Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Regimen

  • active regimen
  • alternative regimen
  • anaesthetic regimen
  • analgesic regimen
  • antibiotic regimen
  • anticoagulation regimen
  • antihypertensive regimen
  • antiplatelet regimen
  • antiretroviral regimen
  • chemotherapeutic regimen
  • chemotherapy regimen
  • combination regimen
  • combined regimen
  • conditioning regimen
  • current treatment regimen
  • cyclophosphamide regimen
  • daily regimen
  • dietary regimen
  • different regimen
  • different treatment regimen
  • dosage regimen
  • dose regimen
  • dosing regimen
  • drug regimen
  • effective regimen
  • effective treatment regimen
  • eradication regimen
  • exercise regimen
  • feeding regimen
  • fluid regimen
  • haart regimen
  • immunosuppression regimen
  • immunosuppressive regimen
  • induction regimen
  • initial regimen
  • injection regimen
  • insulin regimen
  • maintenance regimen
  • medical regimen
  • medication regimen
  • neoadjuvant regimen
  • new dosing regimen
  • new regimen
  • once-daily dosing regimen
  • optimal regimen
  • optimal treatment regimen
  • oral regimen
  • other regimen
  • postoperative regimen
  • preparative regimen
  • prescribed regimen
  • prophylactic regimen
  • prophylaxis regimen
  • salvage regimen
  • same regimen
  • screening regimen
  • skin care regimen
  • standard regimen
  • steroid-free regimen
  • therapeutic regimen
  • therapy regimen
  • treatment regimen
  • twice-daily regimen
  • weekly regimen

  • Terms modified by Regimen

  • regimen b
  • regimen consisting
  • regimen used

  • Selected Abstracts


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Zemin Cao

    Abrupt Termination of an Ethanol Regimen Provokes Ventricular Arrhythmia and Enhances Susceptibility to the Arrhythmogenic Effects of Epinephrine in Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2010
    Jinyao Liu
    Background:, Pathologists examining victims of sudden unexpected death encounter alcoholics more often than expected; alcohol may play a role in sudden arrhythmic death. Here we determine whether a pattern of alcohol consumption, chronic ethanol intake, and withdrawal increases the incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmia and modulates susceptibility to the arrhythmogenic potential of sympathetic stimulation from an epinephrine test in rats. Methods:, Male Wistar rats were treated with a continuous ethanol liquid diet for 7 weeks, and then subjected to 1-day withdrawal or 21-day abstinence. Ventricular ectopy was evaluated by 24-hour electrocardiographic telemetry recording; whole-body sympathetic activation, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia induced by sympathetic stimulation were evaluated based on blood noradrenalin metabolite concentrations, heart rate variability, and a 3-step epinephrine test. Results:, Ventricular arrhythmia and related death were observed only in rats at 1 day of withdrawal, but not in nonalcoholic, continuous ethanol intake or 21-day abstinence rats. One-day withdrawal after a 7-week continuous ethanol regimen elevated circulating noradrenalin metabolite levels and induced cardiac sympathovagal imbalance. Deaths related to the epinephrine test and ventricular arrhythmia induced by low doses of epinephrine were observed only in 1-day withdrawal rats. However, all anomalies were normalized by 21-day abstinence. Conclusions:, Abrupt termination of a 7-week continuous ethanol regimen is sufficient to enhance the whole-body sympathetic activation and cardiac sympathovagal imbalance that contribute to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in alcoholic rats. Those providing medical care for alcoholics, including in cases of legal imprisonment, should be aware of the possibility of enhanced susceptibility to sudden arrhythmic death due to the abrupt termination of a chronic ethanol regimen. [source]

    Immunologic Changes in TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and IL-8 in Pediatric Patients Treated for Psoriasis with the Goeckerman Regimen

    Lenka Borska M.D., Ph.D.
    The present study investigated changes in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in children with psoriasis. The observed patient group of 26 children was treated with the Goeckerman regimen. This therapy combines dermal application of crude coal tar with ultraviolet radiation. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index decreased significantly after treatment by with the Goeckerman regimen (p < 0.001). Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin decreased after the Goeckerman regimen. The TNF-alpha and sICAM-1 decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Our findings support the complex role of these immune parameters in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis in children. The serum level of IL-8 increased after the Goeckerman regimen. This fact indicates that the chemokine pathway of IL-8 activity could be modulated by this treatment, most likely by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. [source]

    Experience with a Novel Efalizumab-Based Immunosuppressive Regimen to Facilitate Single Donor Islet Cell Transplantation

    N. A. Turgeon
    Islet transplantation is an experimental therapy for selected patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). It remains limited by immunosuppressive drug toxicity, progressive loss of insulin independence, allosensitization and the need for multiple islet donors. We describe our experience with an efalizumab-based immunosuppressive regimen as compared to the prevailing standard regimen, the Edmonton protocol. Twelve patients with T1DM received islet transplants: eight were treated with the Edmonton protocol; four were treated with daclizumab induction, a 6-month course of tacrolimus, and maintenance with efalizumab and mycophenolate mofetil. The primary endpoint was insulin independence after one islet infusion. Only two Edmonton protocol treated patients achieved the primary endpoint; six required islets from multiple donors, and all experienced leukopenia, mouth ulcers, anemia, diarrhea and hypertransaminasemia. Four became allosensitized. All patients treated with the efalizumab-based regimen achieved insulin independence with normal hemoglobin A1c after a single islet cell infusion and remained insulin independent while on efalizumab. These patients experienced significantly fewer side effects and none became allosensitized. Trial continuation was terminated by withdrawal of efalizumab from the market. These data suggest that this efalizumab-based regimen prevents islet rejection, is well tolerated, and allows for single donor islet transplantation. [source]

    Impact of Virologic Breakthrough and HBIG Regimen on Hepatitis B Recurrence After Liver Transplantation

    B. Degertekin
    The availability of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and several oral antiviral therapies has reduced but not eliminated hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence. We aimed to determine the rate of HBV recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in relation to virologic breakthrough pre-OLT and HBIG regimens post-OLT. Data from the NIH HBV-OLT database were analyzed. A total of 183 patients transplanted between 2001 and 2007 followed for a median of 42 months (range 1,81) post-OLT were studied. At transplant, 29% were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (+), 38.5% had HBV DNA > 5 log10 copies/mL, 74% were receiving antiviral therapy. Twenty-five patients experienced virologic breakthrough before OLT. Post-OLT, 26%, 22%, 40% and 12% of patients received intravenous (IV) high-dose, IV low-dose, intramuscular low-dose and a finite duration of HBIG, respectively as maintenance prophylaxis. All but two patients also received antiviral therapy. Cumulative rates of HBV recurrence at 1 and 5 years were 3% and 9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that listing HBeAg status and HBV DNA level at OLT were the only factors associated with HBV recurrence. In conclusion, low rates of HBV recurrence can be accomplished with all the HBIG regimens used when combined with antiviral therapy including patients with breakthrough pre-OLT as long as rescue therapy is administered pre- and post-OLT. [source]

    Early and Limited Use of Tacrolimus to Avoid Rejection in an Alemtuzumab and Sirolimus Regimen for Kidney Transplantation: Clinical Results and Immune Monitoring

    S. J. Knechtle
    Alemtuzumab induction with 60 days of tacrolimus treatment and continuous sirolimus treatment prevented acute rejection in nine of 10 consecutive renal allograft recipients. All patients are alive with a functioning kidney graft at 27,39 months of follow-up. Extensive immune monitoring was performed in all patients. Alloantibody detection, cytokine kinetics assay (CKA), and trans vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay were performed every 6 months showing correlation with clinical evolution. Despite alloantibody presence in five patients, eight patients remain without the need for specific treatment and only sirolimus monotherapy in decreasing dosage. Four patients take only 1 mg sirolimus daily with levels of 3,4 ng/mL. One patient showed clinical signs of rejection at month 9 post-transplant, with slow increase in serum creatinine and histological signs of mixed cellular (endarteritis) and humoral rejection (C4d positivity in peritubular capillaries and donor-specific antibody (DSA)). In summary, the addition of tacrolimus therapy for 2 months to a steroid-free, alemtuzumab induction and sirolimus maintenance protocol limited the previously shown acute rejection development. Nevertheless, alloantibody was present in serum and/or C4d present on 1-year biopsy in half the patients. The combination of CKA and DSA monitoring or the performance of transvivo DTH correlated with immune status of the patients. [source]

    Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of tropicamide and phenylephrine in preoperative mydriasis for phacoemulsification

    Philip TH Lam FRCOphth
    Abstract Purpose: To compare the mydriatic effect and safety between different concentrations of tropicamide and phenyle­phrine in preoperative mydriasis for phaco­emulsification. Methods: Two hundred and seventeen consecutive eyes in the same number of Chinese patients undergoing phaco­emulsification under local or topical anaesthesia in a university-based eye hospital were analyzed. Patients were randomized into two groups by cluster randomization, each group receiving a different preoperative mydriatic regimen. Regimen A consisted of tropicamide 1.0% with phenylephrine 2.5%, and Regimen B consisted of tropicamide 0.5% with phenylephrine 0.5%. The main outcome measures were horizontal pupillary diameter, systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure and pulse rate. Results: The group who received Regimen A attained a mean horizontal pupillary diameter of 7.00 ± 1.06 mm. Their pupils were significantly larger than those receiving Regimen B (6.61 ± 1.03 mm, P = 0.007). No untoward cardiovascular effects were noted in either groups. Conclusion: Regimen A attained better preoperative mydriasis for phacoemulsification than Regimen B. Both regimens were safe with regard to their cardiovascular effects. The combination of tropicamide 1.0% and phenylephrine 2.5% is recommended as preoperative mydriatic for phacoemulsification in Chinese patients who have darkly pigmented irides. [source]

    Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis Presenting as an Acute Embolic Myocardial Infarction in a Pregnant Patient: Issues on Anticoagulation Regimens and Thrombolytic Therapy

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2006
    Padmini Varadarajan M.D.
    Mechanical valves are inherently thrombogenic and require meticulous anticoagulation. Pregnancy produces a hypercoagulable state and achieving adequate anticoagulation is difficult. We present a pregnant patient who had a nonobstructive thrombus of mechanical mitral valve causing embolic acute myocardial infarction. Issues surrounding management of anticoagulation and use of thrombolytic therapy during pregnancy are discussed. Education regarding the critical nature of adequate anticoagulation in these patients is important. [source]

    Rabeprazole- versus Esomeprazole-Based Eradication Regimens for H. pylori Infection

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2007
    I-Chen Wu
    Abstract Background: Different kinds of proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies could result in different Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aim: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of rabeprazole- and esomeprazole-based triple therapy in primary treatment of H. pylori infection in Taiwan. Patients and Methods: From June 2005 to March 2007, 420 H. pylori -infected patients were randomly assigned to receive a 7-day eradication therapy with either esomeprazole 40 mg daily (EAC group, n = 209) or rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (RAC group, n = 211) in combination with amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.. Follow-up endoscopy with biopsy was done 12,16 weeks after completion of eradication therapy. Those who refused endoscopic exams underwent 13C-urea breath test to assess the treatment response. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the eradication rate was 89.4% in the EAC group and 90.5% in RAC groups (p -value = .72). All of the subjects returned for assessment of compliance (100% in EAC group vs. 99.5% in RAC group, p -value = .32) and adverse events (3.83% in EAC group vs. 6.16% in RAC group, p -value = .27). Sixty (28.7%) and 37 (17.6%) patients in EAC and RAC group, respectively, refused endoscopy and underwent a 13C-urea breath test to determine the treatment effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, rabeprazole- and esomeprazole-based primary therapies for H. pylori infection are comparable in efficacy and safety. [source]

    A Report Card to Grade Helicobacter pylori Therapy

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2007
    David Y. Graham
    Helicobacter pylori causes a serious bacterial infectious disease, and the expectations of therapy should reflect this fact. Increasing antibiotic resistance, especially to clarithromycin, has significantly undermined the effectiveness of legacy triple therapy consisting of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Current cure rates are consistently below 80% intention-to-treat, the accepted threshold separating acceptable from unacceptable treatment results. Grading clinical studies into effectiveness categories using prespecified criteria would allow clinicians to objectively identify and compare regimens. We offer a therapy report card similar to that used to grade the performance of school children. The intention-to-treat cure rate categories are: F or unacceptable ( 80%), D or poor (81,84%), C or fair (85,89%), B or good (90,95%), and A or excellent (95,100%). The category of "excellent" is based on the cure rates expected with other prevalent bacterial infectious diseases. We propose that only therapies that score "excellent" (grade = A) should be prescribed. Regimens scoring as B or "good" can be used if "excellent" results are not obtainable. In most regions legacy triple therapy should be abandoned as unacceptable. Quadruple therapy and sequential therapy are reasonable alternatives for initial therapy. [source]

    Emerging Insights in the First-Step Use of Antihypertensive Combination Therapy

    Keith Norris MD
    The blood pressure (BP) goals set by hypertension management guidelines (<140/90 mm Hg in uncomplicated hypertension; <130/80 mm Hg in type 2 diabetes or kidney disease) are not being achieved in a high proportion of patients, partly because monotherapy is insufficient in many patients. In particular, patients with uncontrolled moderate or severe hypertension and/or associated cardiovascular risk factors remain at high risk for cardiovascular events and hypertensive emergency. In recognition of the urgency of treating moderate and severe hypertension, the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) advocates the initial use of 2-drug therapies in patients with systolic BP levels >20 mm Hg above goal or diastolic BP level >10 mm Hg above goal. Regimens should usually include a thiazide diuretic and, for patients with diabetes or kidney disease, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Recently, clinical trial data have shown that first-step antihypertensive treatment of moderate and severe hypertension with carefully chosen fixed-dose combinations provides a high rate of BP goal achievement, a simplified dosing regimen, and superior tolerability compared with monotherapy. [source]

    Your Drug, My Drug, or Our Drugs: How Aggressive Should We Be With Antihypertensive Therapy?

    Joseph L. Izzo Jr. MD
    In the prevention of hypertensive complications, especially stroke and kidney disease, "lower is better" because for each decrease of 20 mm Hg systolic or 10 mm Hg diastolic pressure in the population, cardiovascular risk is halved. Ideally, the goal for each patient should be to reach the lowest blood pressure that is well tolerated, a value that may be well below the arbitrary threshold value of 140/90 mm Hg. For the majority of "uncomplicated hypertensives," the question of single-drug therapy is essentially moot, because more than one agent is almost always required to optimally control blood pressure. In individuals who already have heart or kidney disease, there are compelling indications for the use of drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, but the large outcome studies that spawned these recommendations are themselves combination trials. Thus, in virtually all patients, more than one drug is indicated. The best combinations take advantage of long durations of action and complementary mechanisms of action of the component and are not only able to effectively lower blood pressure, but also to favorably affect the natural history of hypertensive complications. Regimens,including fixed-dose combination products,that combine a thiazide diuretic or calcium antagonist with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker are most efficient. In summary, why would an astute clinician (or informed patient) be satisfied with the relatively limited effects of any single class of antihypertensive agents when better overall protection is possible? [source]

    Effect of Standardized Skin Care Regimens on Neonatal Skin Barrier Function in Different Body Areas

    Natalie Garcia Bartels M.D.
    In a prospective, randomized clinical study, we compared the influence of three skin care regimens to bathing with water on skin barrier function in newborns at four anatomic sites. A total of 64 healthy, full-term neonates (32 boys and 32 girls) aged <48 hours were randomly assigned to four groups receiving twice-weekly: WG, bathing with wash gel (n = 16); C, bathing and cream (n = 16); WG + C, bathing with wash gel plus cream (n = 16); and B, bathing with water (n = 16). Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin pH, sebum were measured on day 2, week 2, 4, 8 of life on front, abdomen, upper leg, and buttock. Skin condition was scored and microbiologic colonization was documented. After 8 weeks, group WG + C showed significantly lower transepidermal water loss on front, abdomen, and upper leg as well as higher stratum corneum hydration on front and abdomen compared with group B. Similarly, group C showed lower transepidermal water loss and higher stratum corneum hydration on these body regions. Group WG revealed significantly lower pH on all sites compared with group B at week 8. No differences in sebum level, microbiologic colonization and skin condition score were found. Skin care regimens did not harm physiologic neonatal skin barrier adaptation within the first 8 weeks of life. However, significant influence of skin care on barrier function was found in a regional specific fashion. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,WOMEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH: Comparison of the Effects of Hormone Therapy Regimens, Oral and Vaginal Estradiol, Estradiol + Drospirenone and Tibolone, on Sexual Function in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Filiz Çayan MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Aims., To prospectively evaluate and compare the effects of hormone therapy (HT) regimens, oral and vaginal estradiol, estradiol + drospirenone and tibolone, on sexual function in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods., The study included 169 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women, and the women were divided into two groups: 111 women received HT, and 58 women received no treatment and served as a control group. As an HT, 23 women with surgically induced menopause received oral 17-, estradiol. The rest of the women with natural menopause were prospectively randomized: 22 received oral 17-, estradiol + drospirenone daily, 42 received oral tibolone, and 24 received vaginal 17-, estradiol. Sexual function was evaluated with a detailed 19-item questionnaire, the female sexual function index, including sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. Main Outcome Measures., The differences in sexual function were compared before and 6 months after the treatment in all women. Results., Total sexual function score increased from 19.81 ± 7.15 to 22.9 ± 6.44 in the HT group and decreased from 21.6 ± 8.69 to 17.6 ± 5.7 in the control group, revealing a significant difference from baseline to post-treatment between the two groups (P = 0.000). The highest improvement in total score and arousal was achieved with the oral 17-, estradiol (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). The highest improvement in lubrication was achieved with the oral and vaginal 17-, estradiol groups (P = 0.000). The highest improvement in orgasm was achieved with the tibolone group (P = 0.000). The highest improvement in pain was achieved with the oral and vaginal 17-, estradiol groups (P = 0.000). Conclusions., HT provided significant improvement in sexual function compared to women receiving no treatment, and therefore, HT regimens should be suggested for improvement in sexual functioning of postmenopausal women. Çayan F, Dilek U, Pata Ö, and Dilek S. Comparison of the effects of hormone therapy regimens, oral and vaginal estradiol, estradiol + drospirenone and tibolone, on sexual function in healthy postmenopausal women. J Sex Med 2008;5:132,138. [source]

    Efficacy and Safety of Two Dosing Regimens of Tadalafil and Patterns of Sexual Activity in Men with Diabetes Mellitus and Erectile Dysfunction: Scheduled Use vs.

    On-Demand Regimen Evaluation (SURE) Study in 14 European Countries
    ABSTRACT Aim., The aim of this article is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 20-mg tadalafil taken on demand or three times per week and its effect on the sexual activity of patients with diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods., The scheduled use vs. on-demand regimen evaluation (SURE) was a randomized, crossover, open-label study with 4,262 patients in 14 European countries. The efficacy measures for the 762 patients with diabetes and ED included changes from baseline in the erectile function (EF) domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and the proportion of "yes" responses to patient Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questions 2 (SEP2) and 3 (SEP3). The treatment satisfaction was measured with responses to SEP question 4 (SEP4) and SEP question 5 (SEP5), and sexual attempts data were collected. Patient preference for either regimen was determined by the treatment preference question (TPQ). Results., At end point on both regimens, the mean IIEF EF domain score was 22, and >40% of the patients had a normal EF domain score (,26). The proportion of "yes" responses was ,73% for SEP2 (penetration), ,58% for SEP3 (successful intercourse), >46% for SEP4 (hardness of erection), and ,45% for SEP5 (overall satisfaction). Efficacy was maintained up to 36 hours post-dosing. More than 70% of sexual attempts while on the three-times-per-week regimen and approximately 50% of the attempts on the on-demand treatment occurred >4 hours post-dosing. Tadalafil was well tolerated, with dyspepsia and headache as the most frequent adverse events reported. Treatment preference was 57.2% for on demand and 42.8% for three times per week. Conclusions., Tadalafil, when taken on demand or three times per week, is efficacious and safe in men with diabetes and ED. Buvat J, van Ahlen H, Schmitt H, Chan M, Kuepfer C, and Varanese L. Efficacy and safety of two dosing regimens of tadalafil and patterns of sexual activity in men with diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction: Scheduled use vs. on-demand regimen evaluation (SURE) study in 14 European countries. J Sex Med 2006;3:512,520. [source]

    A Phase III Study of Belatacept-based Immunosuppression Regimens versus Cyclosporine in Renal Transplant Recipients (BENEFIT Study)

    F. Vincenti
    Belatacept, a costimulation blocker, may preserve renal function and improve long-term outcomes versus calcineurin inhibitors in kidney transplantation. This Phase III study (Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression Trial) assessed a more intensive (MI) or less intensive (LI) regimen of belatacept versus cyclosporine in adults receiving a kidney transplant from living or standard criteria deceased donors. The coprimary endpoints at 12 months were patient/graft survival, a composite renal impairment endpoint (percent with a measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at Month 12 or a decrease in mGFR ,10 mL/min/1.73 m2 Month 3,Month 12) and the incidence of acute rejection. At Month 12, both belatacept regimens had similar patient/graft survival versus cyclosporine (MI: 95%, LI: 97% and cyclosporine: 93%), and were associated with superior renal function as measured by the composite renal impairment endpoint (MI: 55%; LI: 54% and cyclosporine: 78%; p , 0.001 MI or LI versus cyclosporine) and by the mGFR (65, 63 and 50 mL/min for MI, LI and cyclosporine; p , 0.001 MI or LI versus cyclosporine). Belatacept patients experienced a higher incidence (MI: 22%, LI: 17% and cyclosporine: 7%) and grade of acute rejection episodes. Safety was generally similar between groups, but posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was more common in the belatacept groups. Belatacept was associated with superior renal function and similar patient/graft survival versus cyclosporine at 1 year posttransplant, despite a higher rate of early acute rejection. [source]

    Evaluation of Immunosuppressive Regimens in ABO-Incompatible Living Kidney Transplantation,Single Center Analysis

    H. Ishida
    Several protocols allow the successful ABO incompatible living-related kidney transplantation (ABO-ILKT), yet no single method has emerged as the best. We have made several substantial changes to our ABO-ILKT protocol over the past decade and a half and have attempted to determine whether the changes in immunosuppressive agents have resulted in a better outcome. We used methylprednisolone (MP), cyclosporine (CsA), azathioprine (AZ), antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) and deoxyspergualine (DSG) in the 105 cases of ABO-ILKT (group 1) between 1989 and 1999, and MP, tacrolimus (FK506), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the 117 cases of ABO-ILKT (group 2) between 2000 and 2004. We compared the patient and graft survival rates as well as the incidence rate of acute rejection in these two eras, when different regimens were used. There were significant differences in the 1- and 5-year graft survival rates between groups 1 and 2 (1-year: 78% in group 1 vs. 94% in group 2; 5-year: 73% in group 1 vs. 90% in group 2, p = 0.008). Also, a higher incidence rate of acute rejection was significantly observed in group 1 (50/105, 48%) than in group 2 (18/117, 15%) (p < 0.001). We conclude that the FK/MMF combination regimen provides excellent graft survival results in ABO-ILKT. [source]

    In Vivo Preclinical Anticoagulation Regimens After Implantation of Ventricular Assist Devices

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 7 2009
    Diyar Saeed
    Abstract Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have demonstrated successfully their ability to treat failing circulation of patients with end-stage heart failure. Among the main obstacles with these VADs is thromboembolic events that increase device-related morbidity and mortality. Prior to the clinical application of any newly developed VAD, the feasibility of the device is tested on animal models. Animal species have different hemostatic properties than human patients, and this factor creates a margin of error when comparing the occurrence of VAD-induced thrombosis in an animal versus a human. This detailed literature review provides a thorough documentation of various preclinical anticoagulation protocols used to date, including their outcomes and recommendations for future anticoagulation management strategies. In summary, the outcomes favor a sheep or pig model over other animal models, and discourage the application of a single anticoagulative agent to improve outcomes with any of the currently available devices. [source]

    Influence of concurrent exercise or nutrition countermeasures on thigh and calf muscle size and function during 60 days of bed rest in women

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2007
    T. A. Trappe
    Abstract Aim:, The goal of this investigation was to test specific exercise and nutrition countermeasures to lower limb skeletal muscle volume and strength losses during 60 days of simulated weightlessness (6° head-down-tilt bed rest). Methods:, Twenty-four women underwent bed rest only (BR, n = 8), bed rest and a concurrent exercise training countermeasure (thigh and calf resistance training and aerobic treadmill training; BRE, n = 8), or bed rest and a nutrition countermeasure (a leucine-enriched high protein diet; BRN, n = 8). Results:, Thigh (quadriceps femoris) muscle volume was decreased (P < 0.05) in BR (,21 ± 1%) and BRN (,24 ± 2%), with BRN losing more (P < 0.05) than BR. BRE maintained (P > 0.05) thigh muscle volume. Calf (triceps surae) muscle volume was decreased (P < 0.05) to a similar extent (P > 0.05) in BR (,29 ± 1%) and BRN (,28 ± 1%), and this decrease was attenuated (P < 0.05) in BRE (,8 ± 2%). BR and BRN experienced large (P < 0.05) and similar (P > 0.05) decreases in isometric and dynamic (concentric force, eccentric force, power and work) muscle strength for supine squat (,19 to ,33%) and calf press (,26 to ,46%). BRE maintained (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05) all measures of muscle strength. Conclusion:, The nutrition countermeasure was not effective in offsetting lower limb muscle volume or strength loss, and actually promoted thigh muscle volume loss. The concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise protocol was effective at preventing thigh muscle volume loss, and thigh and calf muscle strength loss. While the exercise protocol offset ,75% of the calf muscle volume loss, modification of this regimen is needed. [source]

    Treatment of Inflammatory Facial Acne Vulgaris with Intense Pulsed Light and Short Contact of Topical 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: A Pilot Study

    BACKGROUND Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and red light (550,700 nm) has been introduced for effective treatment of facial acne. Untoward side effects are common, however. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the short contact of topical ALA and intense pulsed light (IPL) in treatment of inflammatory facial acne. METHODS Fourteen patients with inflammatory facial acne were treated with IPL on the left side and combination of IPL and topical ALA on the right side at 3- to 4-week intervals for three sessions. Clinical photographs and lesion counts were obtained for evaluation. RESULTS All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne lesions on both sides. On the ALA-pretreated side, lesion counts decreased 87.7% at 12 weeks after the last treatment (p<.01). Meanwhile, lesion counts on the nonpretreated side decreased 66.8% (p<.01). In addition, a number of lesion counts on the ALA-pretreated side decreased. Mild edema and minimal crust developed on the combined-treatment side. CONCLUSION Short contact of topical ALA and IPL or IPL alone showed some beneficial effect in treatment of inflammatory facial acne; however, degree of improvement was better and remained longer with the combined regimen. Side effects were mild and reversible. [source]

    Extraorbital Sebaceous Carcinoma With Rapidly Developing Visceral Metastases

    Deniz Güney Duman MD
    Background. Extraorbital sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a rare carcinoma of the skin but is known to have a good prognosis in terms of metastasis and survival. Objective. To discuss and emphasize through the clinical and histopathologic findings and the aggressive potential of extraorbital SC and to review the corresponding literature. Methods. We present an unusual form of extraorbital SC that has followed an aggressive course and that has metastasized rapidly. Results. Local excision of the primary cutaneous tumor with negative margins did not prevent the rapid and fatal internal organ metastases. The patient did not benefit from the docetaxel chemotherapy regimen applied after the distant metastases were developed. Conclusion. Extraorbital SC may show a poor prognosis. Both the dermatologic surgeon and the dermatologist should be cautious of the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis when dealing with extraorbital SC. [source]

    Management of cutaneous tuberculosis

    Evangeline B Handog
    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is an extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis, which may be classified based on the immunologic state of the host. Chemotherapy still remains the treatment of choice. The management of cutaneous TB follows the same guidelines as that of TB of other organs, which can be treated with a short course four-agent chemotherapeutic regimen given for 2 months followed by a two-drug regimen for the next 4 months. This chapter highlights current treatment recommendations for cutaneous TB. The important factors to consider in the choice of optimal treatment includes the type of cutaneous involvement, stage of the disease, level of immunity, and general condition of the patient. The highest priority in any cutaneous TB control program is the proper, accurate, and rapid detection of cases and the availability of chemotherapy to all tuberculosis patients until cure. Contact tracing is also an important component of efficient tuberculosis control. [source]

    Selective glucocorticoid receptor (type II) antagonist prevents and reverses olanzapine-induced weight gain

    J. K. Belanoff
    Use of antipsychotic medications has been associated consistently with weight gain and metabolic disturbances, and a subsequent increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Two experiments tested whether CORT 108297, a newly identified selective glucocorticoid antagonist could (i) reduce and (ii) prevent olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats. In the first experiment, rats dosed only with olanzapine gained a statistically significant amount of weight. When vehicle was added to their olanzapine dose, they continued to gain weight; when CORT 108297 was added to their regimen, they lost a significant amount of weight. Rats administered CORT 108297 plus olanzapine had significantly less abdominal fat than those who received olanzapine alone. In the second experiment, rats receiving olanzapine plus CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight than rats receiving only olanzapine. Increasing doses of CORT 108297 were associated with less weight gain. [source]

    Colesevelam lowers glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes: the clinical evidence

    Vivian A. Fonseca
    Simultaneous control of blood glucose and other risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia is essential for reducing the risk of complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As relatively few patients with T2DM have their risk factors managed to within the limits recommended by the American Diabetes Association, American College of Endocrinology or National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, treatment that can simultaneously control more than one risk factor is of therapeutic benefit. Clinical studies have shown that bile acid sequestrants have glucose-lowering effects in addition to their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effects in patients with T2DM. The bile acid sequestrant colesevelam hydrochloride is approved as an adjunct to antidiabetes therapy for improving glycaemic control in adults with T2DM. This review examines data from three phase III clinical trials that evaluated the glucose- and lipid-lowering effects of colesevelam when added to the existing antidiabetes treatment regimen of patients with T2DM. [source]

    Mid- and high-ratio premix insulin analogues: potential treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes in need of greater postprandial blood glucose control

    J. S. Christiansen
    Some patients with type 2 diabetes continue to have high postprandial blood glucose levels on twice-daily regimens of ,low-ratio' premix insulin formulations (up to 30% rapid-acting, with 70% protracted insulin). These patients require intensified insulin therapy, which can be provided by a twice- or thrice-daily regimen of mid-ratio (50% rapid-acting and 50% protaminated intermediate-acting insulin , human or analogue) or high-ratio (70% rapid-acting and 30% protaminated insulin , analogue only) premix insulin. Alternatively, a third daily injection of low-ratio premix insulin can be added to the regimen, with the option of incorporating one or more injections of mid- or high-ratio premix as required, and as an alternative to basal,bolus therapy. How these mid- and high-ratio formulations differ from the low-ratio premix insulins is reviewed here, with the aim of identifying the role of these formulations in diabetes management. Glucose clamp studies have shown that premix analogues give serum insulin levels proportional to their percentage of rapid-acting uncomplexed insulin: the higher the proportion, the greater the maximum level reached. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were not always significantly different between the mid- and high-ratio formulations. In clinical trials, postprandial plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were significantly reduced with thrice-daily mid- /high-ratio premix analogue when compared with twice-daily low-ratio biphasic human insulin (BHI) 30/70 or once-daily insulin glargine. Moreover, glycaemic control with mid-/high-ratio premix analogue was found to be similar to that with a basal,bolus therapy. Mid- and high-ratio premix regimens are generally well tolerated. The frequency of minor hypoglycaemia was reportedly higher with mid- /high-ratio premix analogues than with BHI 30, but nocturnal hypoglycaemia was less frequent. Although there is little evidence that clinical outcomes with mid-ratio premix analogues are different from those with high-ratio, they are useful additions to the low-ratio formulations for the management of diabetes, and addressing postprandial hyperglycaemia in particular. [source]

    An exploratory study of the effect of using high-mix biphasic insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes

    U. Dashora
    Objective:, To compare blood glucose control when using biphasic insulin aspart (BIAsp) three times a day (using 70/30 high-mix before breakfast and lunch), with biphasic human insulin (BHI, 30/70) twice daily in adults with type 2 diabetes already treated with insulin. Research design and methods:, In a 60-day, open-label, crossover study, people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes [n = 38, baseline haemoglobin A1c 8.3 ± 0.9 (s.d.) %] were randomized to BIAsp three times a day before meals, as BIAsp 70 (70% insulin aspart and 30% protamine-complexed insulin aspart) before breakfast and lunch and BIAsp 30 (30/70 free and protamine-complexed insulin aspart) before dinner, or to human premix insulin (BHI) 30/70 twice a day before meals. A 24-h in-patient plasma glucose profile was performed at the end of each 30-day treatment period. The total daily insulin dose of BIAsp regimen was 110% of BHI and the doses were not changed during the study. Results:, There was no difference between BIAsp and BHI in geometric weighted average serum glucose over 24 h [7.3 vs. 7.7 mmol/l, BIAsp/BHI ratio 0.95 (95% CI 0.88,1.02), not significant (NS)], but daytime geometric weighted average glucose concentration was significantly lower with the BIAsp regimen than with BHI [8.3 vs. 9.2 mmol/l, BIAsp/BHI ratio 0.90 (0.84,0.98), p = 0.014]. The mealtime serum glucose excursion was also lower with BIAsp than with BHI with statistically significant differences at lunchtime [difference ,4.9 (,7.0 to ,2.7) mmol/l, p = 0.000); the difference in glucose excursions above 7.0 mmol/l was also significant [,5.8 (,8.3 to ,3.2) mmol/l, p = 0.000). The proportion of participants experiencing confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes was similar between regimens (42 vs. 43%, NS). Conclusions:, An insulin regimen using high-mix BIAsp (BIAsp 70) before breakfast and lunch and BIAsp 30 before dinner can achieve lower blood glucose levels during the day through reduced mealtime glucose excursions in particular at lunchtime than a twice-daily premix regimen. [source]

    Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: what is the evidence?

    Mariëlle J. P. Van Avendonk
    Aim:, To systematically review the literature regarding insulin use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Methods:, A Medline and Embase search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in English between 1 January 2000 and 1 April 2008, involving insulin therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The RCTs must comprise at least glycaemic control (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), postprandial plasma glucose and /or fasting blood glucose (FBG)) and hypoglycaemic events as outcome measurements. Results:, The Pubmed search resulted in 943 hits; the Embase search gave 692 hits. A total of 116 RCTs were selected by title or abstract. Eventually 78 trials met the inclusion criteria. The studies were very diverse and of different quality. They comprised all possible insulin regimens with and without combination with oral medication. Continuing metformin and/or sulphonylurea after start of therapy with basal long-acting insulin results in better glycaemic control with less insulin requirements, less weight gain and less hypoglycaemic events. Long-acting insulin analogues in combination with oral medication are associated with similar glycaemic control but fewer hypoglycaemic episodes compared with NPH insulin. Most of the trials demonstrated better glycaemic control with premix insulin therapy than with a long-acting insulin once daily, but premix insulin causes more hypoglycaemic episodes. Analogue premix provides similar HbA1c, but lower postprandial glucose levels compared with human premix, without increase in hypoglycaemic events or weight gain. Drawing conclusions from the limited number of studies concerning basal,bolus regimen seems not possible. Some studies showed that rapid-acting insulin analogues frequently result in a better HbA1c or postprandial glucose without increase of hypoglycaemia than regular human insulin. Conclusion:, A once-daily basal insulin regimen added to oral medication is an ideal starting point. All next steps, from one to two or even more injections per day should be taken very carefully and in thorough deliberation with the patient, who has to comply with such a regimen for many years. [source]

    Multiple mealtime administration of biphasic insulin aspart 30 versus traditional basal-bolus human insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes

    J. -W.
    Aim:, The aim of this study was to compare the effect of multiple mealtime injections of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (30% fast-acting insulin aspart in the formulation, BIAsp30) to traditional basal-bolus human insulin regimen (HI) on glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods:, Twenty-three patients (eight women and 15 men) aged 44.8 (20.6,62.5) years (median and range) with a diabetes duration of 19.5 (1.6,44.6) years completed the study. All eligible patients were randomly assigned to BIAsp30 thrice daily supplied with bedtime NPH insulin when necessary, or basal-bolus HI for 12 weeks and then switched to the alternative regimen for another 12 weeks. The insulin dose adjustments were made by patients on the basis of advice from a diabetes nurse. At end of each treatment period, the patients attended two profile days, 1 week apart for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessments. HbA1C was measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. A seven-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) was obtained twice weekly. Results:, In comparison with HI, multiple mealtime injections of BIAsp30 resulted in a significant reduction in HbA1C[HI vs. BIAsp30 (%, geometric mean and range): 8.6 (7.4,11.4) vs. 8.3 (6.7,9.8), p = 0.013]. During treatment with BIAsp30, nighttime glycaemic control was significantly improved. Day-to-day variation in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and the rate of hypoglycaemia were not increased with BIAsp30 compared with HI. Conclusions:, In type 1 diabetics, multiple mealtime administration of BIAsp30 compared with traditional basal-bolus human insulin treatment significantly improves long-term glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. Despite a higher proportion of intermediate-acting insulin, thrice-daily injections with BIAsp30 do not increase the day-to-day variations in insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. [source]

    Unlocking the opportunity of tight glycaemic control

    Innovative delivery of insulin via the lung
    As the incidence of diabetes reaches epidemic proportions, the use of new, alternative routes of insulin delivery to manage glycaemic control is becoming an ever more active area of research. The high permeability and large surface area of the lung make it an attractive alternative to subcutaneous (SC) insulin injections. This review discusses the technical factors that influence the efficacy of pulmonary drug delivery and describes how an appreciation of these issues has enabled the design of Exubera®, a novel, non-invasive, pulmonary dry-powder human insulin delivery system currently in development by Pfizer and the sanofi-aventis Group in collaboration with Nektar Therapeutics. While clinical trials of this novel aerosol delivery of insulin are still ongoing in patients with diabetes, the results so far suggest it is simple to use and can provide reproducible doses of insulin in therapeutic amounts with only a few inhalations per dose. In addition, it has been shown to be comparable in terms of efficacy and safety to a conventional SC insulin injection regimen. Delivering aerosolized drugs via the lungs avoids the necessity for SC injections and thereby may increase the patient's acceptability of an insulin-based therapeutic regimen. [source]

    Comparison of additional metformin or NPH insulin to mealtime insulin lispro therapy with mealtime human insulin therapy in secondary OAD failure

    Y. Altuntas
    Aim:, It has been found that non-fasting plasma glucose is a better marker of diabetic control than fasting plasma glucose in type 2 diabetes. The main aim of treatment of type 2 diabetic patients is to control plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of three different insulin regimens (group I: lispro insulin + NPH insulin, group II: lispro insulin + metformin and group III: regular insulin + NPH insulin) on overall glycaemic control and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary oral anti-diabetic drug failure. Methods:, Sixty type 2 diabetic patients with secondary OAD failure were randomly allocated into three different treatment groups equally. There were no significant differences between groups concerning age, body mass index, diabetes duration, HbA1c and serum lipid levels at the beginning of the study. During the 6-month treatment period, blood glucose levels were determined 10 times during 24 h at pre-meal, post-prandial 1 and 2 h and at bedtime. Results:, Group I was found to be the most effective treatment regimen in controlling HbA1c levels (group I vs. group II, p = 0.013; group I vs. group III, p = 0.001; group II vs. group III, p > 0.05). When the comparison was made in each group, change in HbA1c was statistically significant for all groups (,3.18%, p = 0.001; ,2.02%, p = 0.043 and ,2.66%, p = 0.008 respectively). Group I was found to be more effective in controlling fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels measured at all times during the day when compared with group II and group III. In group II triglyceride levels were found to be significantly reduced, whereas other groups had no effect on lipids. No serious hypoglycaemic episodes were observed in any of the cases, whereas in group I hypoglycaemic episode rates were increased (,2 = 8.843, p = 0.012). Conclusions:, Lispro insulin plus NPH insulin regimen is more effective in controlling both pre- and post-prandial glucose levels and HbA1c when compared to regular insulin plus NPH insulin combination. Mealtime lispro insulin plus metformin combination therapy should also be seriously considered as an effective and alternative treatment regimen. It is worthy of attention that insulin lispro plus metformin lowered triglyceride levels. [source]