Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Regions

  • activated regions
  • activation regions
  • active regions
  • additional regions
  • adjacent regions
  • affected brain regions
  • alpine regions
  • amorphous regions
  • anatomic regions
  • anatomical regions
  • anterior regions
  • antigenic regions
  • apical regions
  • arctic regions
  • arid regions
  • asian regions
  • attachment regions
  • basal regions
  • binding regions
  • biogeographic regions
  • biogeographical regions
  • body regions
  • border regions
  • brain regions
  • breakpoint regions
  • c-terminal regions
  • ca regions
  • ca3 regions
  • candidate regions
  • caudal regions
  • central regions
  • cerebral regions
  • certain regions
  • cervical regions
  • chromosomal regions
  • chromosome regions
  • climatic regions
  • cns regions
  • coastal regions
  • coding regions
  • cold regions
  • colder regions
  • common regions
  • confidence regions
  • conformational regions
  • conserved regions
  • constant regions
  • contiguous regions
  • continental regions
  • contrasting regions
  • control regions
  • core regions
  • corresponding regions
  • cortical regions
  • cranial regions
  • critical regions
  • crystalline regions
  • cytoplasmic regions
  • deep regions
  • defined regions
  • deleted regions
  • dense regions
  • developing regions
  • different brain regions
  • different geographic regions
  • different geographical regions
  • different italian regions
  • different regions
  • discrete regions
  • disordered regions
  • distal regions
  • distinct regions
  • diverse regions
  • dna regions
  • downstream regions
  • dry regions
  • eastern regions
  • ecological regions
  • endemic regions
  • english regions
  • enhancer regions
  • eu regions
  • european regions
  • exonic regions
  • feasible regions
  • flanking regions
  • flexible regions
  • flow regions
  • forebrain regions
  • forest regions
  • frontal regions
  • functional regions
  • gene promoter regions
  • gene regions
  • genetic regions
  • genome regions
  • genomic regions
  • geographic regions
  • geographical regions
  • grain-boundary regions
  • growing regions
  • h ii regions
  • health regions
  • helical regions
  • high-density regions
  • hippocampal regions
  • homogeneous regions
  • hydrophilic regions
  • hydrophobic regions
  • hypervariable regions
  • hypothalamic regions
  • ii regions
  • important regions
  • independent regions
  • individual regions
  • infected regions
  • inner regions
  • intergenic regions
  • intergenic spacer regions
  • internal transcribed spacer regions
  • intestinal regions
  • intronic regions
  • isolated regions
  • italian regions
  • its regions
  • key brain regions
  • key regions
  • large regions
  • lateral regions
  • limbic regions
  • local regions
  • loop regions
  • lumbar regions
  • lung regions
  • major regions
  • many brain regions
  • many regions
  • matrix attachment regions
  • matter regions
  • medial regions
  • methylated regions
  • metropolitan regions
  • microsatellite regions
  • midbrain regions
  • molar regions
  • montane regions
  • motor regions
  • mountain regions
  • mountainous regions
  • multiple brain regions
  • multiple regions
  • muscle regions
  • myocardial regions
  • n-terminal regions
  • nearby regions
  • neck regions
  • necrotic regions
  • neighbouring regions
  • neocortical regions
  • neural regions
  • neurogenic regions
  • new regions
  • non-coding regions
  • noncoding regions
  • northern regions
  • novel regions
  • nuclear regions
  • nucleolar organizer regions
  • occipital regions
  • ocean regions
  • oceanic regions
  • offshore regions
  • operating regions
  • ordered regions
  • organizer regions
  • other body regions
  • other brain regions
  • other geographical regions
  • other regions
  • outer regions
  • overlapping regions
  • pacific regions
  • parameter regions
  • parietal regions
  • particular regions
  • peripheral regions
  • physiographic regions
  • polar regions
  • polymorphic regions
  • poor regions
  • populated regions
  • posterior regions
  • prefrontal regions
  • processing regions
  • production regions
  • promoter regions
  • protein regions
  • protein-coding regions
  • proximal regions
  • qtl regions
  • rainfall regions
  • regulatory regions
  • remote regions
  • repeat regions
  • restricted regions
  • root regions
  • rostral regions
  • rural regions
  • same regions
  • sea regions
  • seismic regions
  • selected regions
  • semi-arid regions
  • semiarid regions
  • sensitive regions
  • sequence regions
  • several brain regions
  • several regions
  • sheet regions
  • similar regions
  • small regions
  • smaller regions
  • source regions
  • southern regions
  • spacer regions
  • spanish regions
  • specific brain regions
  • specific regions
  • spectral regions
  • stability regions
  • stable regions
  • star-forming regions
  • study regions
  • subcortical brain regions
  • subcortical regions
  • subtelomeric regions
  • subtropical regions
  • surface regions
  • surrounding regions
  • tail regions
  • target regions
  • temperate regions
  • temperature regions
  • temporal regions
  • terminal regions
  • tissue regions
  • transcribed spacer regions
  • transition regions
  • transmembrane regions
  • tropical regions
  • unlinked regions
  • untranslated regions
  • upland regions
  • upstream regions
  • urban regions
  • variable regions
  • various brain regions
  • various regions
  • visual regions
  • vulnerable regions
  • west regions
  • western regions
  • white matter regions
  • world regions

  • Terms modified by Regions

  • regions close
  • regions corresponding
  • regions critical
  • regions only
  • regions other

  • Selected Abstracts


    Since 1990, the United States has experienced a geographic dispersion of Mexican migrants from traditional gateways to new regions. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project, we find significant differences in both the likelihood of remitting and the amount remitted by Mexican migrants across U.S. regions. Specifically, Mexican migrants living in U.S. regions that have experienced considerable increases in migrant populations since 1990 (the Northeast, Southeast, Mountain, and Midwest regions) remit at higher rates and in larger quantities than migrants living in more traditional migrant destinations (the Pacific and South Central regions), even after controlling for observed differences in migrant populations. (JEL F22, F32, J11, R23) [source]


    Anna Maria Ferragina
    Abstract The paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on regional unemployment during transition in Central and Eastern Europe. The focus is on optimal speed of transition (OST) models and on comparison of them with the neo-classical tradition. In the typical neo-classical models, spatial differences essentially arise as a consequence of supply side constraints and institutional rigidities. Slow-growth, high-unemployment regions are those with backward economic structures and constraints on factors mobility contribute to making differences persistent. However, such explanations leave the question unanswered of how unemployment differences arise in the first place. Economic transition provides an excellent testing ground to answer this question. Pre-figuring an empirical law, the OST literature finds that the high degree of labour turnover of high unemployment regions is associated with a high rate of industrial restructuring and, consequently, that low unemployment may be achieved by implementing transition more gradually. Moreover, international trade, foreign direct investment and various agglomeration factors help explain the success of capital cities compared to peripheral towns and rural areas in achieving low unemployment. The evidence of the empirical literature on supply side factors suggests that wage flexibility in Central and Eastern Europe is not lower than in other EU countries, while labour mobility seems to reinforce rather than change the spatial pattern of unemployment. [source]


    Min Hwang
    ABSTRACT This paper investigates the effects of national and regional economic conditions on outcomes in the single-family housing market: housing prices, vacancies, and residential construction activity. Our three-equation model confirms the importance of changes in regional economic conditions, income, and employment on local housing markets. The results also provide the first detailed evidence on the importance of vacancies in the owner-occupied housing market on housing prices and supplier activities. The results also document the importance of variations in materials, labor and capital costs, and regulation in affecting new supply. Simulation exercises, using standard impulse response models, document the lags in market responses to exogenous shocks and the variations arising from differences in local parameters. The results also suggest the importance of local regulation in affecting the pattern of market responses to regional income shocks. [source]


    ABSTRACT Virgin olive oils from different regions of Turkey were collected and analyzed. The total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of the samples ranged from 30.26 to 208.61 mg gallic acid/kg and 0.60 to 5.61 Trolox equivalents/kg, respectively. Free acidity (0.44,7.31% oleic acid), peroxide value (6.83,39.60 meq O2/kg), total volatiles (0.11,0.37%), viscosity (65.50,85.40 cP), K232 value (1.30,2.54), K270 value (0.08,0.30), refractive index (1.470) and descriptive sensory properties of the samples were also measured. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis indicated that positive and negative attributes classification of the olive oil sensory defining terms were mostly the case, and total phenolics content by itself may be a useful classification index. Also, MDS maps showed that the samples from Southeastern and Aegean regions are closer, while others are separate from each other. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Data for the physicochemical and sensory descriptive properties of virgin olive oils from Turkey are provided for the scientific community, olive oil consumers and traders. Also, utilization of sensory data by multidimensional scaling technique for geographical origin groupings provides a unique insight for researchers for similar objectives. In addition, some findings (i.e., the eligibility of phenolics content by itself for olive oil classification) of this article produce new results for fast and practical application purposes yet confirmed by other researchers. [source]


    ABSTRACT Fifty-six Malbec wines from seven Argentine viticulture regions (Valles Calchaquíes, Mendoza del Este, Mendoza del Sur, Patagonia, Alto Río Mendoza, Valle de Uco and San Juan), of the 2004 vintage, were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis using a panel of 10 not-sighted assessors. "Noncommercial" samples were obtained using standardized conditions, not aging and produced with grapes corresponding to each viticulture region. Malbec wines from same regions exhibited particular characteristics. Valles Calchaquíes wines had strong herbal, spicy, sweet pepper aromas and pungency in contrast to San Juan wines that showed fruity, strawberry, honey and citrus aromas. Mendoza del Este and Valle de Uco wines were associated with cooked fruit, raisin, floral and sweetness attributes as opposed to Mendoza del Sur and Patagonia wines which were characterized by sourness, bitterness, persistency and astringency, and not by aroma attributes. Alto Río Mendoza wines were characterized by pungency, sweet pepper and bitterness. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Sensory profiling of "non-commercial" Malbec wines developed in this research could be used as a tool to differentiate and classify Argentine Controlled Denominations of Origin (DOC). Wines with DOC have important value in the market and they are original country representative in the world. The results of this study suggest that Malbec wines from some of the regions located in latitudes 31,33° (San Juan, Mendoza del Este and Valle de Uco; Argentina) were associated with the most desired sensory characteristics. Out of these latitudes, wine-making process would have more importance on Malbec wine quality. [source]


    Mark A. Snyder
    ABSTRACT: Using a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), the potential impacts on the climate of California of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations were explored from the perspective of the state's 10 hydrologic regions. Relative to preindustrial CO2 conditions (280 ppm), doubled preindustrial CO2 conditions (560 ppm) produced increased temperatures of up to 4°C on an annual average basis and of up to 5°C on a monthly basis. Temperature increases were greatest in the central and northern regions. On a monthly basis, the temperature response was greatest in February, March, and May for nearly all regions. Snow accumulation was significantly decreased in all months and regions, with the greatest reduction occurring in the Sacramento River region. Precipitation results indicate drier winters for all regions, with a large reduction in precipitation from December to April and a smaller decrease from May to November. The result is a wet season that is slightly reduced in length. Findings suggest that the total amount of water in the state will decrease, water needs will increase, and the timing of water availability will be greatly perturbed. [source]

    Hierarchical Vortex Regions in Swirling Flow

    Christoph Petz
    Abstract We propose a new criterion to characterize hierarchical two-dimensional vortex regions induced by swirling motion. Central to the definition are closed loops that intersect the flow field at a constant angle. The union of loops belonging to the same area of swirling motion defines a vortex region. These regions are disjunct but may be nested, thus introducing a spatial hierarchy of vortex regions. We present a parameter free algorithm for the identification of these regions. Since they are not restricted to star- or convex-shaped geometries, we are able to identify also intricate regions, e.g., of elongated vortices. Computing an integrated value for each loop and mapping these values to a vortex region, introduces new ways for visualizing or filtering the vortex regions. Exemplary, an application based on the Rankine vortex model is presented. We apply our method to several CFD datasets and compare our results to existing approaches. [source]

    Resampling Feature and Blend Regions in Polygonal Meshes for Surface Anti-Aliasing

    Mario Botsch
    Efficient surface reconstruction and reverse engineering techniques are usually based on a polygonal mesh representation of the geometry: the resulting models emerge from piecewise linear interpolation of a set of sample points. The quality of the reconstruction not only depends on the number and density of the sample points but also on their alignment to sharp and rounded features of the original geometry. Bad alignment can lead to severe alias artifacts. In this paper we present a sampling pattern for feature and blend regions which minimizes these alias errors. We show how to improve the quality of a given polygonal mesh model by resampling its feature and blend regions within an interactive framework. We further demonstrate sophisticated modeling operations that can be implemented based on this resampling technique. [source]

    Climate Variability in Regions of Amphibian Declines

    Michael A. Alexander
    The reanalysis system merges observations from airplanes, land stations, satellites, ships, and weather balloons with output from a weather-forecast model to create global fields of atmospheric variables. Station data consisted of temperature and precipitation measured with thermometers and rain gauges at fixed locations. Temperatures were near normal in Colorado when the amphibian declines occurred in the 1970s, whereas in Central America temperatures were warmer than normal, especially during the dry season. The station data from Puerto Rico and Australia indicated that temperatures were above normal during the period of amphibian declines, but reanalysis did not show such a clear temperature signal. Although declines occurred while the temperature and precipitation anomalies in some of the regions were large and of extended duration, the anomalies were not beyond the range of normal variability. Thus, unusual climate, as measured by regional estimates of temperature and precipitation, is unlikely to be the direct cause of amphibian declines, but it may have indirectly contributed to them. Previous researchers have noted that the declines appear to have propagated from northwest to southeast from Costa Rica to Panama and from southeast to northwest in Queensland, Australia. Wind has the potential to transport pathogens that cause amphibian mortality. The mean direction of the near-surface winds tended to parallel the path of amphibian declines from July,October in Central America and from May,July in Australia. The wind direction was highly variable, however, and the propagation rate of amphibian declines was much slower than the mean wind speed. In addition, the most likely pathogen is a chytrid fungus that does not produce desiccation-resistant spores. Thus, if wind is involved in the propagation of amphibian declines, it is through a complex set of processes. Resumen: Exploramos la relación entre las declinaciones de anfibios y las variaciones climáticas en Colorado, E.U.A., Puerto Rico, Costa Rica/Panamá y Queensland, Australia por medio de dos fuentes de información: resultados "sistema de reanálisis" del Centro Nacional de Predicción Ambiental y datos de estaciones área-promedio. El sistema de reanálisis combina observaciones de aeroplanos, estaciones terrestres, satélites, barcos y globos climatológicos, con resultados de un modelo de predicción climatológica para crear campos globales de variables atmosféricas. Los datos de estaciones fueron de temperatura y precipitación medidos con termómetros y pluviómetros en localidades fijas. Las temperaturas fueron casi normales en Colorado cuando ocurrieron las declinaciones en la década de 1970, mientras que las temperaturas en Centro América fueron mayores a lo normal, especialmente durante la época de sequía. Los datos de estaciones en Puerto Rico y Australia indicaron que la temperatura fue mayor a la normal durante el período de declinación de anfibios, pero un nuevo análisis no mostró una señal de temperatura tan clara. Aunque las declinaciones ocurrieron mientras las anomalías de temperatura y precipitación fueron grandes y de duración prolongada en algunas de las regiones, las anomalías no rebasaron el rango de variabilidad normal. Por lo tanto, es poco probable que el clima inusual, medido por estimaciones regionales de temperatura y precipitación, sea la causa directa de las declinaciones de anfibios, pero pudo haber contribuido indirectamente a ellas. Investigaciones previas notan que las declinaciones parecen haberse propagado de noroeste a sureste de Costa Rica a Panamá y de sureste a noreste en Queensland, Australia. El viento tiene el potencial de transportar patógenos que causan mortalidad de anfibios. La dirección promedio de los vientos superficiales tendió a ser paralela al camino de las declinaciones de anfibios de julio a octubre en Centro América y de mayo a julio en Australia. Sin embargo, la dirección del viento fue altamente variable y la tasa de propagación de declinaciones de anfibios fue mucho más lenta que la velocidad promedio del viento. Adicionalmente, el patógeno más probable es un hongo quítrido que no produce esporas resistentes a la desecación. Por tanto, si el viento está implicado en la propagación de declinaciones de anfibios, lo es por medio de un complejo conjunto de procesos. [source]

    Sodium channel distribution on uninnervated and innervated embryonic skeletal myotubes

    Blake D. Anson
    Abstract Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and sodium (Na+) channel distributions within the membrane of mature vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers maximize the probability of successful neuromuscular transmission and subsequent action potential propagation. AChRs have been studied intensively as a model for understanding the development and regulation of ion channel distribution within the postsynaptic membrane. Na+ channel distributions have received less attention, although there is evidence that the temporal accumulation of Na+ channels at developing neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) may differ between species. Even less is known about the development of extrajunctional Na+ channel distributions. To further our understanding of Na+ channel distributions within junctional and extrajunctional membranes, we used a novel voltage-clamp method and fluorescent probes to map Na+ channels on embryonic chick muscle fibers as they developed in vitro and in vivo. Na+ current densities on uninnervated myotubes were approximately one-tenth the density found within extrajunctional regions of mature fibers, and showed several-fold variations that could not be explained by a random scattering of single channels. Regions of high current density were not correlated with cellular landmarks such as AChR clusters or myonuclei. Under coculture conditions, AChRs rapidly concentrated at developing synapses, while Na+ channels did not show a significant increase over the 7 day coculture period. In vivo investigations supported a significant temporal separation between Na+ channel and AChR aggregation at the developing NMJ. These data suggest that extrajunctional Na+ channels cluster together in a neuronally independent manner and concentrate at the developing avian NMJ much later than AChRs. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 42,57, 2001 [source]

    Cardiac autonomic dysinnervation and myocardial blood flow in long-term Type 1 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2003
    N. Hattori
    Abstract Aims The aim of the study was to assess scintigraphically the relationship between myocardial blood flow response and sympathetic dysinnervation in long-term Type 1 diabetic patients. Effects of the iron chelator deferoxamine on myocardial blood flow were studied and they were investigated according to the presence of cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. Methods Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was assessed with N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography in 13 long-term Type 1 diabetic patients and 13 control subjects at rest and in response to sympathetic stimulation (cold pressor test (CPT)). In diabetic patients, the study was repeated after preinfusion with deferoxamine. Furthermore, 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy was applied to assess regional cardiac sympathetic dysinnervation (uptake score 1 = normal, homogeneous uptake , 6 = no uptake). Results In diabetic patients, MBF increased in response to CPT from 78 ± 18 ml/100 g/min to 84 ± 26 ml/100 g (8%, P < 0.001). Control subjects demonstrated an increase from 63 ± 17 ml/100 g to 84 ± 26 ml/100 g (33%, P < 0.001), respectively. Resting MBF was higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P < 0.001). In diabetic patients, increase in MBF in response to CPT was significant in regions with a MIBG uptake score of , 3. Regions with a MIBG uptake score of > 3 did not exhibit a significant increase in MBF in response to CPT. After administration of deferoxamine, the increase in MBF in response to CPT was 23% and the magnitude of increase was related to the MIBG uptake score (r = 0.40, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Myocardial blood flow response to sympathetic stimulation is significantly impaired in long-term Type 1 diabetes. After preinfusion with deferoxamine the impairment is partially reversed and a relationship between myocardial blood flow and the extent of cardiac sympathetic dysfunction is observed. Diabet. Med. 20, 375,381 (2003) [source]

    Insulin-treated diabetes and driving in the UK

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2002
    G. Gill
    Abstract Diabetes, and particularly insulin-treated diabetes, has important implications for motor vehicle driving, largely because of its association with potential hypoglycaemia. For this reason, most countries operate some driving restrictions on insulin-treated diabetic patients, as well as systems of intermittent reassessment of hypoglycaemic risk. In the UK, regulations are operated by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA), which is an agency of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). They are supported by an Expert Panel which advises the Secretary of State on diabetes-related issues relating to fitness to drive. The patient organization Diabetes UK is also concerned with diabetes and driving issues, largely from a position of lobbying policy-influencers and supporting individual cases. All parties involved with diabetes and driving issues recognize the need for more research on the subject, as the current literature is flawed in design, though no convincing excess of accidents amongst diabetic drivers has been conclusively demonstrated. Currently in the UK, Class 2 vehicles (large trucks and passenger vehicles) are barred to diabetic drivers on insulin. European law has recently extended this to so-called C1 (large vans and small lorries) and D1 (minibuses) vehicles, though the law has recently been revised to allow individual consideration for potential diabetic C1 drivers on insulin treatment. Diabetes and insulin-treated diabetes is an emotive and difficult issue, for which a stronger evidence base is urgently needed. [source]

    Mammals of Russia and Adjacent Regions: Lagomorphs

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    Irina Ruf
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effects of herbivore species richness on the niche dynamics and distribution of blue sheep in the Trans-Himalaya

    Tsewang Namgail
    Abstract Aim, To understand the community structure of mountain ungulates by exploring their niche dynamics in response to sympatric species richness. Location, Ladakh and Spiti Regions of the Western Indian Trans-Himalaya. Methods, We used the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, a relatively widely distributed mountain ungulate, as a model species to address the issue. We selected three discrete valleys in three protected areas with similar environmental features but varying wild ungulate species richness, and studied blue sheep's diet and habitat utilization in them. Habitat variables such as slope angle, distance to cliff and elevation at blue sheep locations were recorded to determine the habitat width of the species. Faecal pellets were collected and microhistological faecal analysis was carried out to determine the diet width of blue sheep in the three areas with different ungulate species richness. Blue sheep's niche width in terms of habitat and diet was determined using the Shannon's Index. Results, The habitat width of blue sheep had a negative relationship with the number of sympatric species. However, contrary to our expectation, there was a hump-shaped relationship between blue sheep's diet width and the sympatric species richness, with the diet width being narrower in areas of allopatry as well as in areas with high herbivore species richness, and the greatest in areas with moderate species richness. Main conclusions, We suspect that the narrow diet width in allopatry is out of choice, whereas it is out of necessity in areas with high herbivore species richness because of resource partitioning that enables coexistence. We suggest that interactions with sympatric species lead to niche adjustment of mountain ungulates, implying that competition may play a role in structuring Trans-Himalayan mountain ungulate assemblages. Given these results, we underscore the importance of including biotic interactions in species distribution models, which have often been neglected. [source]

    Soil erosion assessment using geomorphological remote sensing techniques: an example from southern Italy

    Sergio Lo Curzio
    Abstract The aim of this study is to assess of the distribution and map the geomorphological effects of soil erosion at the basin scale identifying newly-formed erosional landsurfaces (NeFELs), by means of an integration of Landsat ETM 7+ remotely sensed data and field-surveyed geomorphological data. The study was performed on a 228·6,km2 -wide area, located in southern Italy. The study area was first characterized from a lithological, pedological, land-use and morpho-topographic point of view and thematic maps were created. Then, the georeferenced Landsat ETM 7+ satellite imagery was processed using the RSI ENVI 4.0 software. The processing consisted of contrast stretching, principal component analysis (PCA), decorrelation stretching and RGB false colour compositing. A field survey was conducted to characterize the features detected on the imagery. Particular attention was given to the NeFELs, which were located using a global positioning system (GPS). We then delimited the Regions of Interest (ROI) on the Landsat ETM 7+ imagery, i.e. polygons representing the ,ground-truth', discriminating the NeFELs from the other features occurring in the imagery. A simple statistical analysis was conducted on the digital number (DN) values of the pixels enclosed in the ROI of the NeFELs, with the aim to determine the spectral response pattern of such landsurfaces. The NeFELs were then classified in the entire image using a maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The results of the classification process were checked in the field. Finally, a spatial analysis was performed by converting the detected landsurfaces into vectorial format and importing them into the ESRI ArcViewGIS 9.0 software. Application of these procedures, together with the results of the field survey, highlighted that some ,objects' in the classified imagery, even if displaying the same spectral response of NeFELs, were not landsurfaces subject to intense soil erosion, thus confirming the strategic importance of the field-checking for the automatically produced data. During the production of the map of the NeFELs, which is the final result of the study, these ,objects' were eliminated by means of simple, geomorphologically-coherent intersection procedures in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. The overall surface of the NeFELs had an area of 22·9,km2, which was 10% of the total. The spatial analysis showed that the highest frequency of the NeFELs occurred on both south-facing and southwest-facing slopes, cut on clayey-marly deposits, on which fine-textured and carbonate-rich Inceptisols were present and displaying slope angle values ranging from 12° to 20°. The comparison of two satellite imageries of different periods highlighted that the NeFELs were most clearly evident immediately after summer tillage operations and not so evident before them, suggesting that these practices could have played an important role in inducing the erosional processes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Estimation and Confidence Regions for Parameter Sets in Econometric Models,

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2007
    Victor Chernozhukov
    This paper develops a framework for performing estimation and inference in econometric models with partial identification, focusing particularly on models characterized by moment inequalities and equalities. Applications of this framework include the analysis of game-theoretic models, revealed preference restrictions, regressions with missing and corrupted data, auction models, structural quantile regressions, and asset pricing models. Specifically, we provide estimators and confidence regions for the set of minimizers ,I of an econometric criterion function Q(,). In applications, the criterion function embodies testable restrictions on economic models. A parameter value ,that describes an economic model satisfies these restrictions if Q(,) attains its minimum at this value. Interest therefore focuses on the set of minimizers, called the identified set. We use the inversion of the sample analog, Qn(,), of the population criterion, Q(,), to construct estimators and confidence regions for the identified set, and develop consistency, rates of convergence, and inference results for these estimators and regions. To derive these results, we develop methods for analyzing the asymptotic properties of sample criterion functions under set identification. [source]

    Fluctuating Rounds of Inward Investment in Peripheral Regions: Semiconductors in the North East of England

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2007
    Stuart Dawley
    Abstract: This article extends economic geography research on foreign direct investment episodes by developing a historically grounded understanding of the socio-institutional relations that shape and constrain different rounds of (dis)investment by multinational enterprises (MNEs) within a host region. Sensitive to the roles of contextuality, path dependency, and contingency, it argues that the temporal and spatial dynamics of volatile MNE (dis)investment are best tackled using a conceptual framework that accords a full and active role to the agency of the firm and its interrelations with the geographically variable socioinstitutional contexts that produce, regulate, and mediate investment decisions. The framework is used to interpret the brief but fluctuating history of the semiconductor fabrication industry in North Tyneside in the old industrial region of North East England. Within each investment episode, the empirical findings reveal the pivotal power and agency of the corporation in shaping and connecting processes across a variety of scales, places, and times. Contrasting corporate strategies illustrate the dynamic and contingent ways in which home and host national institutional contexts matter in mediating and regulating MNE investment decisions. [source]

    Toward a Reconceptualization of Regional Development Paths: Is Leipzig's Media Cluster a Continuation of or a Rupture with the Past?

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2003
    Harald Bathelt
    Abstract: This article develops a model of regional development that is then used to examine the evolution of two media industries in Leipzig, Germany. We note that the city's current media cluster, centered on television/film production and interactive digital media, shares little in common with the city's once-premier book publishing media cluster. Treating interactive learning as the primary causal mechanism that drives economic growth and change, our conceptual framework incorporates both sectoral/technological and political crises as mechanisms that rupture regional development paths. These regional development paths are not homogeneous, but instead consist of bundles of various technological trajectories. Regions recover from crises as their actors continually rebundle local assets until they find a combination that generates growth. As a result of these crises, new opportunities for growth may arise for new and previously marginal industries. In turn, these expanding industries shape the region's development path. [source]

    Industrial Agglomeration and Development: A Survey of Spatial Economic Issues in East Asia and a Statistical Analysis of Chinese Regions

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2003
    C. Cindy Fan
    Abstract: In this article, we explore the issue of industrial agglomeration and its relationship to economic development and growth in the less-developed countries of East Asia. We present theoretical arguments and secondary empirical evidence as to why we should have strong expectations about finding a positive relationship between agglomeration and economic performance. We also review evidence from the literature on the roles of formal and informal institutions in East Asian regional economic systems. We then focus specifically on the case of China. We argue that regional development in China has much in common with regional development in other East Asian economies, although there are also important contrasts because of China's history of socialism and its recent trend toward economic liberalization. Through a variety of statistical investigations, we substantiate (in part) the expected positive relationship between agglomeration and economic performance in China. We show that many kinds of manufacturing sectors are characterized by a strong positive relationship between spatial agglomeration and productivity. This phenomenon is especially marked in sectors and regions where liberalization has proceeded rapidly. We consider the relevance of our comments about industrial clustering and economic performance for policy formulation in China and the less-developed countries of East Asia. [source]

    Why do Employment Rates Differ Across the Regions of Britain?

    ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, Issue 5 2004
    Article first published online: 29 OCT 200
    Both unemployment and non-employment in Great Britain fell steadily after 1993. The ratio of jobs to the working age population , the employment rate , rose. But the increasing regional dispersion of employment rates remains a puzzle. By 2000,01, this dispersion was close to its 1974 and 1985 peak levels, though it has narrowed since 2001. This paper by John Muellbauer & Gavin Cameron1 examines this puzzle in the context of different measures of the employment rate and examines what we know and what we do not know about what drives relative employment rates across the British regions. It summarises the findings from an econometric study and examines the outlook for relative employment across the British regions. [source]

    Comparison of Intrinsic Optical Signals Associated with Low Mg2+, and 4-Aminopyridine,Induced Seizure-Like Events Reveals Characteristic Features in Adult Rat Limbic System

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2000
    Katharina Buchheim
    Summary: Purpose: To analyze the intrinsic optical signal change associated with seizure-like events in two frequently used in vitro models,the low-Mg2+ and the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) models,and to monitor regions of onset and spread patterns of these discharges by using imaging of intrinsic optical signals (IOS). Methods: Combined hippocampal,entorhinal,cortex slices of adult rats were exposed to two different treatments: lowering extracellular Mg2+ concentrations or application of 100 ,M 4-AP. The electrographic features of the discharges were monitored using extracellular microelectrodes. Optical imaging was achieved by infrared transillumination of the slice and analysis of changes in light transmission using a subtraction approach. The electrographic features were compared with the optical changes. Regions of onset and spread patterns were analyzed in relevant anatomic regions of the slice. Results: Both lowering extracellular Mg2+ concentrations and application of 4-AP induced seizure-like events. The relative duration of the intrinsic optical signal change associated with seizure-like events in the low-Mg2+ model was significantly longer compared with that seen with those occurring in the 4-AP model, although duration of field potentials did not differ significantly in the two models. Seizure-like events of the low-Mg2+ model originated predominantly in the entorhinal cortex, with subsequent propagation toward the subiculum and neocortical structures. In contrast, no consistent region of onset or spread patterns were seen in the 4-AP model, indicating that the seizure initiation is not confined to a particular region in this model. Conclusions: We conclude that different forms of spontaneous epileptiform activity are associated with characteristic optical signal changes and that optical imaging represents an excellent method to assess regions of seizure onset and spread patterns. [source]

    Six Ages towards a Learning Region , A Retrospective

    Learning Cities and Learning Regions are terms now in common use as a result of the growing importance of lifelong learning concepts to the economic, social and environmental future of people and places. Why ,learning' regions? Why not intelligent, creative, clever, smart or knowledge regions? In truth, all of these can, and some do, also exist, but we argue that this is not a semantic debate. The basis of intelligence, smartness, cleverness, creativity and knowledge is effective learning and its intelligent application in creating a better future. We can, we believe, only learn our way into the future and the same is true, in developmental terms, of cities, towns, regions and communities. What therefore is a learning region? Definitions tend to differ according to perception, situation, occupation and objective. Where the focus is on technology a learning region will emphasise the advantages of hi-tech for the development of a physical infrastructure that will assist regeneration and be useful for more efficient behaviour and learning by people and organisations. Hence the growth of ,smart cities,' mainly in North America. Where it is on employment, employability, organisational management and training for industry, the development of human and social capital for economic gain and competitive edge tends to predominate. Most regions concentrate on this aspect. Where the motivation is based on the use of valuable resources, it will concentrate on volunteering, active citizenship and the building of social capital. Such an approach is not well developed in many regions and the optimum balance between economic, community and personal growth is poorly understood. Where the goal is the competent use of organisational potential a learning region will mobilise all its stakeholder institutions as partners in the service of the region as a whole. Here, very little is understood or implemented. This article argues that all of these approaches and others in the fields of environment, personal and cultural growth, innovation, diversity and communication are a holistic part and parcel of learning region development. Its meaning and its characteristics will become clear as it charts the development of ideas about learning regions, particularly those that have occurred during the past 20 years. It suggests the existence of a paradigm shift at work , the age of education and training, which has served us well in the late 20th century in satisfying the needs of a growing, upwardly mobile proportion of the population, has now given way to the era of lifelong learning, in which the means, the tools and techniques are employed to target and motivate everyone in a city, town or region. Those regions that achieve this nirvana will be the winners in the apparent paradox that intelligent local action leads to success in a globalised world, a version of the concept of ,glocalisation' coined by Robertson (1995). [source]

    GENETIC STUDY: Heritability and a genome-wide linkage analysis of a Type II/B cluster construct for cannabis dependence in an American Indian community

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Cindy L. Ehlers
    ABSTRACT Subtyping of substance dependence disorders holds promise for a number of important research areas including phenotyping for genetic studies, characterizing clinical course, and matching treatment and prevention strategies. This study sought to investigate whether a dichotomous construct similar to Babor's Types A/B and Cloninger's Types I/II for alcohol dependence can be identified for cannabis dependence in a Native American sample. In addition, heritability of this construct and its behavior in a genetic linkage analyses were evaluated. Information on cannabis use and dependence symptoms and other psychiatric disorders was obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism from a community sample of 606 American Indians. Hierarchical average linkage and K means cluster analysis was used, and a three-cluster solution was found to generate the best separation of variables. Ninety-one per cent of cannabis-dependent participants fell into one of the two subtypes: Type A/I cluster (n = 114, 56%) and Type B/II cluster (n = 70, 35%). Heritability (estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) was only significant for the Type B/II cluster (h2 = 0.44, SE = 0.18, P < 0.01). Evidence for linkage was found for the Type B/II cluster (versus no diagnosis) on chromosome 16 [at 139 centimorgans (cM), Log of the Odds (LOD) score = 4.4], and on chromosome 19 (at 74 cM, LOD score = 6.4). Regions of interest for this phenotype (LOD > 1.5) were also located on chromosomes 14, 21, 22. These findings suggest that a Type B/II cannabis dependence phenotype can be identified in this population and that it is in part heritable and linked to areas of the genome identified previously for drug dependence phenotypes in this population as well as in other studies. [source]

    The Distribution of Public Expenditure across the UK Regions

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2003
    Iain McLean
    Abstract The distribution of UK revenue to the regional and territorial governments, administrations and authorities that spend the money is based on a hotchpotch of badly designed formulae. This is widely recognised. The Barnett formula, which allocates money to the devolved territories, has been attacked from all sides, its consequences described as ,terribly unfair' by its progenitor, Lord Barnett. The mechanism by which resources are distributed to local authorities within the English regions has been abandoned by the government, although its replacement has not yet been determined. This paper argues that a common basis for government spending across the regions and territories of the UK will be more equitable and efficient, and may even depoliticise the financial framework of the UK. [source]

    PCR primers for identification of Sirococcus conigenus and S. tsugae, and detection of S. conigenus from symptomatic and asymptomatic red pine shoots

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    D. R. Smith
    Summary Regions of diversity in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Sirococcus species were exploited to design primer pairs used in a PCR-based method for the identification of the conifer shoot blight pathogen Sirococcus conigenus and the closely related fungus Sirococcus tsugae. The specificity of each primer pair for the respective fungus, detection limits and utility for detection from host material were confirmed. The S. conigenus primers were then used to detect this pathogen in tissues of symptomatic or apparently healthy red pine shoots collected at six locations in Wisconsin and Michigan and results compared with those obtained using a cultural assay. For needles, bark and wood of symptomatic shoots, the mean frequencies of detection of S. conigenus using the PCR-based methods were consistent (,7.5 out of 10) and always greater than for the cultural assay. Detection from symptomatic shoots using the cultural assay was more frequent from needles than from bark or wood. Both the PCR-based method and the cultural assay detected S. conigenus in similar frequencies from asymptomatic shoots, although less frequently than from symptomatic shoots. The efficiency of the PCR-based method and its utility for direct testing of host material should make it particularly useful in areas where multiple shoot blight pathogens are found. [source]

    The interaction between ,S, the stationary phase , factor, and the core enzyme of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 3 2002
    Frédéric Colland
    Background: The RNA polymerase holoenzyme of Escherichia coli is composed of a core enzyme (subunit structure ,2,,,) associated with one of the , subunits, required for promoter recognition. Different , factors compete for core binding. Among the seven , factors present in E. coli, ,70 controls gene transcription during the exponential phase, whereas ,S regulates the transcription of genes in the stationary phase or in response to different stresses. Using labelled ,S and ,70, we compared the affinities of both , factors for core binding and investigated the structural changes in the different subunits involved in the formation of the holoenzymes. Results: Using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we demonstrate that ,S binds to the core enzyme with fivefold reduced affinity compared to ,70. Using iron chelate protein footprinting, we show that the core enzyme significantly reduces polypeptide backbone solvent accessibility in regions 1.1, 2.5, 3.1 and 3.2 of ,S, while increasing the accessibility in region 4.1 of ,S. We have also analysed the positioning of ,S on the holoenzyme by the proximity-dependent protein cleavage method using ,S derivatives in which FeBABE was tethered to single cysteine residues at nine different positions. Protein cutting patterns are observed on the , and ,, subunits, but not ,. Regions 2.5, 3.1 and 3.2 of ,S are close to both , and ,, subunits, in agreement with iron chelate protein footprinting data. Conclusions: A comparison between these results using ,S and previous data from ,70 indicates similar contact patterns on the core subunits and similar characteristic changes associated with holoenzyme formation, despite striking differences in the accessibility of regions 4.1 and 4.2. [source]

    Integrated genomic profiling identifies candidate genes implicated in glioma-genesis and a novel LEO1 - SLC12A1 fusion gene

    Linda B. C. Bralten
    We performed genotyping and exon-level expression profiling on 21 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 19 oligodendrogliomas (ODs) to identify genes involved in glioma initiation and/or progression. Low-copy number amplifications (2.5 < n < 7) and high-copy number amplifications (n > 7) were more frequently observed in GBMs; ODs generally have more heterozygous deletions per tumor. Four high-copy amplicons were identified in more than one sample and resulted in overexpression of the known oncogenes EGFR, MDM2, and CDK4. In the fourth amplicon, RBBP5, a member of the RB pathway, may act as a novel oncogene in GBMs. Not all hCNAs contain known genes, which may suggest that other transcriptional and/or regulatory elements are the target for amplification. Regions with most frequent allelic loss, both in ODs and GBMs, resulted in a reduced expression of known tumor suppressor genes. We identified a homozygous deletion spanning the Pragmin gene in one sample, but direct sequencing of all coding exons in 20 other glioma samples failed to detect additional genetic changes. Finally, we screened for fusion genes by identifying aberrant 5,-3, expression of genes that lie over regions of a copy number change. A fusion gene between exon 11 of LEO1 and exon 10 of SLC12A1 was identified. Our data show that integrated genomic profiling can identify genes involved in tumor initiation, and/or progression and can be used as an approach to identify novel fusion genes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Wave and sediment dynamics along a shallow subtidal sandy beach inhabited by modern stromatolites

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    J. E. ECKMAN
    ABSTRACT To help define the habitat of modern marine stromatolites, wave-dominated flow and sediment transport were studied in the shallow subtidal region (1,2 m depth) along the slightly concave, windward face of Highborne Cay, Exuma, Bahamas , the only face of the cay that includes a population of stromatolites concentrated near the region of highest curvature of the beach. Wave energy impacting this island's most exposed beach was driven by local wind forcing which increases largely in response to the passage of atmospheric disturbances that typically affect the region for periods of a few days. Although some wave energy is almost always noted (maximum horizontal orbital speeds at the bottom are rarely <10 cm s,1), wave conditions remain comparatively calm until local winds increase above speeds of ,3,4 m s,1 at which point maximum wave speeds rapidly increase to 50,80 cm s,1. Stromatolites, which are largely restricted to the shoreward side of a shallow platform reef, are sheltered by the reef beyond which wave speeds are one to four times higher (depending on tidal stage). Moreover, stromatolite populations are predominantly found along a region of this wave-exposed beach that experiences comparatively reduced wave energy because of the curved morphology of the island's face. Maximum wave speeds are 1.4 to 2 times higher along more northern sections of the beach just beyond the locus of stromatolite populations. A quantitative model of sediment transport was developed that accurately predicted accumulation of suspended sediment in sediment traps deployed in the shallow subtidal zone along this beach. This model, coupled with in situ wave records, indicates that gross rates of suspended sediment deposition should be two to three times higher northward of the main stromatolite populations. Regions of the beach containing stromatolites nevertheless should experience significant rates of gross suspended sediment deposition averaging 7,10 g cm,2 day,1 (,4,6 cm day,1). Results suggest that one axis of the habitat of modern marine stromatolites may be defined by a comparatively narrow range of flow energy and sediment transport conditions. [source]

    Economic Geography as Dissenting Institutionalism: The Embeddedness, Evolution and Differentiation of Regions

    Roger Hayter
    Abstract This paper endorses recent pleas for an ,institutional turn' within economic geography. In particular, it reveals and connects the coherence and distinctiveness of dissenting institutional economics as a way of thinking for economic geography. Economic geographers have recognized this tradition but its continuity and compass is not fully appreciated. To provide such an appreciation, this paper argues that the paradigmatic distinctiveness of dissenting institutionalism rests especially on its recognition that real world economies are embedded, have histories or evolve, and are different. The discussion is based around these three cornerstone principles of embeddedness, evolution and difference. For the future, greater attention to the region as an institution, albeit a complex one, along with greater attention to the synthesis of multi-dimensional processes that are normally analyzes as separate conceptual categories, is encouraged. [source]

    The Future of Regions: Why the Competitiveness Imperative Should not Prevail over Solidarity, Sustainability and Democracy

    Riccardo Petrella
    The thesis here submitted for debate and criticism is as follows: if today's governing principles that inspire policy choices and priority setting in our societies (which claim to be "knowledge- based societies") are to remain in place in the course of the coming five to ten years, the relative position of the less developed regions (and cities) vis-à-vis the most developed ones will again deteriorate, even though per capita real purchasing power might also slightly increase in the less developed regions. The if-hypothesis, however, is not the only possible pattern of future developments. Because present economic and political leaders are, in general, the promoters and supporters of today's predominant principles, the only way to make possible alternative future developments based on solidarity, sustainability and democracy is that citizens themselves take the initiative, locally and globally, to modify present practices and define new goals and new priorities. In consideration of the results obtained in recent years by civil social movements and protests, one may reasonably consider it as a possible scenario. [source]