Reference Diet (reference + diet)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Validation of a Feeding Stimulant Bioassay Using Fish Hydrolysates for the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Michael Grey
A protocol for testing feeding stimulants on Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is described. Thirty-five rectangular tanks (55 L volume) served as the test system into which ten 5,6 g shrimp were stocked. Every tank contained two bowls, each of which contained either 25 feed pellets of a Reference Diet or Test Diet (consisting of the Reference Diet with one test ingredient added). After 1 h, the difference between the number of pellets consumed of the Test Diet and the Reference Diet was used as the Response. Each of the four Test Diets contained a different salmon hydrolysate made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry (included at 50 g/kg). A fifth commercial shrimp diet was also tested. Each Test Diet was tested against the Reference Diet over a 4-d period in seven replicate tanks. The data were subjected to a one-way ANOVA and a confidence interval for each treatment response was calculated. The confidence interval was used to assess the test ingredient as a feeding stimulant. Treatment means were compared using Tukey's test (, = 5%). All the hydrolysates tested were found to act as feeding stimulants. [source]

Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate whether standard fish meal diets prepared with increasing levels of genetically modified (GM; 150 and 300 g kg,1) maize (event MON810®) as a starch source, showed any nutritional or physiological adverse effects on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. postsmolt. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize and its near-isogenic parental line (nongenetically modified; nGM maize), were balanced with Suprex maize (Reference) to obtain compositional equivalency of diet starch, sugars and all other nutrients. Total starch level in all diets was 160 g kg,1. After 82 days of feeding, fish growth was high in all groups, however fish fed the GM maize showed slight but significant lower feed intake, which was followed by slight but significant lower specific growth rate and final body weights, compared with fish fed nGM maize, none of the groups varied significantly from fish fed the Reference diet. There was no variation in feed conversion ratios (FCR), protein and lipid efficiency ratios (PER and LER), or protein- and lipid-productive values (PPV and LPV) in this study. No significant effect of maize type was detected on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, protein or lipid. Hematological analysis and plasma nutrients varied within normal ranges for Atlantic salmon in all diet groups, except for somewhat elevated aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) values in all groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) with values ranging from 1.37 to 1.60, was significantly higher for the high GM maize group compared with the high nGM maize group but not when compared with the Reference diet group. Lowered spleen (SSI) and head-kidney somatic indices (H-KSI) were registered when fed GM compared with nGM maize, the Reference treatment was however, equal to both. Distal intestine somatic index (DISI) was significantly higher for GM maize-fed fish compared with nGM maize-fed fish, but not significantly different from the Reference diet group. Histological evaluation of the mid- and distal intestine, liver, spleen and head-kidney did not reveal any diet-related morphological changes. Maltase activities in the mid- and distal intestinal tissue homogenates were affected by diet, the fish fed high GM maize having higher activities compared with high nGM maize-fed fish. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities were not affected by diet. Sodium-dependent d -glucose uptake in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from pyloric caeca of fish fed high GM maize was significantly higher than that found in fish fed the analogous diet with high nGM maize. Based on the present findings, the conclusions made are: Atlantic salmon smolts fed GM maize (event MON810®), its near-isogenic parental line and suprex maize (Reference diet), all resulted in high growth rates, ADC and feed utilization. Health, when evaluated by means of mortality (low), normal ranges of blood and plasma parameters, except somewhat elevated ASAT values and minor variations in organ sizes, were considered good in all diet groups. The changes in the glucose transport mechanism and intestinal maltase enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract warrant further studies. [source]

Effects of amino acid supplementation on the nutritive quality of fermented linseed meal protein in the diets for rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings

N. Mukhopadhyay
A feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks to examine the effects of partial substitution of fish meal (FM) protein (crude protein content: 58.5%) with linseed meal protein with and without supplemental amino acids in diets for rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings (mean weight: 1.50 ± 0.3 g). Prior to incorporation into the diets, linseed meal was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus) to reduce/eliminate the antinutritional tannin and phytic acid factors. Twelve experimental diets (diets D1,D12) were formulated to replace the FM protein from a reference diet (RD) with linseed meal protein at different levels (four sets of diets, of which each set of three diets contained 25%, 50% and 75% replacement of FM protein by linseed meal protein, respectively). Diets D1,D3 were not supplemented with any amino acid. Lysine was supplemented in diets D4,D6. Diets D7,D9 were supplemented with methionine + cystine (together), and diets D10,D12 contained lysine and methionine + cystine (together). Lysine and methionine + cystine (together) were added to the diets at 5.7% and 3.1% of dietary protein, respectively. The groups of fish fed diets without amino acid supplementation had significantly lower percentages of weight gain, specific growth rate and high feed : gain ratio than the fish groups fed other experimental diets. The addition of lysine and methionine + cystine to the diet in which 50% of the FM protein was replaced by linseed meal protein (diet D11) significantly improved fish performance. The results of the present study suggest that rohu fingerlings can effectively utilize the supplemented amino acids and that linseed meal protein can replace up to 50% of the FM protein in rohu diets if the linseed meal is properly processed (fermented) and supplemented with the lacking amino acids. [source]

Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize

A Sagstad
Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate if genetically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, event MON810) compared with the near-isogenic non-modified (nGM) maize variety, added as a starch source at low or high inclusions, affected fish health of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. To evaluate the health impact, selected stress- and immune-response biomarkers were quantified at the gene transcript (mRNA) level, and some also at the protein level. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize, and its near-isogenic nGM parental line, were compared to a control diet containing GM-free suprex maize (reference diet) as the only starch source. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver and distal intestine was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed nGM maize and with the reference diet group. Fish fed GM maize showed significantly lower catalase (CAT) activity in liver compared with fish fed nGM maize and to the reference diet group. In contrast, CAT activity in distal intestine was significantly higher for fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed reference diet. Protein level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in liver was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed the reference diet. No diet-related differences were found in normalized gene expression of SOD, CAT or HSP70 in liver or distal intestine. Normalized gene expression of interleukin-1 beta in spleen and head-kidney did not vary significantly between diet groups. Interestingly, fish fed high GM maize showed a significantly larger proportion of plasma granulocytes, a significantly larger sum of plasma granulocyte and monocyte proportions, but a significantly smaller proportion of plasma lymphocytes, compared with fish fed high nGM maize. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon fed GM maize showed some small changes in stress protein levels and activities, but none of these changes were comparable to the normalized gene expression levels analysed for these stress proteins. GM maize seemed to induce significant changes in white blood cell populations which are associated with an immune response. [source]

Effect of Diet Processing Method and Ingredient Substitution on Feed Characteristics and Survival of Larval Walleye, Sander vitreus

Frederic T. Barrows
Two methods were developed for the production of larval fish diets. The first method, microextrusion marumerization (MEM), has been tested in laboratory feeding trials for many years and produces particles that are palatable and water stable. The second method, particle-assisted rotational agglomeration (PARA), produced diets that have lower density than diets produced by MEM. Each method was used to produce diets in the 250- to 400- and 400- to 700-,m range and compared with a reference diet (Fry Feed Kyowa, [FFK]) for feeding larval walleye in two experiments. The effect of substituting 4% of the fish meal with freeze-dried artemia fines was also investigated. In the first experiment, 30-d survival was greater (P < 0.05) for fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia (49.1.0%) than for fish fed the same diet produced by MEM (27.6%). The addition of Artemia to a diet produced by MEM did not increase survival of larval walleye. Fish fed the reference diet had 24.4% survival. In the second experiment, there was an effect of both processing method and Artemia supplementation, and an interaction of these effects, on survival. Fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia supplementation had 48.4% survival, and fish fed the same diet produced by MEM had only 19.6% survival. Inclusion of 4% freeze-dried Artemia improved (P < 0.04) survival of fish fed MEM particles but not those fed PARA particles. Fish fed FFK had greater weight gain than fish fed other diets in both experiments. Data indicate that the PARA method of diet processing produces smaller, lower density particles than the MEM process and that diets produced by the PARA process support higher survival of larval walleye with low capital and operating costs. [source]

Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Various Feed Ingredients for Grouper Epinephelus coioides

Heizhao Lin
Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, crude protein, lipid, gross energy, amino acids, and fatty acids in white fish meal, brown fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, and yeast were determined for grouper Epinephelus coioides. Apparent digestibility was determined using a reference diet with 0.5% chromic oxide indicator and test diets that contained 70% reference diet and 30% of the feed ingredient being evaluated. The fish, averaging 12.0 g, were held in 250-L tanks at a density of 30 fish per tank. Feces were collected from three replicate groups-of fish. Apparent dry matter digestibility of ingredients was 78.85 ± 2.43, 79.11 ± 0.61, 69.85 ± 3.60, 73.67 ± 2.30 and 57.70 ± 4.69% for white fish meal, brown fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, and yeast, respectively. Apparent gross energy digestibility of ingredients was 93.27 ± 2.90, 89.48 ± 1.78, 70.52 ± 4.01, 73.13 ± 2.41 and 51.67 ± 2.01% for white fish meal, brown fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, and yeast, respectively. Apparent protein digestibility of ingredients was 89.82 ± 1.24, 87.34 ± 1.25, 83.97 ± 1.92, 80.79 ± 1.95, and 61.14 ± 0.54% for white fish meal, brown fish meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, and yeast, respectively. White fish meal and brown fish meal showed higher protein digestibility among ingredients tested (P ± 0.01). Lipid digestibility of ingredients was high (90.66-94.48%) and not significantly different except for yeast. Amino acid availability values for test ingredients were similar to values of protein digestibility. Amino acid availability values of white fish meal and brown fish meal were higher than other ingredients. Fatty acid availability values for test ingredients were similar to values of lipid digestibility. In general, the digestibility of most fatty acids was over 80% in all ingredients, except for 14:0 in yeast and 18:0 in peanut meal, PUFA + HUFA > MUFA > SFA. Longer-chain saturated fatty acids were less digestibility, except for 14:0, with digestibilities diminishing as fatty acid chain length increased. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, lipid, gross energy, amino acids, and fatty acids in yeast was the lowest among the ingredients. [source]

Assessment of methods for the determination of digestibilities of feed ingredients for Tra catfish, Pangasinodon hypothalamus

Abstract In this study, we undertook a series of experiments to assess different faecal-collection methods and also the digestibilities of a range of feed ingredients when fed to Tra catfish (Pangasinodon hypothalamus). Apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, energy and nitrogen for a reference diet were also determined from faeces collected by way of settlement at 2-h intervals from 2 to 24 h. No significant effect of sample collection time on the digestibility values was observed. Stripping was attempted, but was not considered a suitable method for collecting digesta from Tra catfish. Dissection collection was also evaluated. Values determined from dissection collection were lower than those from using settlement. In a second experiment, a suite of test ingredients was combined with a reference diet component in a 30 : 70 ratio to determine the ingredients for dry matter, energy and nitrogen digestibilities. Ingredients included were trash-fish, defatted rice bran, wet full-fat rice bran, dried full-fat rice bran, broken rice, cassava, soybean and fish meals. Collection of faeces by settlement was used for determining the digestibility of each of the ingredients. The results showed that Tra catfish can efficiently digest protein and energy from a wide range of feed ingredients and nutrient sources. [source]

Investigations on the digestibility and metabolizability of the major nutrients and energy of maize leaves and barnyard grass in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Abstract In the uplands of northern Vietnam, culture of grass carp contributes significantly to income and household food security of Black Thai farmers. Maize is one of the most important upland crops and barnyard grass is the most important weed in the paddy rice fields. Thus, these are frequently used by small-scale fish farmers as fish feed. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted simultaneously in a recirculation and in a respirometric system to determine the digestibility and metabolizability of the nutrients of maize leaves and barnyard grass, to assess their crude protein, lipid and energy conversion and to estimate the energy allocation in grass carp. The following diets were used: diet ,A' (reference diet) containing 39% crude protein with 19.8 MJ kg,1 gross energy; diets ,B', ,C' and ,D', which contained the same amount of the reference diet as the control diet, supplemented with a known amount of dried barnyard grass, dried maize leaves or fresh maize leaves, respectively. Five fish were assigned to each treatment in each experimental unit. Reference and test diets were fed to fish and faecal samples were collected and the oxygen consumption was measured in order to set up an energy budget of the fish over the whole experimental period. The weekly development of the body weight was recorded. The body weight gain of the fish fed diet D was significantly higher than that of the group fed diet A, which also in turn was significantly higher than that of fish fed diet B or C. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and gross energy for the different experimental diets in fish kept in the aquaria were, for diets A, B, C and D respectively, 94.1%, 60.9%, 70.5% and 84.7% for protein, 91.3%, 60.7%, 76.8% and 71.8% for lipid; 95.9%, 44.5%, 60.6% and 69.1% for gross energy. The partial ADC of plant leaf ingredients were determined and barnyard grass and dried maize leaves were found to be not only poorly digestible but having negative impact on the digestibility of the reference diet, while fresh maize leaves were well digested. The results of the present study indicated that fresh maize leaves have a good potential to be used as supplement in diets for grass carp. [source]

Complete replacement of fish meal by porcine and poultry by-product meals in practical diets for fingerling Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: digestibility and growth performance

Abstract The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of poultry by-product meal-pet food grade (PBM) and porcine meal (PM) were determined for fingerling male Nile tilapia. ADC for protein were 98.1% and 92.3% in PBM and PM, and 87.1% and 79.4% for energy. PBM and PM were then used as complete replacements for fish meal (FM) in practical diets for Nile tilapia formulated to contain equal digestible protein (300 g kg,1) and energy (16.74 MJ per 100 g) on an as-fed basis. Fingerlings (mean initial weight ±SD, 9.5 ± 0.015 g) were fed for 8 weeks on one of the four diets: FM-, PBM- or PM-based and a commercial feed. The ADC for protein in control and PBM diets (89.7% and 87.9%) were significantly higher than those for the control diet (81.96%). Growth performance and feed utilization were statistically similar between fish fed control and PBM diets, whereas the PM diet exhibited significantly lower performance compared with the control. However, the PM diet showed similar results to the commercial reference diet. Survival and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by replacement of FM with either PBM or PM. The results indicated that PBM and PM can effectively replace FM in practical diets for fingerling Nile tilapia. [source]

A comparison of two faecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients of menhaden fish meal and two grades of poultry by-product meals for market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis)

Abstract Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass in two consecutive trials using passive netting (1.6 mm mesh) followed by manual stripping of faeces. A reference diet resembling a commercial feed was formulated to meet or exceed all known nutritional requirements of hybrid striped bass. Test diets were formulated to contain a 70 : 30 mixture of reference diet to test ingredient with chromic oxide (1%) serving as the inert marker. Diets were extruded under commercial conditions and the reference diet was fed for two weeks in order to acclimate fish to experimental conditions. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate tanks containing 30 fish each. Fish were fed their respective diet twice daily to apparent satiation for two weeks, with faecal collections being conducted on the 7th and 14th day, in each trial. ADC values determined in the net method were highly variable and generally lower than ADCs obtained by stripping. Consistently lower and highly variable chromium concentrations were found in the net method faecal samples and suggest that marker loss relative to nutrient content, or dilution of marker with non-faecal matter, on the net collectors influenced results in that trial. In contrast, the standard errors of ADCs determined in the strip method were less than 5 percentage points in most cases. Protein digestibility ranged from a low of 51% (PBM-feed) to a high of 87% (PBM-pet) in the net method, and from a low of 80% (PBM-feed) to a high of 99% (MEN) in the strip method. With the exception of Lys, no differences in amino acid availabilities among diets were found in the net method. In the strip method, protein digestibility and amino acid availabilities in MEN were generally greater than those found in PBM-pet or PBM-feed, whereas ADCs were not significantly different between the two poultry by-products. Based on the conditions of the present study, net collection of faecal matter can not be recommended for determining the digestibility of nutrients in feed ingredients for market-size sunshine bass. Digestibility coefficients obtained by the strip method for feed and petfood grades poultry by-product were higher than those previously reported and will be facilitate more efficient and economical diet formulations for larger sunshine bass. [source]

Nutrients apparent digestibility coefficients of selected protein sources for juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), compared by two chromic oxide analyses methods

Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter (ADCd), crude protein (ADCp), energy (ADCe) and amino acids in selected feedstuffs were determined for juvenile Siberian sturgeon (8.38 ± 0.20 g). The tested feedstuffs were fishmeal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal, hydrolysed feather meal, fermented feather meal solvent-extracted cottonseed meal and soybean meal. ADCs were determined using a reference diet and test diets at 7 : 3 ratios with 5 g kg,1 chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as an inert marker. Fish were reared in a recirculating system and fed to apparent satiation five times daily. Cr2O3 in diets and faeces samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and acid-digestion colorimetry (AC) methods, respectively. The results showed that ICP-AES method was more accurate for Cr2O3 determination than AC method, and the results determined by ICP-AES method were used in this study. ADCd and ADCp of seven tested ingredients were lowest for MBM (59.1 and 84.5%) and highest for FM (79.9 and 94.5%); ADCe of tested ingredients were from 71.8% for SECM to 93.2% for FM. ADCs of amino acid in test ingredients followed similar trend to the ADCp. The ADCs of individual amino acids varied from 61.6% (histidine in MBM) to 98.8% (valine in FM). [source]

Apparent digestibility coefficients of selected feed ingredients for dourado Salminus brasiliensis

Abstract The excellence of its flesh and fast growth makes the dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, a carnivorous fish native to the Prata basin, a potential candidate for intensive fish farming. This study evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of energy and nutrients of animal and plant protein sources for the carnivorous Characin dourado S. brasiliensis. Fish (19.5 ± 5.0 g) were stocked in plastic cages (80-L) and fed pelleted test diets containing 30% of the test ingredient [fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM), soybean meal (SBM), and corn gluten meal (CGM) plus 70% of a reference diet (481.4 g kg,1 of crude protein and 18.63 kJ of gross energy per gram]. After the last daily meal, cages were transferred to cylindrical, conical-bottomed aquarium (200-L) where faeces were collected by sedimentation in a refrigerated container. Except for ADC of protein and energy, all other ADC of nutrients showed significant differences (P < 0.01). ADC values were: 94.3%, 91.3%, 93.1%, and 93.5% for crude protein; 91.0%, 90.3%, 87.8%, and 88.8% for gross energy; 92.1%, 84.5%, 80.6%, and 79.3% for ash; 83.9%, 80.3%, 84.3%, and 84.6% for dry matter; 97.4%, 96.7%, 93.3%, and 91.5% for lipid for FM, PBM, SBM, and CGM, respectively. The average amino acid ADC was: 93.6%, 90.0%, 92.1%, and 92.5% of FM, PBM, SBM, and CGM, respectively. All test ingredients were efficiently used and can partially replace FM in diets for carnivorous dourado. [source]

Apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy in extruded diets from cultivars of barley and wheat selected for nutritional quality in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

Abstract A digestibility trial was conducted to elucidate potential differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines and varieties as a first step in defining their potential for use in aquafeeds. A diverse group of six barley lines having six combinations of selected attributes, normal versus low phytic acid, normal versus waxy, and hulled versus hull-less, were chosen for evaluation along with a waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soft white wheat. The experimental diets were manufactured by cooking extrusion and consisted of a 70% reference diet that was formulated to contain a minimal level of phosphorus and 30% test ingredient. Phosphorus availability ranged from 17 to 78% and was influenced by starch type in wheat. Apparent protein digestibility ranged from 53 to 125% and differences were observed between wheat varieties based on starch type. Apparent energy digestibility ranged from 32 to 63%, with waxy barley varieties having higher energy digestibility coefficients than normal starch varieties. Waxy starch varieties had higher starch digestibility in both barley and wheat because of the greater digestibility of amylopectin than amylose. In summary, the higher energy digestibility of waxy barley lines suggests that these varieties warrant further attention as feed ingredients for rainbow trout. [source]

Apparent digestibilities of common feedstuffs for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides using individual test ingredients

Abstract Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy, and availability of amino acids from blood meal (BM), fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal (PBM), soybean meal (SBM), corn, wheat and yellow grease (YG) were determined for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (mean weight, 57 g), and likewise, but not for BM or wheat, for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (mean weight, 30 g). To avoid nutrient interaction from a reference diet, diets containing 98.5% (985 g kg,1) of test ingredients were used, except for semi-solid, YG which was mixed with corn to permit pelletization. Faeces were collected by a siphoning method. Apparent dry matter digestibility values ranged from 50% (corn) to 87% (BM) for bluegill and from 53% (MBM) to 76% (PBM) for largemouth bass. Apparent energy digestibility values ranged from 53% (corn) to 92% (BM) for bluegill and from 63% (MBM) to 93% (YG) for largemouth bass. Apparent digestibility of most amino acids exceeded 90% for evaluated protein sources, except for MBM which showed slightly lower values (80,90%) for both fishes. Isoleucine digestibility from BM was relatively low (82%) for bluegill. High digestibility values for SBM, PBM and BM, indicate good potential for replacing FM in diets for both fishes. [source]

Amino acid availability and protein digestibility of several protein sources for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

Abstract Apparent amino acid availability coefficients and protein digestibility of four animal products [fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product and feather meal] and four plant protein-rich products [soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal-28, cottonseed meal-38 and corn gluten meal (CGM)] were determined for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Ingredients were incorporated to a practical reference diet at a 7 : 3 ratio (70% of reference diet and 30% of test ingredient). Chromic oxide was used as external digestibility marker. Among animal products poultry by-product meal (PBM; 89.7%) and FM (88.6%) presented the highest apparent protein digestibility (APD) while MBM (78.4%) and feather meal (78.5%) presented the lowest APD. Among plant protein-rich products CGM (91.4%) and SBM (92.4%) presented the highest APD values while cottonseed meal-28 presented the lowest APD (78.6%). Average apparent amino acid availability of feed ingredients was similar to protein digestibility with 92.3%, 89.6%, 73.4%, 80.7%, 88.9%, 84.4%, 91.2% and 79.7% values for SBM, CGM, cottonseed meal-28 and 38, FM, MBM, PBM and feather meal respectively. These results indicate that O. niloticus is able to utilize efficiently different feedstuffs. [source]

A feed is only as good as its ingredients , a review of ingredient evaluation strategies for aquaculture feeds

Abstract The evaluation of feed ingredients is crucial to nutritional research and feed development for aquaculture species. In evaluating ingredients for use in aquaculture feeds, there are several important knowledge components that should be understood to enable the judicious use of a particular ingredient in feed formulation. This includes information on (1) ingredient digestibilities, (2) ingredient palatability and (3) nutrient utilization and interference. Diet design, feeding strategy, faecal collection method and method of calculation all have important implications on the determination of the digestible value of nutrients from any ingredient. There are several ways in which palatability of ingredients can be assessed, usually based on variable inclusion levels of the ingredient in question in a reference diet and feeding of those diets under an apparent satietal or self-regulating feeding regimes. However, the design of the diets, the parameters of assessment and the feeding regime can all be subject to variation depending on subtleties of the experimental design. Clearly, issues relating to feed intake are the key performance criteria in palatability assessments, and it is important that such experiments maintain sufficient stringency to allow some self-discrimination of the test feeds by the fish. The ability of fish to use nutrients from the test ingredient, or defining factors that interfere with that process, is perhaps the most complex and variable part of the ingredient evaluation process. It is crucial to discriminate effects on feed intake from effects on utilization of nutrients from ingredients (for growth and other metabolic processes). To allow an increased focus on nutrient utilization by the animals, there are several experimental strategies that can be adopted, which are based on variations in diet design and feeding regime used. Other issues such as ingredient functionality, influence on immune status and effects on organoleptic qualities are also important consideration in determining the value of ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations. A key aspect to note is the need to design all experiments with sufficient experimental capacity to detect significant effects. [source]

Effects of extrusion processing of feed ingredients on apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Zongjia J. Cheng
Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion processing on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, energy and minerals in soya bean meal (SBM), barley, corn gluten meal and whole wheat, using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as the test species. In addition, availabilities of amino acids were also determined in SBM. Feed ingredients were preconditioned at 89,93 °C and then extruded using a Wenger X-85 extruder. Nonextruded ingredients were used as is, meaning that they were not preconditioned. The extruded and nonextruded ingredients were mixed with a casein,gelatin reference diet at 3 : 7 ratio prior to determination of ADC values. A total of 135 trout (initial mean body weight 223.4 ± 12.7 g) were stocked into nine 140-L fibreglass digestibility tanks with 15 fish per tank. Individual tanks were assigned randomly to each of eight diets made from the four ingredients (extruded and nonextruded) plus the reference diet. After faeces were collected in the first week, the diets were switched among tanks, and faeces were collected again after 5-day acclimation period in the second week. Yttrium oxide was used as the inert marker. Results showed that extrusion processing significantly improved ADCs of dry matter, crude fat and gross energy, and reduced ADCs of crude protein, phosphorus, copper, iron and zinc. Results also showed that the effects of extrusion processing on chemical composition and ADCs of nutrients depended on the ingredients. It is recommended that trace minerals such as copper, iron and zinc be supplemented by an additional 10,20% when rainbow trout diets are extruded because of their reduced bioavailability in plant meal-based feed ingredients. [source]

Nutritional value of feed peas (Pisum sativum) in practical diet formulations for Litopenaeus vannamei

Dry peas of mixed Canadian prairie varieties which were commercially obtained and processed to provide a variety of meals were evaluated in practical shrimp feeds. Whole and de-hulled peas were pin milled to produce raw flours. A portion of these meals were processed to produce whole extruded and de-hulled extruded meals. Additionally, a portion of the whole pea meal was processed by infrared cooking to produce a micronized meal. The five meals were evaluated in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory conditions. The first experiment was designed to estimate apparent protein and energy availability of the various meals. Using a practical reference diet, the meals were substituted using a 70:30 ratio to produce the test diets. Based on contrasts, both extruding and micronizing the pea meals resulted in significant improvements in both apparent protein digestibility and apparent energy digestibility values. Apparent energy digestibility values for the various ingredients expressed as percentage ± SD were: whole raw, 72.3 ± 8.1; whole extruded, 86.0 ± 8.9; de-hulled raw, 88.4 ± 4.4; de-hulled extruded, 94.4 ± 10.0; whole micronized, 94.1 ± 10.2. To evaluate the response of shrimp to the diets containing pea meal, two 7-week growth trials were conducted in the laboratory using a practical diet formulated to contain 360 g kg,1 protein and 90 g kg,1 lipid. In the first growth trial the shrimp had a mean initial weight of 0.66 g and six test diets were evaluated that included the basal diet and five diets for which the pea meals were included in the diet at 250 g kg,1 dry weight replacing whole wheat. In the second growth trial the shrimp had a mean initial weight of 1.1 g and only the whole raw and whole extruded meals were evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 g kg,1 inclusion in the diet. At the conclusion of the first growth trial weight gain ranged from 718 to 862% and at the conclusion of the second growth trial weight gain ranged from 394 to 502%, with no significant differences or discernible trends observed as a result of the various dietary treatments. Based on the observed results, the continued evaluation of feed peas as a potential ingredient of shrimp feeds is warranted. Additionally, if feed peas are suitably priced, commercial producers are encouraged to evaluate feed peas as an alternative protein and energy source. [source]

Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets for juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus

Xiao-Hui Dong
Abstract The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, ash, phosphorus, gross energy and amino acids of 10 selected ingredients for juvenile hybrid tilapia (7.05 ± 0.09 g) were determined using 0.5% Cr2O3 as an inert indicator. The feed ingredients tested in this study were corn gluten meal (CGM), corn byproduct, corn germ meal (CG), soybean meal (SBM), fermented soybean meal (FSM), soy protein concentrate (SPC), soy protein isolate, malt sprouts (MS), fish meal (FM) and earthworm meal (EM). The test diets were prepared by incorporation of 30% test ingredients into the reference diet. Reference and test diets were fed to the fish and the faecal samples were collected using a faecal collection column attached to the fish-rearing tanks. The ADCs for dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, ash, phosphorus and gross energy were 41.7,98.9%, 90.6,99.6%, 73.1,98.8%, 34.1,98.6%, 49.5,99.6% and 45.4,99.7% respectively. Soy protein isolate, FM and EM had higher dry matter, crude protein and gross energy ADCs. Corn byproduct and EM had higher crude lipid ADCs, and CG and EM had higher phosphorus ADCs. Corn germ meal had the highest ash ADC, while CGM had the highest value for gross energy. The lowest dry matter, crude protein, lipid and gross energy ADCs occurred in MS, while the lowest ash and phosphorus ADCs occurred in SPC. The amino acid ADCs ranged from 83.3% to 100%, exhibiting a positive correlation with crude protein digestibility for a given test ingredient. The feed ingredient digestibility of this study may provide useful information about nutrient and energy utilization to facilitate formulation of least-cost practical diets for hybrid tilapia. [source]

Feed intake and growth performance of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) fed diets with partial replacement of fish meal with plant proteins

Joana M G Silva
Abstract To be able to study nutrient requirement and utilization in any species, a diet supporting normal feed intake and growth equally well as a traditional fish meal-based diet is needed. Additionally the formulation of the diet should allow low levels of the nutrient under study. When studying the amino acid metabolism and requirements, one cannot rely on the fish meal-based diets as fish meal are nicely balanced according to requirements. Therefore the current study aimed to develop a plant protein-based diet (with low fish meal inclusion) to be used in the nutritional studies of Senegalese sole juveniles supporting feed intake and growth close to that obtained in a fish meal-based control feed. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether Senegalese sole juveniles would accept and utilize diets containing high plant protein inclusion. For testing the acceptance of high plant protein inclusion, two diets were formulated: a reference diet that contained fish meal as the main protein source (450 g kg,1 dry matter) whereas in the test diet, fish meal was substituted by a mixture of plant ingredients (soybean meal, corn and wheat gluten) with l -lysine supplementation. In order to improve the palatability, 50 g kg,1 squid meal was added to both diets. The indispensable amino acids (IAA) profile of the test diet was made similar to the control diet by adding crystalline amino acids. Further, automatic feeders were used to improve the feed intake. Fish (24 g initial body weight) were fed the diets for a period of 4 weeks. As fish accepted both diets equally well, a second study was undertaken to test the growth performance. Fish (6 g initial BW) were fed the diets for a period of 12 weeks. The use of automatic feeders to deliver the feed and the addition of both squid and balancing the indispensable amino acids resulted in growth performance and accretion not differing from the fish meal fed control. It can be concluded that juvenile Senegalese sole are able to grow and utilize high plant-protein diets when both diet composition and feeding regime are adequate for this species. [source]

Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone

Qihui Yang
Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein, crude lipid, gross energy, phosphorus and amino acids in Peruvian fish meal (FM), fermented soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, wheat gluten meal, corn gluten meal, shrimp byproduct meal, meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry meat meal and plasma protein meal (PPM) were determined for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisting of 70% RF diet and 30% of the feedstuff) were used with 0.5% chromic oxide as an external indicator. A total of 1440 shrimp (initial mean body weight 1.05 ± 0.01 g) were randomly stocked into thirty-six 500-L fibreglass tanks with 40 shrimp per tank and three tanks per diet. Faeces were collected from triplicate groups of shrimp by a faecal collection vessel attached to the shrimp-rearing tank. The shrimp were fed to apparent satiation four times a day and the feeding experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Statistics indicate that apparent DM digestibilities for white shrimp (L. vannamei) were the highest for FM, ranged 52.83,71.23% for other animal products and 69.98,77.10% for plant products. The protein and lipid from plant and animal sources were well digested by white shrimp. Apparent protein and lipid digestibility were in the range 87.89,93.18% and 91.57,95.28%, respectively, in plant products, and 75.00,92.34% and 83.72,92.79%, respectively, for animal products. The white shrimp demonstrated a high capacity to utilize phosphorus in the ingredients. The apparent phosphorus digestibility ranges of animal feedstuffs and plant feedstuffs were 58.90,71.61% and 75.77,82.30% respectively. Amino acid availability reflected protein digestibility, except that in MBM, for which the availability of some amino acid was lower, possibly due to protein damage during processing. Digestibility information could promote the use of ingredient substitution in least-cost formulated diets for white shrimp. [source]

Nutrient digestibility profile of premium (category III grade) animal protein by-products for temperate marine fish species (European sea bass, gilthead sea bream and turbot)

Simon J Davies
Abstract Three trials, with classical experimental designs for in vivo digestibility studies, were conducted to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein (ADCp), lipid (ADCl), energy (ADCe) and amino acids (AA) in selected animal by-products fed to European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Trial 1), gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Trial 2), and turbot, Psetta maxima (Trial 3). In each trial, five experimental diets [including a reference diet (RD)] where fish meal (FM) was used as the sole protein source were fed ad libitum to the fish for a period of 4 weeks. Test diets were based on the FM RD and obtained by replacing 30% of the RD with a category III designated European animal by-products (fit for human consumption), namely: steam hydrolysed feather meal (HFM), enzyme-treated feather meal (EFM), poultry meat meal (PMM) and spray-dried haemoglobin meal (SDHM). Faecal material was collected using the ,Guelph system', and nutrient and energy digestibility coefficients were related to the measurement of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) incorporated into the diet at a rate of 0.5%. Without any exception, FM diets yielded the best digestibility values for all macro-nutrients and by all fish. Among the test ingredients, ADCp was consistently higher for PMM and SDHM in the three species (85.5%, 91.1% in sea bass; 79.2%, 82.8% in sea bream; and 78.4%, 74.8% in turbot). Conversely, ADCp of HFM and EFM were less efficiently digested (67.2%, 68.2% in sea bass; 21.5%, 21.7% in sea bream; and 46.6%, 36.0% in turbot). However, the novel processing method applied to feather meal did not considerably influence the digestibility of most of the nutrients in this feedstuff. The current investigation yielded valuable numerical ADC for EAA considered to be of prime importance in generating balanced diet formulations. [source]

Quantitative dietary threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) reared in low-salinity water

Ming-Yan Huai
Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in low-salinity water (0.50,1.50 g L,1). Diets 1,6 were formulated to contain 360 g kg,1 crude protein with fish meal, wheat gluten and pre-coated crystalline amino acids with six graded levels of l -threonine (9.9,19.0 g kg,1 dry diet). Diet 7, which was served as a reference, contained only intact proteins (fish meal and wheat gluten). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps (0.48±0.01 g), each four times daily. Shrimps fed the reference diet had similar growth performance and feed utilization efficiency compared with shrimps fed the diets containing 13.3 g kg,1 or higher threonine. Maximum specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio were obtained at 14.6 g kg,1 dietary threonine, and increasing threonine beyond this level did not result in a better performance. Body compositions, triacyglycerol and total protein concentrations in haemolymph were significantly affected by the threonine level; however, the threonine contents in muscle, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in haemolymph were not influenced by the dietary threonine levels. Broken-line regression analysis on SGR indicated that optimal dietary threonine requirement for L. vannamei was 13.6 g kg,1 dry diet (37.8 g kg,1 dietary protein). [source]

Apparent digestibility coefficients of four feed ingredients for Synechogobius hasta

Zhi Luo
Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter, crude protein, lipid, energy, phosphorus and amino acids in white fish meal, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and peanut meal were determined for Synechogobius hasta (28.65 ± 0.43 g, mean ± SD), using a reference diet with chromic oxide indicator and test diets that contained 70% reference diet, by weight, and 30% of feed ingredients. The juvenile S. hasta were held in 300 L tanks at a density of 30 fish per tank respectively. Faeces were collected from three replicate groups of fish by siphoning. The ADCs of dry matter and energy were the highest in white fish meal and the lowest in rapeseed meal (P<0.05). Crude protein ADC was the lowest in rapeseed meal (P<0.05) and showed no significant differences among other treatments (P>0.05). The highest phosphorus ADC was observed in white fish meal and differences were not marked for other treatments (P>0.05). Lipid ADC were above 90% and showed no significant differences among the treatments (P>0.05). Amino acid availability values for the test ingredients followed similar trend to values of protein digestibility. All amino acids were more available from fish meal than from plant protein ingredients. Among three plant meals, the availability of amino acids was higher in peanut meal and lower in rapeseed meal. [source]

Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets formulated for the sub-adult mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, in Vietnam

Phuong Ha Truong
Abstract The present study was conducted to explore the potential to incorporate local plant-based feed ingredients into diets formulated for the mud crab species, Scylla paramamosain, commonly exploited for aquaculture in South-east Asia. Four test ingredients (defatted soybean meal, rice bran, cassava meal and corn flour) were incorporated at 30% or 45% inclusion levels in a fishmeal-based reference diet and used in digestibility trials where apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for experimental diets and test ingredients were determined. Generally, high ADC values were obtained using diets containing 30% soybean meal or rice bran. By contrast, the lowest ADC values were obtained for the diet containing 45% cassava meal [70.9% for dry matter (ADMD); 77.1% for crude protein (ACPD) and 80.2% for gross energy (AGED)]. Similar trends were observed when ADC ingredient (I) digestibilities were compared. Specifically, the highest ADCI values were obtained for soybean meal when used at a 30% inclusion level (87.6% ADMDI; 98.4% ACPDI and 95.6% AGEDI) while the lowest ADCI values were obtained using cassava meal at a 45% inclusion level (53.8% ADMDI; 60.2% ACPDI and 67.3% AGEDI). Based on the current findings, we propose that soybean meal and rice bran could be considered for incorporation into formulated diets for S. paramamosain. [source]

Evaluation of fermented fish-offal in the formulated diet of the freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

Kausik Mondal
Abstract A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to test the effect of partial replacement of fishmeal by fish-offal (FO) in the diet for the freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Three isonitrogenous (31.4% CP) diets were formulated to include a reference diet (T1) with 40% fishmeal (FM) and 0% FO and two supplementary diets: one (T2) containing 25% FM and 25% FO and another (T3) containing 20% FM and 30% FO. The FO was fermented along with mustard oil cake and rice bran before using it as an ingredient in the preparation of feed. Two separate trials were conducted with these three diets: a growth trial and a digestibility trial. H. fossilis fed the diets containing FO showed better growth and proximate composition of carcass than those fed the reference diet. Fish fed T3 diet showed maximum feed conversion, protein utilization and growth. Apparent protein digestibility (APD) was also significantly higher in the T3 diet as compared with the T1 diet. The results of the trial indicated that using microbial fermentation, FO could be included up to a 30% level as a partial (50%) replacement of fishmeal in the formulation of diet for H. fossilis. [source]

Carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of animal and vegetal ingredients and diets for the pre-adult redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens)

Alfredo Campaña-Torres
Abstract In vivo carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of four animal [sardine meals 67% and 58% crude protein (CP), squid meal and red crab meal] and three vegetal (soy paste, textured wheat and sorghum meal) ingredients and diets were evaluated in experimental diets for pre-adult redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. A reference and seven experimental diets were formulated, including 14.5% of each ingredient in the reference diet. A single factor, completely randomized experimental design with five replicates per treatment was done. Experimental organisms were pre-adult redclaw of 10±0.8 g. The best carbohydrate digestibilities were recorded for some vegetal ingredients such as sorghum and textured wheat (93.6% and 83.9%) and the corresponding diets (90.9% and 90.8%). For animal ingredients, carbohydrate digestibilities were very poor (from 12.3% to 41.1%), and the inclusion of these ingredients diminished the digestibility of the corresponding experimental diets as compared with the reference diet (86.3,89.2% vs. 89.9%). The highest lipid digestibility corresponded to red crab meal (97.5%). Textured wheat and soy paste meal also had excellent lipid digestibility (96.4% and 95.1%). The same tendency was found for the corresponding diets. The lowest percentages were obtained with 58% crude protein sardine meal (32.9%) and its diet (86.2%). [source]

Low-cost diet for monoculture of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) in Bangladesh

Md Arshad Hossain
Abstract An experiment was conducted for 3 months in 12 experimental ponds, each of 30 m2, with a view to develop a low-cost diet for monoculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in ponds. Three experimental diets (30% protein) were formulated using fish meal, meat and bone meal, mustard oilcake, sesame meal and rice bran in different combinations partially replacing fish meal by meat and bone meal and sesame meal and assigned to treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively. A commercial golda feed (Starter-III) was assigned to T4 (reference diet). Each treatment had three replicates. Juveniles of M. rosenbergii (2.90±0.21 g) were stocked at the rate of 40 000 ha,1. Prawns were fed three times daily at the rate of 10% and 5% of their body weight at the beginning and for the last 2 months respectively. The ponds were provided with aeration during the night using air pumps. The ranges of water quality parameters recorded in different ponds were: temperature 28.9,32.5°C, dissolved oxygen 5.1,8.1 mg L,1 and pH 6.4,7.7. The results showed that the weight gain of prawns fed diet 1 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those fed diets 2 and 3, but was not significantly different from those fed diet 4 (reference diet). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of diets ranged between 2.21 and 2.96 with diets 1 and 4 showing significantly lower (P<0.05) FCR values. The survivals (%) ranged between 68% and 78% with prawns fed diets 1 and 4 showing significantly higher survival. The production of prawn ranged between 921 and 1428 kg ha,1 and diet 1 resulted in a significantly high (P<0.05) production. A simple economic analysis showed that diet 1 generated the maximum net profit of Tk 159 178 ha,1. The results of the study showed that a diet containing 20% fish meal, 10% meat and bone meal, 15% mustard oilcake, 15% sesame meal, 35% rice bran, 4% molasses and 1% vitamin,mineral premixes may be recommended to the farmers for monoculture of M. rosenbergii in ponds. [source]

Influence of insoluble dietary cellulose on digestive enzyme activity, feed digestibility and survival in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens)

Ana Pavasovic
Abstract Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus) is a freshwater crayfish species with recognized potential for aquaculture. To better understand the digestive processes and nutritional requirements of red claw, we have examined the effects of dietary cellulose on (1) digestive enzyme activity and diet digestibility and (2) survival rate, feed conversion ratio and growth performance. In the first study, a reference diet (RF) and test diets consisting of 70% RF and 30%,-cellulose or Fuller's earth were prepared. Analysis of digestive enzyme profiles revealed that amylase and cellulase activities in midgut gland (MG) extracts were highest in the red claw fed on a diet containing 30% Fuller's earth and lowest in those fed on a diet containing 30%,-cellulose. Supplementation of the RF diet with either 30%,-cellulose or Fuller's earth significantly reduced apparent dry mater (ADMD) and apparent protein digestibilities (APD). In the second study, a feeding trial was conducted using diets supplemented with different levels of ,-cellulose. A major finding was that dietary cellulose levels above 12% were correlated with significant reductions in survival rate, specific growth rate and feeding efficiency. Based on these findings, we suggest that although cellulase enzymes are present in the red claw digestive system there are no apparent nutritive benefits obtained by including insoluble cellulose in diets for this species. [source]