and Political Control in U.S. State Curriculum Policy

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2002
    Margaret Placier
    This qualitative case study analyzes the process of writing academic standards in one U.S. state, Missouri. The researchers took a critical pragmatic approach, which entailed close examination of the intentions and interactions of various participants in the writing process (teachers, politicians, business leaders, the public), in order to understand the text that was finally produced. School reform legislation delegated responsibility for writing the standards to a teacher work group, but the teachers found that their "professional" status and their intention to write standards that reflected a "constructivist" view of knowledge would meet with opposition. Politicians, who held different assumptions about the audience, organization, and content of the standards, exercised their greater power to control the outcome of the process. As the researchers analyzed public records and documents generated during the writing process, they constructed a chronological narrative detailing points of tension among political actors. From the narrative, they identified four conflicts that significantly influenced the final wording of the standards. They argue that as a consequence of these conflicts, Missouri's standards are characterized by a dichotomous view of content and process; bland, seemingly value,neutral language; and lack of specificity. Such conflicts and outcomes are not limited to this context. A comparative, international perspective shows that they seem to occur when groups in societies marked by political conflicts over education attempt to codify what "all students should know." [source]

    Two Faces of Social Media: Brand Communication and Brand Research

    Ralf Beuker
    The social web is not just a place to communicate about your brand,it's also a good place to facilitate brand research. But remember that knowing the attitudes and behavior of your target audience comes first. [source]

    Effect of a Dummy Audience on Male,Male Interactions in Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta splendens

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Teresa L. Dzieweczynski
    Recent research on Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, and other taxa has demonstrated that an audience can cause males to alter their behavior in aggressive interactions. One factor not taken into account in these studies is how exactly the audience influences these interactions. It is possible that a live audience may interact with the subjects, creating an active communication network rather than a signaler,receiver dyad with a passive audience. Here, we used a dummy audience to control for information exchange between the audience and the interactants that might cause them to modify their behavior. Audience treatments included dummies of male and female B. splendens, a dummy cichlid, and a control condition with no audience present. The presence of a dummy audience did not influence male,male interactions. However, males spent the most time near the audience tank when the audience was a dummy of a B. splendens. This suggests that some factor other than the physical presence of the audience is responsible for the modification of behavior found in previous audience effect studies in Siamese fighting fish. However, we cannot rule out definitively that our dummy audience is viewed as unimportant by the opponents and, thus, ignored. Further research is necessary to determine which component of the audience is important for producing audience effects. [source]

    Talking about others: Emotionality and the dissemination of social information

    Kim Peters
    There is evidence that we may be more likely to share stories about other people to the extent that they arouse emotion. If so, this emotional social talk may have important social consequences, providing the basis for many of our social beliefs and mobilising people to engage or disengage with the targets of the talk. Across three studies, we tested the situated communicability of emotional social information by examining if the ability of emotionality to increase communicability would depend on the emotion that was aroused and the identity of the audience. Study 1 showed that participants were more willing to share social anecdotes that aroused interest, surprise, disgust and happiness with an unspecified audience. Study 2 provided a behavioural replication of these findings. Study 3 showed that the communicability of emotional social talk did vary with audience identity (friend or stranger). Together, these findings suggest that emotional social events (particularly those that arouse disgust and happiness) are likely to become part of a society's social beliefs, with important consequences for the structure of social relationships. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Social identity and the attitude,behaviour relationship: effects of anonymity and accountability

    Joanne R. Smith
    Two experiments examined the impact of anonymity and accountability on the expression of group-mediated attitude-behaviour consistency. In Study 1, low and high identifiers (N,=,106) were exposed to an attitude-congruent norm and provided information about their intentions under anonymous and in-group accountable conditions. In Study 2, salience of identity was manipulated, and participants (N,=,185) were exposed to either an attitude-congruent or an attitude-incongruent norm, and provided information on their intentions and behaviour under anonymous and in-group accountable conditions. In both studies, accountability elicited group-normative attitudes and behaviour among individuals for whom the group was not a salient basis for self-definition. When the group was a salient basis for self-definition, the expression of attitude-consistent intentions and behaviour was greater in anonymous conditions. It is suggested that strategic effects, such as those that occur in the presence of an in-group audience, influence displays of group-normative attitude,behaviour consistency. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taking the edge off of disagreement: linguistic abstractness and self-presentation to a heterogeneous audience

    Monica Rubini
    The use of linguistic abstraction in self-presentation was examined. Participants, whose goal it was to be liked by recipients, presented their political views to an audience of two people. Participants learned beforehand that the two recipients had the same political views as the participant, that both had different political views from the participant, or that one had similar views to and one had dissimilar views from the participant. Theorising that variations in the degree of linguistic abstractness used by participants when describing their political views were related to their social goals, it was hypothesised that participants would describe their political views at a higher level of linguistic abstractness when communicating with a similar agreeing audience than when communicating with a mixed audience. Results confirmed this hypothesis. The role of linguistic abstractness in achieving self-presentational goals is discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    From Treatise to Textbook: A History of Writing About Household Management

    Sharon Y. Nickols
    The origins of contemporary writing about household management in the United States have been traced back to Catharine Beecher's A Treatise on Domestic Economy. The expansion of academic programs in home economics, the rise of research using the scientific method, and the changing economic and social conditions during the early 20th century contributed to the transition from treatises offering household advice based on Christian precepts and customary roles to more analytical approaches to household management and the publication of textbooks for college courses. Using qualitative research methods, this study traced the 75-year history of home management/family resource management textbooks published in the United States. The themes found throughout this period show both subtle shifts and dramatic changes in seven areas of analysis: the rationale for studying home management, the theoretical conceptualization of management, what is managed, individual and family concepts within home management, internal/external emphasis on resource management, pedagogical style, and audience. [source]

    The Case for Cameral Accounting

    Norvald Monsen
    Cameral accounting was developed as early as the 16th century onwards in order to contribute to increased control of public money. Such a control demand does not seem to be of minor importance at the threshold of a new millennium as it was several centuries ago, and therefore Ludwig Mülhaupt in the excerpt above states that ,Unfortunately there are very few researchers and practitioners who are interested in developing the cameral bookkeeping method, which is strongly to be regretted with a view to the importance of these questions.' Most of the literature dealing with cameral accounting is published in German, and it seems to be known only to a small extent beyond the German speaking countries. The purpose of this article is therefore to present this historically important accounting model to a larger audience, allowing us to draw upon the experiences of cameral accounting in our continuous attempts to control public money, including the current international debate about the introduction of commercial (accrual) accounting in the public sector. [source]

    ,Are You Going to be MISS (or MR) Africa?'Contesting Masculinity in Drum Magazine 1951,1953

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2001
    Lindsay Clowes
    DrumDrum magazine was first published in March 1951. Like other magazines, it both reflected and shaped the society from which its audience emerged. During 1951, its audience, mainly urban black readers, was able to push the publication away from its original rural focus towards an urban emphasis. Town living, however, meant different things to different people. Thus, while readers were successful in shifting the focus of the magazine, they were less successful in influencing the way the publication presented urban life. This paper explores the struggle between readers, journalists and editors over the Miss Africa beauty contest announced at the beginning of 1952. Although the magazine reluctantly admitted men to the contest, it discriminated against male entrants in a variety of ways over the course of the year, and subsequent competitions barred male contestants entirely. Despite opposition from male readers who wished to be considered beautiful, the men of Drum were largely successful in asserting their own deeply gendered cultural vision of urban life. [source]

    Masculinity and the Biographical Meanings of Management Theory: Lyndall Urwick and the Making of Scientific Management in Inter-war Britain

    Michael Roper
    This article explores the biographical shaping of management theory. Using the British management theorist Lyndall Urwick (1891,1983) as a case study, it argues that existing understandings of the history of management studies are limited by their lack of attention to the emotional a priori of theory production. For men such as Frederick Taylor or Urwick, the work of composing management theory for a public audience was intimately connected to events and experiences in the private life. Theorizing addressed emotional dilemmas even while it strove to construct a separation between the personal and the organizational. Management theories are not only historically, socially or discursively constructed, but can be read in terms of the evidence they provide about individual subjectivity. Psychoanalytic concepts can help illuminate such relations. Theorizing can be seen as a form of play: as something which, in D.W. Winnicott's terms, takes place in the space between the psychic reality of the ,me' and the external world of the ,not me'. The ,classical' administrative theory represented by Taylor, Fayol and Urwick sought to create organizational structures which could stand apart from, and allow the management of, individual personalities. It simultaneously insisted on the status of theory as the ,not me'; that is, as a product which was not shaped by personal experience, but which constituted objective knowledge. The illusion of theory as a largely external, social product persists in much management and organization studies today. This article challenges that social determinism, first, by showing how Urwick's theories addressed issues of separation and intimacy, and second, by placing Urwick's work in the context of his relations with women. [source]