Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Regularity

  • empirical regularity
  • global regularity
  • minimal regularity

  • Terms modified by Regularity

  • regularity assumption
  • regularity condition
  • regularity result
  • regularity theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    METROECONOMICA, Issue 3 2007
    Ronald Schettkat
    ABSTRACT An update of Victor Fuchs analysis shows an astonishing regularity of the relationship between per capita income and service industry employment. The two major theoretical hypotheses for the growth of the service sector, shifts in final demand towards services and the technological stagnancy of services, are then analyzed. Theories achieve simplicity and clarity from radical assumptions and it is therefore not surprising that empirically both dimensions are relevant. Shifts in final demand to services,especially of private consumption, however, gained importance over the last decades indicating a fundamental change of the division of labor: the marketization of household production, which is analyzed finally. [source]

    Does habitat use explain large scale species richness patterns of aquatic beetles in Europe?

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2003
    Ignacio Ribera
    Regularities in species richness are widely observed but controversy continues over its mechanistic explanation. Because richness patterns are usually a compound measure derived from taxonomically diverse species with different ecological requirements, these analyses may confound diverse causes of species numbers. Here we investigate species richness in the aquatic beetle fauna of Europe, separating major taxonomic groups and two major ecological types, species occurring in standing and running water bodies. We collated species distributions for 800+ species of water beetles in 15 regions across western Europe. Species number in any of these regions was related to three variables: total area size, geographic connectedness of the area, and latitude. Pooled species numbers were accurately predicted, but correlations were different for species associated with either running or standing water. The former were mostly correlated with latitude, while the latter were only correlated with the measure of connectedness or with area size. These differences were generally also observed in each of the four phylogenetically independent lineages of aquatic Coleoptera when analysed separately. We propose that effects of habitat, in this case possibly mediated by different long term persistence of running and standing water bodies, impose constraints at the population or local level which, if effective over larger temporal and spatial scales, determine global patterns of species richness. [source]

    Power and Wisdom: Toward a History of Social Behavior

    Akop P. Nazaretyan
    Cross-disciplinary studies carried out lately by Russian scholars discovered a causal relationship between the three variables: technological potential, cultural regulation quality, and social sustainability. The patterns called techno-humanitarian balance law, states that the higher production and war technologies' power, the more refined the behaviorregulation means (consolidated values and norms, etc.) that are required for self-preservation of the society. The article shows that the law has controlled social selection for all of human history and prehistory, discarding unbalanced social organisms, as far as they could not cope with ecological and (or) geopolitical crises, which had been caused by their own activities. It also shows how successive growth of instrumental opportunities in long-term retrospection has dramatically led to the consecutive perfection of cultural and psychological regulation mechanisms. Relevant calculations, comparative-anthropological evidence, and historical illustrations are provided. Regularities in mental processes are described that precede and accompany crisis-causing behavior, to certain extent regardless of population's historical and cultural peculiarities. [source]

    Scatter matters: Regularities and implications for the scatter of healthcare information on the Web

    Suresh K. Bhavnani
    Abstract Despite the development of huge healthcare Web sites and powerful search engines, many searchers end their searches prematurely with incomplete information. Recent studies suggest that users often retrieve incomplete information because of the complex scatter of relevant facts about a topic across Web pages. However, little is understood about regularities underlying such information scatter. To probe regularities within the scatter of facts across Web pages, this article presents the results of two analyses: (a) a cluster analysis of Web pages that reveals the existence of three page clusters that vary in information density and (b) a content analysis that suggests the role each of the above-mentioned page clusters play in providing comprehensive information. These results provide implications for the design of Web sites, search tools, and training to help users find comprehensive information about a topic and for a hypothesis describing the underlying mechanisms causing the scatter. We conclude by briefly discussing how the analysis of information scatter, at the granularity of facts, complements existing theories of information-seeking behavior. [source]

    Kinetic Regularities of the Heat Release for the Interaction of Some Organic Compounds with Ammonium Nitrate


    Abstract Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as an oxidant in a series of systems with a wide spectrum of applications, from explosive compositions up to smokeless stoichiometric self-burning compositions with low combustion temperature. The knowledge of the thermal stability of such compositions is of great importance in using them in practice. In this work the research of kinetics of heat release in the interaction of AN with different organic compounds has been performed using the automatic differential calorimeter. [source]

    Regularity of species richness relationships to patch size and shape

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Einar Heegaard
    This study aims to assess the degree of regularity in the effect of patch size and patch shape on plant species richness across a macroscale region, and to evaluate the implications for nature conservation. Our study area covers south-eastern Norway and contains 16 agricultural landscapes with 2162 patches. To analyse regularity a local linear mixed model (LLMM) was applied. This procedure estimates the richness trends due to shared effects of size and shape, and simultaneously provides the landscape-specific random effect. The latter is a direct estimate of the degree of irregularity between the landscapes, conditioned on specific values of size and shape. The results show a positive interaction between the shape and size of patches, which is repeated for all landscapes. The shape of the patches produces more regular patterns in species richness than the size of patches. This we attribute to effects of dispersal and distance to neighbouring patches of different environmentally conditioned species pools. Large and complex patches have shorter average distance to neighbouring patches (of different types) than large simple-shaped (circular) patches have. We attribute the higher species richness of the former, given a similar area, to a higher number of species dispersed from the outside into the more complex plot. For small patches, however, the distance to the edge is short relative to normal dispersal distances, for patches of all shapes. This explains why the positive effect of shape complexity on species richness is stronger for large patches. This interpretation is supported by a strong spatial correlation conditioned on the most complex patches. Theories of dynamics in biodiversity in patchy landscapes must consider shape as a regulator at the same level as size, and both shape and size of patches should be simultaneously taken into account for management planning. [source]

    Spatiotemporal Regularity and Interevent Contingencies as Information for Infants' Visual Expectations

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2002
    Naomi Wentworth
    This study examined infants' use of picture-location contingencies and spatiotemporal regularity in forming visual expectations. Ninety-six 3-month-olds watched an event sequence in which pictures appeared at 3 locations, either in regular left-center-right alternation or in a random center-side pattern. For half of the infants, the content of the central picture was predictive of the location of the upcoming peripheral event. Analyses of anticipations and interpicture fixation shifts revealed that both spatiotemporal regularity and consistent interevent contingencies fostered increased anticipation of peripheral pictures. The type of spatiotemporal sequence that infants observed also differentially biased their responses to test trials that followed the picture sequence: Infants who experienced regular alternation sequences continued the side-to-side pattern during the 2-choice test trials, whereas infants who experienced irregular sequences looked back to the location of the previous picture. Stable interevent contingencies, in contrast, did not bias infants' responses toward the contingent side during the choice test trials. [source]

    Realism, Regularity and Social Explanation

    Stephen Kemp
    Stephen Kemp and John Holmwood, Realism, Regularity and Social Explanation, pp. 165,187. This article explores the difficulties raised for social scientific investigation by the absence of experiment, critically reviewing realist responses to the problem such as those offered by Bhaskar, Collier and Sayer. It suggests that realist arguments for a shift from prediction to explanation, the use of abstraction, and reliance upon interpretive forms of investigation fail to demonstrate that these approaches compensate for the lack of experimental control. Instead, it is argued that the search for regularities, when suitably conceived, provides the best alternative to experiment for the social sciences. [source]

    Determining the temperature from incomplete boundary data

    B. Tomas Johansson
    Abstract An iterative procedure for determining temperature fields from Cauchy data given on a part of the boundary is presented. At each iteration step, a series of mixed well-posed boundary value problems are solved for the heat operator and its adjoint. A convergence proof of this method in a weighted L2 -space is included, as well as a stopping criteria for the case of noisy data. Moreover, a solvability result in a weighted Sobolev space for a parabolic initial boundary value problem of second order with mixed boundary conditions is presented. Regularity of the solution is proved. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Regularity of minimizers of semilinear elliptic problems up to dimension 4

    Xavier Cabré
    We consider the class of semistable solutions to semilinear equations ,,u = f(u) in a bounded smooth domain , of \input amssym $\Bbb R^n$ (with , convex in some results). This class includes all local minimizers, minimal, and extremal solutions. In dimensions n , 4, we establish an a priori L, -bound that holds for every positive semistable solution and every nonlinearity f. This estimate leads to the boundedness of all extremal solutions when n = 4 and , is convex. This result was previously known only in dimensions n , 3 by a result of G. Nedev. In dimensions 5 , n , 9 the boundedness of all extremal solutions remains an open question. It is only known to hold in the radial case , = BR by a result of A. Capella and the author. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Regularity of the free boundary of an American option on several assets,

    Peter Laurence
    We establish the C, regularity of the free boundary for an American option on several assets in the case where the payoff is convex and the assets follow correlated geometric Brownian motions. Our work builds on results concerning the qualitative properties and initial regularity of the free boundary by Broadie and Detemple; Jaillet, Lamberton, and Lapeyre; and Villeneuve. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Regularity of the obstacle problem for a fractional power of the laplace operator

    Luis Silvestre
    Given a function , and s , (0, 1), we will study the solutions of the following obstacle problem: u , , in ,n, (,,)su , 0 in ,n, (,,)su(x) = 0 for those x such that u(x) > ,(x), lim|x| , + ,u(x) = 0. We show that when , is C1, s or smoother, the solution u is in the space C1, , for every , < s. In the case where the contact set {u = ,} is convex, we prove the optimal regularity result u , C1, s. When , is only C1, , for a , < s, we prove that our solution u is C1, , for every , < ,. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Exploring the Frontier of Livelihoods Research

    Leo De Haan
    This article discusses the value of livelihoods studies and examines the obstacles which have prevented it from making a greater contribution to understanding the lives of poor people over the past decade. After examining the roots of the livelihoods approach, two major challenges are explored: the conceptualization of the problem of access, and how to achieve a better understanding of the mutual link between livelihood opportunities and decision-making. The article concludes that access to livelihood opportunities is governed by social relations, institutions and organizations, and that power is an important (and sometimes overlooked) explanatory variable. In discussing the issue of access to livelihood opportunities, the authors note the occurrence of both strategic and unintentional behaviour and the importance of structural factors; they discuss concepts of styles and pathways, which try to cater for structural components and regularities; and they propose livelihood trajectories as an appropriate methodology for examining these issues. In this way, the article also sets the agenda for future livelihoods research. [source]

    Representational momentum and children's sensori-motor representations of objects

    Lynn K. Perry
    Recent research has shown that 2-year-olds fail at a task that ostensibly only requires the ability to understand that solid objects cannot pass through other solid objects. Two experiments were conducted in which 2- and 3-year-olds judged the stopping point of an object as it moved at varying speeds along a path and behind an occluder, stopping at a barrier visible above the occluder. Three-year-olds were able to take into account the barrier when searching for the object, while 2-year-olds were not. However, both groups judged faster moving objects to travel farther as indicated by their incorrect reaches. Thus, the results show that young children's sensori-motor representations exhibit a form of representational momentum. This unifies the perceptually based representations of early childhood with adults' dynamic representations that incorporate physical regularities but that are also available to conscious reasoning. [source]

    On What Powers Cannot Do

    DIALECTICA, Issue 3 2005
    Joel Katzav
    Dispositionalism is the view that the world is, ultimately, just a world of objects and their irreducible dispositions, and that such dispositions are, ultimately, the sole explanatory ground for the occurrence of events. This view is motivated, partly, by arguing that it affords, while non-necessitarian views of laws of nature do not afford, an adequate account of our intuitions about which regularities are non-accidental. I, however, argue that dispositionalism cannot adequately account for our intuitions about which regularities are non-accidental. Further, I argue that, intuitions aside, if we suppose that our world contains objects along with their irreducible dispositions, we must suppose, on pain of logical incoherence, that it contains laws of nature that are incompatible with a dispositionalist ontology. Indeed, if we suppose a world of objects and irreducible dispositions, we will have to suppose that the most prominent views of laws of nature currently on offer are all inadequate. [source]

    Dilemmas of an Economic Theorist

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 4 2006
    Ariel Rubinstein
    What on earth are economic theorists like me trying to accomplish? This paper discusses four dilemmas encountered by an economic theorist: The dilemma of absurd conclusions: Should we abandon a model if it produces absurd conclusions or should we regard a model as a very limited set of assumptions that will inevitably fail in some contexts? The dilemma of responding to evidence: Should our models be judged according to experimental results? The dilemma of modelless regularities: Should models provide the hypothesis for testing or are they simply exercises in logic that have no use in identifying regularities? The dilemma of relevance: Do we have the right to offer advice or to make statements that are intended to influence the real world? [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2008
    In this paper, we study auctions in which the revenue is fixed but the quantity is determined by the auction mechanism. Specifically, we investigate the theory and behavior of English quantity clock, Dutch quantity clock, last-quantity sealed bid, and penultimate-quantity sealed bid auctions. For theoretically equivalent fixed quantity and fixed revenue auctions, we find that fixed revenue auctions are robust to all the previously observed empirical regularities in fixed quantity auctions. (JEL C9, D4, L2) [source]


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 3 2008
    This paper models immigration policy as the outcome of political competition between interest groups representing individuals employed in different sectors. In standard positive theory, restrictive immigration policy results from a low-skilled median voter voting against predominantly low-skilled immigration. In the present paper, in contrast, once trade policies are liberalized, restrictive immigration policy results from anti-immigration lobbying by interest groups representing the non-traded sectors. It is shown that this is in line with empirical regularities from recent episodes of restrictive immigration legislation in the European Union. It is further shown that if governments negotiate bilaterally over trade and migration policy regimes, the equilibrium regime depends (i) on the sequencing of the international negotiation process and (ii) on the set of available trade and migration policy regimes. In particular, the most comprehensive and most welfare-beneficial type of liberalization may be rejected only because a less comprehensive type of liberalization is available. [source]

    Responses of gas exchange and growth in Merkus pine seedlings to expected climatic changes in Thailand

    Jarkko Koskela
    Abstract Responses of gas exchange and growth in Merkus pine (Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese) seedlings to changing climate were analysed for high- and low-altitude sites in Thailand. A gas exchange model, based on the optimality approach, derived the effect of drought from the probability of rains. A carbon-and nitrogen-balance growth model applied structural regularities of a tree and a modification of functional balance between foliage and fine roots as growth- guiding rules. Adaptation to local climates was incorporated in the models. The simulations yielded physiologically reasonable behaviour for annual photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E) in relation to the distributions of precipitation over the course of a year. An annual temperature increase of 2 °C and a prolonged dry season (scenario 2) reduced A by 5,11% and E by 5,8% as compared to present climate (scenario 1). Doubled CO2 concentration and the increased temperature (scenario 3) enhanced A by 56,59% and E by 14%. Simultaneously these changes (scenario 4) increased A by 41,53% and E by 1,5%. Simulated growth in scenario 1 fitted reasonably well to field data. By the age of five years, simulated total biomass (TB) and height (h) were reduced by 31,67% and 12,42%, respectively, in scenario 2 compared to scenario 1. In scenario 3, TB and h increased by 279,330% and 94,191%, and in scenario 4, by 83,241% and 55,69%, respectively. Large increases in TB and h are explained by the exponential growth phase of the young seedlings. These results suggest that climatic changes enhance growth and thus shorten the duration of the grass stage in these seedlings. However, the effects of climatic changes on growth depend strongly on how rainfall seasonality is altered in SE Asia because prolonged drought episodes may retard the fertilizing effects of the increasing CO2 concentration. [source]

    Growth and Location of Economic Activity: The Spatial Dynamics of Industries in Canada 1971,2001

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2006
    ABSTRACT A growing literature has accumulated that points to the stability of industrial location patterns. Can this be reconciled with spatial dynamics? This article starts with the premise that demonstrable regularities exist in the manner in which individual industries locate (and relocate) over space. For Canada, spatial distributions of employment are examined for seventy-one industries over a thirty-year period (1971,2001). Industry data is organized by "synthetic regions" based on urban size and distance criteria. "Typical" location patterns are identified for industry groupings. Industrial spatial concentrations are then compared over time using correlation analysis, showing a high degree of stability. Stable industrial location patterns are not, the article finds, incompatible with differential regional growth. Five spatial processes are identified, driving change. The chief driving force is the propensity of dynamic industries to start up in large metro areas, setting off a process of diffusion (for services) and crowding out (for manufacturing), offset by the centralizing impact of greater consumer mobility and falling transport costs. These changes do not, however, significantly alter the relative spatial distribution of most industries over time. [source]

    Patient Advice and Liaison Services: results of an audit survey in England

    David Evans BA MA DPhil FFPH RGN
    Abstract Objective, To assess the extent national standards for Patient Advice and Liaison Services (PALS) were achieved across England. Context, PALS are an important element of patient and public involvement strategy in England. Seven national standards for PALS were identified. Previous research has not assessed PALS across all trust types in England. Design, Audit survey as part of a mixed method ,realistic evaluation' in which regularities of context, mechanism and outcome are hypothesized and tested. Setting and participants, PALS based in 570 NHS trusts in England between October and December 2005. Main outcome measures, Self reported achievement against PALS national standards. Results, Three hundred and thirty-six valid responses were received, a response rate of 65%. However because some PALS serve more than one trust, this represents an estimated 76% of trusts. Overall, PALS rated themselves highly against all the standards, though somewhat less highly against standard 2 (seamlessness across health and social care) and standard 6 (acting as a catalyst for culture change). There was a wide range of responses with regard to PALS budget, staffing and activity levels, and statistically significant associations between levels of funding and staffing and higher levels of performance. Conclusions, The overall response rate was good so there can be a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the results. The results indicate the challenging context in which PALS are operating. Although the majority of PALS are single trust PALS, there is a high degree of variation in key mechanism factors such as budget and staffing. [source]

    Formation of carbamates by reaction between ester carbanions and isocyanates: General regularities and scope

    Yuri G. Gololobov
    General regularities and scope of reactions carbanions with the ester group at carbanionic center and arylisocyanates resulting formation of carbamates by C , N migrations of ester groups have been described. The use of tosylisocyanates terminated reactions at the first stage with formation of corresponding tosylacylamides. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heteroatom Chem 21:119,125, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/hc.20585 [source]


    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 2 2008
    ABSTRACT To date, no satisfactory account of the connection between natural-scientific and historical explanation has been given, and philosophers seem to have largely given up on the problem. This paper is an attempt to resolve this old issue and to sort out and clarify some areas of historical explanation by developing and applying a method that will be called "pragmatic explication" involving the construction of definitions that are justified on pragmatic grounds. Explanations in general can be divided into "dynamic" and "static" explanations, which are those that essentially require relations across time and those that do not, respectively. The problem of assimilating historical explanations concerns dynamic explanation, so a general analysis of dynamic explanation that captures both the structure of natural-scientific and historical explanation is offered. This is done in three stages: In the first stage, pragmatic explication is introduced and compared to other philosophical methods of explication. In the second stage pragmatic explication is used to tie together a series of definitions that are introduced in order to establish an account of explanation. This involves an investigation of the conditions that play the role in historiography that laws and statistical regularities play in the natural sciences. The essay argues that in the natural sciences, as well as in history, the model of explanation presented represents the aims and overarching structure of actual causal explanations offered in those disciplines. In the third stage the system arrived at in the preceding stage is filled in with conditions available to and relevant for historical inquiry. Further, the nature and treatment of causes in history and everyday life are explored and related to the system being proposed. This in turn makes room for a view connecting aspects of historical explanation and what we generally take to be causal relations. [source]

    Pattern recognition and financial time-series

    Dave Elliman
    This paper investigates financial time-series from the perspective of a practitioner in artificial intelligence methods and pattern recognition. It presents results from statistical experiments which suggest that financial markets operate with a measure of inefficiency and predictability. However, identifying the nature of any regularities and patterns presents a difficult challenge to the artificial intelligence community, in that established techniques make assumptions about the underlying process that mostly prove to be invalid for this class of data. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applied Research in Accounting: A Commentary,

    ABSTRACT The mission of Canadian Accounting Perspectives is to provide a forum for "applied research" in accounting, but this key term is not defined. I identify three forms of applied research: (1) the use of existing knowledge to find solutions to current problems; (2) the use of positivist research methods to conduct critical tests between current alternative accounting methods and to identify empirical regularities that contribute to the development of technologies of practice; and (3) the use of disciplined inquiry and action research to develop mid-range theory and generate empirical results that advance the interests or increase the capabilities of an identified community. This third form of applied research may provide the best approach to bridging the schism between academe and practice. [source]

    On the Information Content of Bank Loan-loss Disclosures: A Theory and Evidence from Japan

    Scott Gibson
    We develop a model in which banks use loan-loss disclosures to signal private information about the credit quality of their loan portfolios. The cross-sectional predictions generated by the model are shown to help to explain previously documented counterintuitive empirical regularities for US banks. We also take advantage of a recent Japanese regulatory policy shift, which first forbade the reporting of restructured loan balances and then forced full disclosure. This policy shift allows us to address a common difficulty in testing signalling theories, in that we are able to construct a timely proxy for the private information that we allege is being signalled. Consistent with our signalling model, we find that banks taking the largest write-offs turn out later to be the strongest banks, with the fewest restructured loans. [source]

    The Public and Peace: The Consequences for Citizenship of the Democratic Peace Literature

    As policymakers are increasingly tempted to act on the apparent pacifying virtues of democratization, some scholars struggle to give them reliable reasons for why it occurs while others warn of the dangers of acting on empirical regularities whose nature and cause are not fully understood. This essay undertakes a review of the democratic peace literature in order to document its largely implicit, but sometimes explicit, conceptualizations of the role of democratic citizens in achieving or frustrating the democratic peace. Because citizenship is a distinctive and defining characteristic of democracy, it may well, and perhaps ought to, be the main source of explanation for the democratic peace. The essay begins by showing that the Enlightenment social contract tradition (for example, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Kant) is oriented toward the achievement of domestic and international peace and that the parties to the contract,the citizens,are responsible for desiring, achieving, and maintaining peace. The essay then proceeds to categorize and review the democratic peace literature according to the degree of support found for this proposition and the role of citizens in achieving or obstructing peace. [source]

    From Minds Hidden in the Heads of Individuals to the Use of Mind-Talk between Us: Wittgensteinian Developmental Investigations1

    I criticize Carpendale and Lewis's (2004) attempt to produce a Wittgensteinian theory, as an alternative to work in the "theory of mind" (TOM) tradition, not because I disagree with it as theory, but because Wittgenstein would be critical of any attempt to make such a use of his work. Theories are concerned with discovering rules, principles, of lawful regularities hidden behind appearances. Wittgenstein's whole latter philosophy is inimical to such an aim. His concern is not with theories but with descriptions,which can be explanatory, but in a relational or orientational rather than a causal fashion. Below, I give some initial examples to show what Wittgensteinian investigations in developmental psychology might look like. [source]

    Realism, Regularity and Social Explanation

    Stephen Kemp
    Stephen Kemp and John Holmwood, Realism, Regularity and Social Explanation, pp. 165,187. This article explores the difficulties raised for social scientific investigation by the absence of experiment, critically reviewing realist responses to the problem such as those offered by Bhaskar, Collier and Sayer. It suggests that realist arguments for a shift from prediction to explanation, the use of abstraction, and reliance upon interpretive forms of investigation fail to demonstrate that these approaches compensate for the lack of experimental control. Instead, it is argued that the search for regularities, when suitably conceived, provides the best alternative to experiment for the social sciences. [source]

    Using discourse analysis and psychological sense of community to understand school transitions

    Stephen J. Fyson
    The research involved examining the nature of the transition that students experienced in progressing to junior high school from primary school. Students' experiences were chosen as the focus of the research because the issue of substance being investigated was that of alienation. The main methodology that was used was the qualitative procedure of discourse analysis, implemented over a 3-year period. This report describes the findings from the first year of the study. The key findings of the research include the establishment of critical concerns of students. These critical concerns were articulated as psychological sense of community categories of interest, with positive and negative discourse descriptors being developed according to an analysis of students' descriptions of social regularities. The categories of interest were arranged into a sequential pattern that described pathways to increasing commitment or alienation. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]