Regulatory Molecules (regulatory + molecule)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Regulatory Molecules

  • key regulatory molecule

  • Selected Abstracts

    Attempts to Prepare Suitable Complement Regulatory Molecules for Clinical Xenotransplantation

    Shuji Miyagawa M.D.
    First page of article [source]

    Formation of nitrosothiols from gaseous nitric oxide at pH 7.4

    Carlo Alberto Palmerini
    Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is generated in biological systems and plays important roles as a regulatory molecule. Its ability to bind to haem iron is well known. Moreover, it may lose an electron, forming the nitrosonium ion, involved in the synthesis of S -nitrosothiols (SNOs). It has been suggested that S -nitrosohaemoglobin (,SNO Hb) and low molecular weight SNOs may act as reservoirs of NO. SNOs are formed in vitro, at strongly acidic pH values; however, the mechanism of their formation at neutral pH values is still debated. In this paper we report the anaerobic formation of SNOs (both high- and low-molecular weight) from low concentrations of NO at pH 7.4, provided Hb is also present. We propose a reaction mechanism entailing the participation of Fehaem in the formation of NO+ and the transfer of NO+ either to Cys,93 of Hb or to glutathione; we show that this reaction also occurs in human RBCs. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 16:135,139, 2002. DOI 10.1002/jbt.10028 [source]

    Genes Differentially Expressed By Schwann Cells Of Motor Versus Sensory Nerves

    D Imperiale
    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease includes a heterogeneous group of inherited demyelinating peripheral neuropathies related to genetic defects of myelin-forming Schwann cells (SC). In CMT, as in other common acquired demyelinating neuropathies (Guillain Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy), motor nerves are invariably more involved than sensory nerves. Also in transgenic mouse models of peripheral neuropathy, there is a preferential demyelination of motor districts independent of the type of genetic alteration. The basis for differential susceptibility to demyelination is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify differences in gene and protein expression that may underlie the differential susceptibility to demyelination of motor and sensory myelin-forming SC. Since spinal roots are the only portion of mammalian PNS in which motor and sensory axons are segregated, we extracted RNA from adult rat dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) spinal roots and compared corresponding cDNAs by an RNA fingerprint approach. Four differentially displayed bands were isolated. We first characterized the most differentially expressed band, which was highly enriched in sensory roots. Sequence analysis showed that the band encoded a portion of rat sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transporting ATPase type 1 coding sequence (SERCA1). RT-PCR experiments confirmed SERCA1 enrichment in dorsal sensory roots. SERCA enzymes are ubiquitous calcium regulatory systems in muscle and non-muscle cells and SERCA1 is selectively enriched in skeletal muscle. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated SERCA isoform expression in peripheral nerve. Identification of a calcium regulatory molecule in SC is interesting, as calcium is essential for the proper structure and function of the nodal and paranodal portions of SC, as well as the myelin sheath. However, calcium homeostasis in SC is relatively unexplored. Experiments to localize SERCA1 transcript and protein in different PNS districts and to clarify its functional role in peripheral nerve are underway. [source]

    A cyclic-di-GMP receptor required for bacterial exopolysaccharide production

    Vincent T. Lee
    Summary Bis-(3,,5,)-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has been shown to be a global regulatory molecule that modulates the reciprocal responses of bacteria to activate either virulence pathways or biofilm formation. The mechanism of c-di-GMP signal transduction, including recognition of c-di-GMP and subsequent phenotypic regulation, remain largely uncharacterized. The key components of these regulatory pathways are the various adaptor proteins (c-di-GMP receptors). There is compelling evidence suggesting that, in addition to PilZ domains, there are other unidentified c-di-GMP receptors. Here we show that the PelD protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a novel c-di-GMP receptor that mediates c-di-GMP regulation of PEL polysaccharide biosynthesis. Analysis of PelD orthologues identified a number of conserved residues that are required for c-di-GMP binding as well as synthesis of the PEL polysaccharide. Secondary structure similarities of PelD to the inhibitory site of diguanylate cyclase suggest that a common fold can act as a platform to bind c-di-GMP. The combination of a c-di-GMP binding site with a variety of output signalling motifs within one protein domain provides an explanation for the specificity for different cellular responses to this regulatory dinucleotide. [source]

    Functions of corticotropin-releasing hormone in anthropoid primates: From brain to placenta

    Michael L. Power
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an ancient regulatory molecule. The CRH hormone family has at least four ligands, two receptors, and a binding protein. Its well-known role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is only one of many. The expression of CRH and its related peptides is widespread in peripheral tissue, with important functions in the immune system, energy metabolism, and female reproduction. For example, CRH is involved in the implantation of fertilized ova and in maternal tolerance to the fetus. An apparently unique adaptation has evolved in anthropoid primates: placental expression of CRH. Placental CRH stimulates the fetal adrenal zone, an adrenal structure unique to primates, to produce dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), which is converted to estrogen by the placenta. Cortisol induced from the fetal and maternal adrenal glands by placental CRH induces further placental CRH expression, forming a positive feedback system that results in increasing placental production of estrogen. In humans, abnormally high placental expression of CRH is associated with pregnancy complications (e.g., preterm labor, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and preeclampsia). Within anthropoid primates, there are at least two patterns of placental CRH expression over gestation: monkeys differ from great apes (and humans) by having a midgestational peak in CRH expression. The functional significance of these differences between monkeys and apes is not yet understood, but it supports the hypothesis that placental CRH performs multiple roles during gestation. A clearer understanding of the diversity of patterns of placental CRH expression among anthropoid primates would aid our understanding of its role in human pregnancy. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:431,447, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ex vivo Application of Carbon Monoxide in UW Solution Prevents Transplant-Induced Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Pigs

    J. Yoshida
    I/R injury is a major deleterious factor of successful kidney transplantation (KTx). Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous regulatory molecule, and exogenously delivered CO in low concentrations provides potent cytoprotection. This study evaluated efficacies of CO exposure to excised kidney grafts to inhibit I/R injury in the pig KTx model. Porcine kidneys were stored for 48 h in control UW or UW supplemented with CO (CO-UW) and autotransplanted in a 14-day follow-up study. In the control UW group, animal survival was 80% (4/5) with peak serum creatinine levels of 12.0 ± 5.1 mg/dL. CO-UW showed potent protection, and peak creatinine levels were reduced to 6.9 ± 1.4 mg/dL with 100% (5/5) survival without any noticeable adverse event or abnormal COHb value. Control grafts at 14 days showed significant tubular damages, focal fibrotic changes and numerous infiltrates. The CO-UW group showed significantly less severe histopathological changes with less TGF-, and p-Smad3 expression. Grafts in CO-UW also showed significantly lower early mRNA levels for proinflammatory cytokines and less lipid peroxidation. CO in UW provides significant protection against renal I/R injury in the porcine KTx model. Ex vivo exposure of kidney grafts to CO during cold storage may therefore be a safe strategy to reduce I/R injury. [source]

    A functional genomics approach to evaluate candidate genes located in a QTL interval for milk production traits on BTA6

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2009
    P. A. Sheehy
    Summary The potential genetic and economic advantage of marker-assisted selection for enhanced production in dairy cattle has provided an impetus to conduct numerous genome scans in order to identify associations between DNA markers and future productive potential. One area of focus has been a quantitative trait locus on bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) found to be associated with milk yield, milk protein and fat percentage, which has been subsequently fine-mapped to six positional candidate genes. Subsequent investigations have yet to resolve which of the potential positional candidate genes is responsible for the observed associations with productive performance. In this study, we analysed candidate gene expression and the effects of gene knockdown on expression of ,- and ,-casein mRNA in a small interfering RNA transfected bovine in vitro mammosphere model. From our expression studies in vivo, we observed that four of the six candidates (ABCG2, SPP1, PKD2 and LAP3) exhibited differential expression in bovine mammary tissue over the lactation cycle, but in vitro functional studies indicate that inhibition of only one gene, SPP1, had a significant impact on milk protein gene expression. These data suggest that the gene product of SPP1 (also known as osteopontin) has a significant role in the modulation of milk protein gene expression. While these findings do not exclude other positional candidates from influencing lactation, they support the hypothesis that the gene product of SPP1 is a significant lactational regulatory molecule. [source]

    The effect of plant cytokinin hormones on the production of ethylene, nitric oxide, and protein nitrotyrosine in ageing tobacco leaves

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2006
    N. Wilhelmová
    Abstract Transgenic plants with genetically increased or decreased levels of cytokinins were used to investigate the effect of cytokinin level on the production of ethylene, a plant hormone with suggested role in senescence, and the production of nitric oxide, potentially important signalling and regulatory molecule. The production of these gases was followed during the course of leaf development and senescence. The production of ethylene and nitric oxide is under genetic control of genes other than those involved in regulation of senescence. The difference in basic ethylene and NO levels in different tobacco cultivars was higher than their changes in senescence. The results of this study did not indicate a direct link between ethylene production and cytokinin levels. However, there was a decreased production of NO in senescent leaves. Low cytokinins level was associated with increased NO production during leaf development. Protein nitrotyrosine proved to be a better indicator of the reactive nitrogen species than measuring of the NO production. Higher nitrotyrosine concentrations were found in insoluble proteins than in the soluble ones, pointing to membrane proteins as the primary targets of the reactive nitrogen species. In plants with elevated cytokinin levels the content of nitrated proteins decreased both in soluble and insoluble fractions. This finding indicates an antioxidative function of cytokinins against reactive nitrogen species. [source]

    Novel function of DUSP14/MKP6 (dual specific phosphatase 14) as a nonspecific regulatory molecule for delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Y. Nakano
    Summary Background, Nonspecific unresponsive states of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to unrelated antigens are induced in mice by a single administration of hapten. In these studies, we found a unique regulatory mechanism of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mediated by nonspecific suppressor factor (NSF) induced by the intravenous injection of hapten-conjugated syngeneic spleen cells. NSF is a , 45-kDa protein released from the macrophage-like suppressor cells and binds selectively to dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, NSF-treated DCs release a second , 20-kDa NSF (NSFint). Objectives, To try and identify NSF and characterize its function. Methods, The suppressor activity was evaluated by inhibition of the passive transfer of CHS by the effector cells sensitized with hapten and the antigen-presenting cell (APC) activity of hapten-primed draining lymph node cells (DLNCs) to induce CHS. NSF-containing supernatants obtained from the culture of spleen cells from mice that had been injected intravenously with oxazolone-conjugated syngeneic spleen cells 7 days before were prepared and purified with a Green A dye-affinity column, DEAE column and Sephacryl S-200 column. Then, samples of molecular mass of , 45 kDa were separated by native-PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE. After confirming the suppressor activity of proteins of , 45 kDa separated by native-PAGE, samples were separated by nonreducing SDS-PAGE, transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes and analysed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Results, Proteins of , 45 kDa eluted from a Sephacryl S-200 column and the slice of native-PAGE gel exhibited the strong suppressor activity. Analyses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MASCOT algorithm of the protein bands around 45 kDa separated by nonreducing SDS-PAGE identified NSF as a 22·5-kDa protein, dual specific phosphatase 14/MAP-kinase phophatase-6 (DUSP14/MKP6), which functions as a negative regulator of the MAP-kinase signalling. Western blot analyses revealed that recombinant DUSP14 (rDUSP14) exists as the mixture of 22·5-kDa monomer and 45-kDa dimer under nonreducing conditions, and monomers under reducing conditions. Treatment with rDUSP14 at 4 °C for 2 h suppressed the ability of effector cells to transfer CHS dose dependently and the APC function of DLNCs to induce CHS. Epicutaneous application of rDUSP14 immediately after challenge inhibited the subsequent CHS expression. rDUSP14 was bound specifically by major histocompatibility complex class II (Ia)-positive spleen cells (presumably DCs). The suppressor activity of NSF was neutralized by anti-DUSP14 monoclonal antibody. Expression of DUSP14 mRNA in the spleen was upregulated parallel to the unresponsive state induced by hapten-conjugated cells. NSF, NSFint and rDUSP14 exhibited the phosphatase activity towards p -nitrophenyl phosphate in vitro as alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions, These studies indicate for the first time that NSF is a dimer of DUSP14 secreted by macrophage-like suppressor cells by stimulation with hapten-conjugated cells and exerts a regulatory function on CHS through DCs as a secreted phosphatase. [source]

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein and its receptors: nuclear functions and roles in the renal and cardiovascular systems, the placental trophoblasts and the pancreatic islets

    Thomas L Clemens
    The cloning of the so-called ,parathyroid hormone-related protein' (PTHrP) in 1987 was the result of a long quest for the factor which, by mimicking the actions of PTH in bone and kidney, is responsible for the hypercalcemic paraneoplastic syndrome, humoral calcemia of malignancy. PTHrP is distinct from PTH in a number of ways. First, PTHrP is the product of a separate gene. Second, with the exception of a short N-terminal region, the structure of PTHrP is not closely related to that of PTH. Third, in contrast to PTH, PTHrP is a paracrine factor expressed throughout the body. Finally, most of the functions of PTHrP have nothing in common with those of PTH. PTHrP is a poly-hormone which comprises a family of distinct peptide hormones arising from post-translational endoproteolytic cleavage of the initial PTHrP translation products. Mature N-terminal, mid-region and C-terminal secretory forms of PTHrP are thus generated, each of them having their own physiologic functions and probably their own receptors. The type 1 PTHrP receptor, binding both PTH(1-34) and PTHrP(1-36), is the only cloned receptor so far. PTHrP is a PTH-like calciotropic hormone, a myorelaxant, a growth factor and a developmental regulatory molecule. The present review reports recent aspects of PTHrP pharmacology and physiology, including: (a) the identification of new peptides and receptors of the PTH/PTHrP system; (b) the recently discovered nuclear functions of PTHrP and the role of PTHrP as an intracrine regulator of cell growth and cell death; (c) the physiological and developmental actions of PTHrP in the cardiovascular and the renal glomerulo-vascular systems; (d) the role of PTHrP as a regulator of pancreatic beta cell growth and functions, and, (e) the interactions of PTHrP and calcium-sensing receptors for the control of the growth of placental trophoblasts. These new advances have contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of PTHrP, and will help to identify its therapeutic potential in a number of diseases. British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 134, 1113,1136; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704378 [source]

    Determination of metastasis-associated proteins in non-small cell lung cancer by comparative proteomic analysis

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2007
    Tian Tian
    The development of metastasis is the leading cause of death and an enormous therapeutic challenge in cases of non-small cell lung cancer. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis process and to discover novel potential clinical markers for non-small cell lung cancer, comparative proteomic analysis of two non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials, the non-metastatic CL1-0 and highly metastatic CL1-5 cell lines, was carried out using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization,time of flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified unambiguously, among which 16 proteins were significantly upregulated and 17 proteins were downregulated in highly metastatic CL1-5 cells compared with non-metastatic CL1-0 cells. Subsequently, 8 of 33 identified proteins were selected for further validation at the mRNA level using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and three identified proteins, S100A11, PGP 9.5 and HSP27, were confirmed by western blotting. The protein S100A11 displaying significant differential expression at both the protein and mRNA levels was further analyzed by immunohistochemical staining in 65 primary non-small cell lung cancer tissues and 10 matched local positive lymph node specimens to explore its relationship with metastasis. The results indicated that the upregulation of S100A11 expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues was significantly associated with higher tumor,node,metastasis stage (P = 0.001) and positive lymph node status (P = 0.011), implying that S100A11 might be an important regulatory molecule in promoting invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 1265,1274) [source]

    GATA factors as key regulatory molecules in the development of Drosophila endoderm

    Ryutaro Murakami
    Essential roles for GATA factors in the development of endoderm have been reported in various animals. A Drosophila GATA factor gene, serpent (srp, dGATAb, ABF), is expressed in the prospective endoderm, and loss of srp activity causes transformation of the prospective endoderm into ectodermal foregut and hindgut, indicating that srp acts as a selector gene to specify the developmental fate of the endoderm. While srp is expressed in the endoderm only during early stages, it activates a subsequent GATA factor gene, dGATAe, and the latter continues to be expressed specifically in the endoderm throughout life. dGATAe activates various functional genes in the differentiated endodermal midgut. An analogous mode of regulation has been reported in Caenorhabditis elegans, in which a pair of GATA genes, end-1/3, specifies endodermal fate, and a downstream pair of GATA genes, elt-2/7, activates genes in the differentiated endoderm. Functional homology of GATA genes in nature is apparently extendable to vertebrates, because endodermal GATA genes of C. elegans and Drosophila induce endoderm development in Xenopus ectoderm. These findings strongly imply evolutionary conservation of the roles of GATA factors in the endoderm across the protostomes and the deuterostomes. [source]

    Binding characteristics of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and laminin-1, and correlative neurite outgrowth behaviors in a standard tissue culture choice assay

    Diane M. Snow
    Abstract Neuronal growth cones are capable of sophisticated discrimination of environmental cues, on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix, to accomplish navigation during development (generation) and following nervous system injury (regeneration). Choices made by growth cones are commonly examined using tissue culture paradigms in which molecules of interest are purified and substratum-bound. From observations of growth cone behaviors using these paradigms, assertions are made about choices neuronal growth cones may make in vivo. However, in many cases, the binding, interactions, and conformations of these molecules have not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the binding characteristics of two commonly studied outgrowth regulatory molecules: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are typically inhibitory to neurite outgrowth during development and following nervous system injury, and laminin, which is typically outgrowth promoting for many neuronal types. Using a novel combination of radiolabeling and quantitative fluorescence, we determined the precise concentrations of CSPGs and laminin-1 that were bound separately and together in a variety of choice assays. For identically prepared cultures, we correlated neurite outgrowth behaviors with binding characteristics. The data support our working hypothesis that neuronal growth cones are guided by the ratio of outgrowth-promoting to outgrowth-inhibiting influences in their environment, i.e., they summate local molecular cues. The response of growth cones to these molecular combinations is most likely mediated by integrins and subsequent activation of signal transduction cascades in growth cones. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 51: 285,301, 2002 [source]

    How does the periapical inflammatory process compromise general health?

    ENDODONTIC TOPICS, Issue 1 2004
    Several lines of evidence support the causative role of oral inflammatory lesions and certain systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcome and lung diseases. Properly executed epidemiologic studies identified increased odds ratios. Local or metastatic spread of oral microorganisms, local production of microbial or host-derived soluble regulatory molecules, that may initiate or sustain inflammatory events in remote tissues and organs and the presence of (a) common , extrinsic- or intrinsic-pathological mechanism(s) may result in or contribute to both local and systemic inflammation. A number of cross-sectional studies addressing a possible association between oral health and systemic diseases have also investigated the presence or the absence of periapical lesions. However, these studies cannot either confirm or refute a role of the periapical inflammatory lesion in the observed associations, since other variables of oral health might have exerted an inestimable influence on general health of the assessed population. The literature, dealing with patients with root canal infections and apical periodontitis as sole oral inflammatory lesions is extremely sparse. Our group has demonstrated that young adults with apical periodontitis exhibit certain biochemical changes, such as elevated levels of C-reactive protein and an increased whole blood chemiluminescence, which have been shown to elevate the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Future research will be required to determine whether and to what extent may endodontic diseases affect general health. [source]

    Activation of p53 signalling in acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis in OC2 human oral cancer cells

    C.-C. Ho
    Abstract Background, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are well known chemotherapeutic agents of cancers; however, the signalling molecules involved remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible existence of a putative p53-dependent pathway underlying the ASA-induced apoptosis in OC2 cells, a human oral cancer cell line. Materials and methods, The methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was employed to quantify differences in cell viability. DNA ladder formation on agarose electrophoresis was used as apoptosis assay. The expression levels of several master regulatory molecules controlling various signal pathways were monitored using the immunoblotting techniques. Flow cytometry was used to confirm the effect of ASA on cell cycle. Patterns of changes in expression were scanned and analyzed using the NIH image 1·56 software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). All the data were analyzed by anova. Results, Acetylsalicylic acid reduced cell viability and presence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. In the meanwhile, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15, accumulation of p53 and increased the expression of its downstream target genes, p21 and Bax induced by ASA. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was suppressed. Disruption of p53-murine double minute-2 (MDM2) complex formation resulted in increasing the expression of MDM2 60-kDa cleavage fragment. Inhibited the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of extracellular regulatory kinase (ERK), significantly decreased cell viability and enhanced the expression of p53 induced by ASA. The result of the cell-cycle analysis showed that ASA and PD98059 induced the cell cycle arrested at the G0/G1 phase and resulted in apoptosis. Conclusion, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-inhibited cyclooxygenase is not the only or even the most important mechanism of inhibition. Our study presents evidences that activation of p53 signalling involved in apoptosis induced by ASA. Furthermore, the apoptotic effect was enhanced by blocking the activation of p42/p44 MAPK in response to treatment with ASA, thus indicating a negative role for p42/p44 MAPK. [source]

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 is regulated post-transcriptionally by miRNA-29a,

    GLIA, Issue 12 2009
    Jonathan D. Verrier
    Abstract Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a dose-sensitive, disease-associated protein primarily expressed in myelinating Schwann cells. Either reduction or overproduction of PMP22 can result in hereditary neuropathy, suggesting a requirement for correct protein expression for peripheral nerve biology. PMP22 is post-transcriptionally regulated and the 3,untranslated region (3,UTR) of the gene exerts a negative effect on translation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules that function at a post-transcriptional level by targeting the 3,UTR in a reverse complementary manner. We used cultured Schwann cells to demonstrate that alterations in the miRNA biogenesis pathway affect PMP22 levels, and endogenous PMP22 is subjected to miRNA regulation. GW-body formation, the proposed cytoplasmic site for miRNA-mediated repression, and Dicer expression, an RNase III family ribonuclease involved in miRNA biogenesis, are co-regulated with the differentiation state of Schwann cells. Furthermore, the levels of Dicer inversely correlate with PMP22, while the inhibition of Dicer leads to elevated PMP22. Microarray analysis of actively proliferating and differentiated Schwann cells, in conjunction with bioinformatics programs, identified several candidate PMP22-targeting miRNAs. Here we demonstrate that miR-29a binds and inhibits PMP22 reporter expression through a specific miRNA seed binding region. Over-expression of miR-29a enhances the association of PMP22 RNA with Argonaute 2, a protein involved in miRNA function, and reduces the steady-state levels of PMP22. In contrast, inhibition of endogenous miR-29a relieves the miRNA-mediated repression of PMP22. Correlation analyses of miR-29 and PMP22 in sciatic nerves reveal an inverse relationship, both developmentally and in post-crush injury. These results identify PMP22 as a target of miRNAs and suggest that myelin gene expression by Schwann cells is regulated by miRNAs. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Identifying the differential effects of silymarin constituents on cell growth and cell cycle regulatory molecules in human prostate cancer cells

    Gagan Deep
    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men; urgent measures are warranted to lower this deadly malignancy. Silymarin is a known cancer chemopreventive agent, but the relative anticancer efficacy of its constituents is still unknown. Here, we compared the efficacy of 7 pure flavonolignan compounds isolated from silymarin, namely silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silydianin, isosilydianin, silychristin and isosilychristin, in advanced human PCa PC3 cells. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silibinin and silymarin strongly inhibited the colony formation by PC3 cells (p < 0.001), while silydianin, silychristin and isosilychristin had marginal effect (p < 0.05). Using cell growth and death assays, we identified isosilybin B as the most effective isomer. FACS analysis for cell cycle also showed that silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silibinin and silymarin treatment resulted in strong cell cycle arrest in PC3 cells after 72 hr of treatment, while the effect of silydianin, silychristin and isosilychristin was marginal (if any). Western blot analysis also showed the differential effect of these compounds on the levels of cell cycle regulators-cyclins (D, E, A and B), CDKs (Cdk2, 4 and Cdc2), CDKIs (p21 and p27) and other cell cycle regulators (Skp2, Cdc25A, B, C and Chk2). This study provided further evidence for differential anticancer potential among each silymarin constituent, which would have potential implications in devising better formulations of silymarin against prostate and other cancers. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genetic redundancy in human cervical carcinoma cells: Identification of cells with "normal" properties

    Anastasia Bachmann
    Abstract Although it is generally assumed that cancer arises from a singular cell, a tumor must be considered as a dynamic and emergent biological structure, whose organizing principle is determined by genetic and epigenetic modifications, occurring variably in response to microenvironmental selection conditions. As previously shown, HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells have lost their ability to induce IFN-, upon TNF-, treatment. However, regarding cancer as a non-linear system, which may, even in the absence of an apparent selection pressure, fluctuate between different "metastable" phenotypes, we demonstrate that TNF-, mediated IFN-, induction is not irreversibly disturbed in all cells. Using the IFN-, sensitive Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) as a tool to monitor antiviral activity in long-term established malignant HeLa cells, rare IFN-, expressing clones were rescued from a population of non-responsive and EMCV-sensitive cells. Antiviral activity was mediated by the re-expression of IRF-1 and p48 (IRF-9), both key regulatory molecules normally found to be suppressed in cervical carcinoma cells. Upon inoculating of selected clones into immunocompromised animals, a reduced or even an absence of tumorigenicity of initially highly malignant cells could be discerned. These data indicate that both the absence of interferon signaling and the ability to form tumors were reversed in a minority of cells. We provide a paradigm for the existence of innate genetic redundancy mechanisms, where a particular phenotype persists and can be isolated without application of drugs generally changing the epigenetic context. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Significance of Fas expression alteration during tumor progression of renal cell carcinoma

    Background:, In order to characterize the alteration of apoptotic regulatory molecule expression during tumor progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we compared the expression between tumor and normal tissues, and evaluated the relationship of the expression in tumors with pathological and clinical characteristics. Methods:, Competitive reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) allowed the determination of Fas and bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression in surgically resected tumor and normal tissue of 50 RCC. Results:, The mRNA expression of Fas and bcl-2 in RCC was significantly reduced compared to that in normal tissues. An IHC analysis was supportive of the RT,PCR results. In terms of relationships with pathological and clinical characteristics, the mRNA and protein expression of Fas in high-stage or high-grade tumors was significantly higher than that in low-stage or low-grade tumors. Moreover, a statistically poor prognosis was observed in tumor cases expressing a high amount of mRNA. In bcl-2 analysis, the mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in clear cell tumors compared to chromophobe cell tumors. Conclusion:, It is suggested that the reduced expression of Fas and bcl-2 in RCC compared with the expression in normal kidney is a prominent alteration of apoptotic regulatory molecules. The alteration of the up-regulated Fas expression might be characterized during the tumor progression stage. It is also suggested that the effect of alteration of bcl-2 expression might be minimal during the tumor progression stage because of the reduced expression in tumors of the clear cell type, which is the most dominant cell type in RCC. [source]

    Steroid and thyroid hormone receptors in mitochondria

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4 2008
    Anna-Maria G. Psarra
    Abstract Receptors for glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones have been detected in mitochondria of various cell types by Western blotting, immunofluorescence labeling, confocal microscopy, and immunogold electron microscopy. A role of these receptors in mitochondrial transcription, OXPHOS biosynthesis, and apoptosis is now being revealed. Steroid and thyroid hormones regulate energy production, inducing nuclear and mitochondrial OXPHOS genes by way of cognate receptors. In addition to the action of the nuclearly localized receptors on nuclear OXPHOS gene transcription, a parallel direct action of the mitochondrially localized receptors on mitochondrial transcription has been demonstrated. The coordination of transcription activation in nuclei and mitochondria by the respective receptors is in part realized by their binding to common trans acting elements in the two genomes. Recent evidence points to a role of the mitochondrial receptors in cell survival and apoptosis, exerted by genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. The identification of additional receptors of the superfamily of nuclear receptors and of other nuclear transcription factors in mitochondria increases their arsenal of regulatory molecules and further underlines the central role of these organelles in the integration of growth, metabolic, and cell survival signals. © 2008 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 60(4): 210,223, 2008 [source]

    Global gene profiling reveals a downregulation of BMP gene expression in experimental atrophic nonunions compared to standard healing fractures

    Takahiro Niikura
    Abstract Nonunion is a challenging problem that may occur following certain bone fractures. However, there has been little investigation of the molecular basis of nonunions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a significant role in osteogenesis. However, little is known about the expression patterns of BMPs in abnormal bone healing that results in nonunion formation. These facts prompted us to investigate and compare the gene expression patterns of BMPs and their antagonists in standard healing fractures and nonunions using rat experimental models. Standard closed healing fractures and experimental atrophic nonunions produced by periosteal cauterization at the fracture site were created in rat femurs. At postfracture days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28, total RNA was extracted from the callus of standard healing fracture and fibrous tissue of nonunion (n,=,4 per each time point and each group). Gene expression of BMPs, BMP antagonists, and other regulatory molecules were studied by methods including Genechip® microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression of BMP-2, 3, 3B, 4, 6, 7, GDF-5, 7, and BMP antagonists noggin, drm, screlostin, and BAMBI were significantly lower in nonunions compared to standard healing fractures at several time points. Downregulation in expression of osteogenic BMPs may account for the nonunions of fracture. The balance between BMPs and their endogenous antagonists is critical for optimal fracture healing. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1463,1471, 2006 [source]

    The guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) alarmone, DksA and promoter affinity for RNA polymerase in regulation of ,54 -dependent transcription

    Lisandro M. D. Bernardo
    Summary The RNA polymerase-binding protein DksA is a cofactor required for guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp)-responsive control of transcription from ,70 promoters. Here we present evidence: (i) that both DksA and ppGpp are required for in vivo,54 transcription even though they do not have any major direct effects on ,54 transcription in reconstituted in vitro transcription and ,-factor competition assays, (ii) that previously defined mutations rendering the housekeeping ,70 less effective at competing with ,54 for limiting amounts of core RNA polymerase similarly suppress the requirement for DksA and ppGpp in vivo and (iii) that the extent to which ppGpp and DksA affect transcription from ,54 promoters in vivo reflects the innate affinity of the promoters for ,54 -RNA polymerase holoenzyme in vitro. Based on these findings, we propose a passive model for ppGpp/DksA regulation of ,54 -dependent transcription that depends on the potent negative effects of these regulatory molecules on transcription from powerful stringently regulated ,70 promoters. [source]

    Structure, function and evolution of microbial adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases

    David A. Baker
    Summary Cells respond to signals of both environmental and biological origin. Responses are often receptor mediated and result in the synthesis of so-called second messengers that then provide a link between extracellular signals and downstream events, including changes in gene expression. Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) are among the most widely studied of this class of molecule. Research on their function and mode of action has been a paradigm for signal transduction systems and has shaped our understanding of this important area of biology. Cyclic nucleotides have diverse regulatory roles in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, highlighting the utility and success of this system of molecular communication. This review will examine the structural diversity of microbial adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, the enzymes that synthesize cAMP and cGMP respectively. We will address the relationship of structure to biological function and speculate on the complex origin of these crucial regulatory molecules. A review is timely because the explosion of data from the various genome projects is providing new and exciting insights into protein function and evolution. [source]

    Normal and abnormal development of the urogenital tract

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 11 2001
    Peter M. Cuckow
    Abstract An understanding of the normal development of the urogenital tract, at both the structural and molecular level, gives an insight into the mechanisms involved in renal pathology. In this review we will outline embryology of normal and abnormal renal development and discuss the function of some of the key regulatory molecules which have been described recently. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Proteome analysis of human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines: Variable metastatic potentials correlated with vimentin expression

    Mingfu Wu
    Abstract To better understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer (PCA) dissemination and to develop new anti-metastasis therapies, key regulatory molecules involved in PCA metastasis were identified in two human androgen-independent PCA cell lines, highly metastatic 1E8-H and lowly metastatic 2B4-L cells. Through 2-DE and MS analyses, 12 proteins with different expression levels in the two cell lines were identified. The following proteins were found to be significantly up-regulated in 1E8-H cells compared with 2B4-L cells: gp96 precursor, calreticulin precursor, vimentin (VIM), Hsp90,, peroxiredoxin 2, HNRPH1, ezrin, T-complex protein 1, alpha subunit, and hypothetical protein mln2339. In contrast, heart L -lactate dehydrogenase H chain, annexin I, and protein disulfide isomerase were notably down-regulated in 1E8-H cells compared with 2B4-L cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that up-regulation of VIM expression positively correlates with the invasion and metastasis of androgen-independent PCA. [source]

    Riding The Ciliate Cell Cycle,A Thirty-Five-Year Prospective,

    ABSTRACT. Studies of the ciliate cell cycle have moved from early examination of its biochemistry with heat-synchronized Tetra-hymena through descriptive studies of Paramecium using small synchronous cell samples. These studies described what happens during the cell cycle and provided some initial insights into control, especially the idea that there was a point at which cells became committed to division. This early work was followed by an analytical phase in which the same small sample techniques, combined with gene mutations, were used to tease apart some major features of the regulation of cell growth kinetics, including regulation of macronuclear DNA content and regulation of cell size, the control of timing of initiation of macronuclear DNA synthesis, and the control of commitment to division in Paramecium. The availability of new molecular genetic approaches and new means of manipulating cells en masse made it possible to map out some of the basic features of the molecular biology of cell cycle regulation in ciliates. The challenge before us is to move beyond the ,me-too-ism' of validating the presence of basic molecular regulative machinery underlying the cell cycle in ciliates to a deeper analysis of the role of specific molecules in processes unique to ciliates or to analysis of the role of regulatory molecules in the control of cell process that can be uniquely well studied in ciliates. [source]

    REVIEW ARTICLE: Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Pregnancy

    Anne Leber
    Citation Leber A, Teles A, Zenclussen AC. Regulatory T cells and their role in pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Regulatory T cells emerge in the last years as key players in allowing fetal survival within the maternal uterus. They were shown to be a unique subpopulation of T cells expanding during human and murine pregnancy. The importance of Treg for a normal pregnancy situation was proven by studies showing that their absence impairs murine pregnancy while the adoptive transfer of Treg prevents fetal rejection. In humans, pregnancy pathologies are associated with lower Treg frequencies while therapies that improve pregnancy outcome are able to boost their number. Functional studies have shown that Treg can regulate immune cell responses directly at the fetal,maternal interface either by interacting with other cells or by inducing the expression of immune regulatory molecules. This article revises relevant literature on regulatory T cells in human and murine pregnancy. [source]

    Association of the KIR3DS1*013 and KIR3DL1*004 alleles with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 4 2010
    Roberto Díaz-Peña
    Objective The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) form a group of regulatory molecules that specifically recognize HLA class I molecules. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible contribution of the KIR3DL1 and KIR3DS1 alleles, in addition to HLA,B27, in the susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in a population of individuals from Spain. Methods We genotyped the KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 alleles in 2 cohorts of patients with AS and healthy control subjects. In total, 270 patients with AS and 435 healthy, HLA,B27,positive matched control subjects from Spain were enrolled. The KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 alleles were genotyped by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe,polymerase chain reaction, and their association with AS was analyzed. All individuals were typed for HLA,B. Results The KIR3DS1*013 allele was solely responsible for the increased frequency of the activator receptor KIR3DS1 in patients with AS compared with healthy HLA,B27,positive control subjects (35.7% versus 22.6% [P = 10,6], odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.50,2.40). The increased frequency of the KIR3DS1*013 allele in patients with AS was independent of the presence or absence of the HLA,Bw4I80 epitope. Moreover, the null allele KIR3DL1*004 was a unique inhibitory KIR3DL1 allele that showed a negative association with AS in the presence of HLA,Bw4I80. Conclusion The increased frequency of the KIR3DS1*013 allele in patients with AS is clearly independent of the presence of the HLA,Bw4I80 epitope, whereas the presence of inhibitory allotypes such as KIR3DL1*004 demonstrated a negative association in patients with AS in the presence of HLA,Bw4I80. As a consequence, the influence of KIR genotypes on AS susceptibility would be mediated by a general imbalance between protective/inhibitory and risk/activating allotypes. [source]

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 is an intrinsic chondroprotective agent that suppresses ADAMTS-5 and delays cartilage degradation in murine osteoarthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
    Shi-Lu Chia
    Objective We have previously identified in articular cartilage an abundant pool of the heparin-binding growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which is bound to the pericellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan. This pool of FGF-2 activates chondrocytes upon tissue loading and is released following mechanical injury. In vitro, FGF-2 suppresses interleukin-1,driven aggrecanase activity in human cartilage explants, suggesting a chondroprotective role in vivo. We undertook this study to investigate the in vivo role of FGF-2 in murine cartilage. Methods Basal characteristics of the articular cartilage of Fgf2,/, and Fgf2+/+ mice were determined by histomorphometry, nanoindentation, and quantitative reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction. The articular cartilage was graded histologically in aged mice as well as in mice in which osteoarthritis (OA) had been induced by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus. RNA was extracted from the joints of Fgf2,/, and Fgf2+/+ mice following surgery and quantitatively assessed for key regulatory molecules. The effect of subcutaneous administration of recombinant FGF-2 on OA progression was assessed in Fgf2,/, mice. Results Fgf2,/, mice were morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) animals up to age 12 weeks; the cartilage thickness and proteoglycan staining were equivalent, as was the mechanical integrity of the matrix. However, Fgf2,/, mice exhibited accelerated spontaneous and surgically induced OA. Surgically induced OA in Fgf2,/, mice was suppressed to levels in WT mice by subcutaneous administration of recombinant FGF-2. Increased disease in Fgf2,/, mice was associated with increased expression of messenger RNA of Adamts5, the key murine aggrecanase. Conclusion These data identify FGF-2 as a novel endogenous chondroprotective agent in articular cartilage. [source]

    Plasticity of clonal populations of dedifferentiated adult human articular chondrocytes

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2003
    Andrea Barbero
    Objective To investigate whether adult human articular chondrocytes (AHACs), dedifferentiated by monolayer expansion, can differentiate toward diverse mesenchymal lineages and, if so, whether this ability is regulated by growth factors during monolayer expansion. Methods AHACs were expanded as multiclonal or clonal populations in medium without (control) or with factors enhancing cell dedifferentiation (transforming growth factor ,1, fibroblast growth factor 2, and platelet-derived growth factor type BB [TFP]). Cells were then cultured under conditions promoting chondrogenic, osteogenic, or adipogenic differentiation, and the acquired phenotypes were assessed histologically, biochemically, and by real-time reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction. Results Multiclonal populations of both control- and TFP-expanded AHACs differentiated toward the chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Compared with control-expanded AHACs, TFP-expanded cells displayed enhanced chondrogenic differentiation capacity (2.4-fold higher glycosaminoglycan/DNA content and 2,500-fold higher up-regulation of type II collagen) and osteogenic differentiation capacity (9.4-fold higher increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and 12.4-fold higher up-regulation of bone sialoprotein), but reduced formation of adipocytes (5.2-fold lower oil red O,positive cells/area). Clonal populations of AHACs could be efficiently expanded in TFP, but not in control medium. Most TFP-expanded clones were able to redifferentiate only into chondrocytes (7 of 20) or were unable to differentiate (6 of 20). However, some clones (2 of 20) differentiated toward all of the lineages investigated, thus displaying characteristics of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Conclusion Dedifferentiated AHACs exhibit differentiation plasticity, which is modulated by growth factors used during monolayer expansion and is highly heterogeneous across different clones. Clonal culture of AHACs in the presence of regulatory molecules could lead to the identification of AHAC subpopulations with enhanced cartilage repair capacity. [source]