Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy

Kinds of Redshift

  • high redshift
  • intermediate redshift
  • low redshift
  • lower redshift
  • photometric redshift
  • spectroscopic redshift

  • Terms modified by Redshift

  • redshift distribution
  • redshift range
  • redshift space
  • redshift survey
  • redshift z

  • Selected Abstracts

    Drastic Solid-State Fluorescence Enhancement Behaviour of Phenanthro[9,10- d]imidazole-Type Fluorescent Hosts upon Inclusion of Carboxylic Acids

    Yousuke Ooyama
    Abstract The crystals of phenanthro[9,10- d]imidazole-type fluorescent host 1 exhibit drastic fluorescence enhancement behaviour with a redshift in the emission maximum upon enclathration of various carboxylic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid. The optical changes are greatly dependent on the identity of the enclathrated carboxylic acids. The fluorescent clathrate compounds are formed not only by cocrystallization from carboxylic acid solutions but also by solid (fluorescent host),gas (carboxylic acid vapour) contact. Furthermore, when the acetic acid inclusion crystals are exposed to propionic acid vapour, acetic acid is gradually replaced by propionic acid. The guest exchange of the inclusion crystals was accompanied with colour and fluorescent intensity changes. The X-ray structural analyses of the guest-free and carboxylic acid inclusion compounds demonstrated that the destructions of the ,,, interactions, and the intermolecular hydrogen bonds binding fluorophores were induced by the enclathrated carboxylic acid molecules. Moreover, the imidazole ring of the host is protonated by the enclathrated carboxylic acid proton. On the basis of the spectroscopic data and the crystal structures, the effects of the enclathrated carboxylic acid on the solid-state photophysical properties of the clathrate compounds are discussed.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Photophysics and Photocurrent Generation in Polythiophene/Polyfluorene Copolymer Blends

    Christopher R. McNeill
    Abstract Here, studies on the evolution of photophysics and device performance with annealing of blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) with the two polyfluorene copolymers poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthien-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2,,2,,-diyl) (F8TBT) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) are reported. In blends with F8TBT, P3HT is found to reorganize at low annealing temperatures (100,C or below), evidenced by a redshift of both absorption and photoluminescence (PL), and by a decrease in PL lifetime. Annealing to 140,C, however, is found to optimize device performance, accompanied by an increase in PL efficiency and lifetime. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering is also performed to study the evolution in film nanomorphology with annealing, with the 140,C-annealed film showing enhanced phase separation. It is concluded that reorganization of P3HT alone is not sufficient to optimize device performance but must also be accompanied by a coarsening of the morphology to promote charge separation. The shape of the photocurrent action spectra of P3HT:F8TBT devices is also studied, aided by optical modeling of the absorption spectrum of the blend in a device structure. Changes in the shape of the photocurrent action spectra with annealing are observed, and these are attributed to changes in the relative contribution of each polymer to photocurrent as morphology and polymer conformation evolve. In particular, in as-spun films from xylene, photocurrent is preferentially generated from ordered P3HT segments attributed to the increased charge separation efficiency in ordered P3HT compared to disordered P3HT. For optimized devices, photocurrent is efficiently generated from both P3HT and F8TBT. In contrast to blends with F8TBT, P3HT is only found to reorganize in blends with F8BT at annealing temperatures of over 200,C. The low efficiency of the P3HT:F8BT system can then be attributed to poor charge generation and separation efficiencies that result from the failure of P3HT to reorganize. [source]

    Synthesis and properties of amorphous blue-light-emitting polymers with high glass-transition temperatures

    V. Deimede
    Abstract A series of soluble poly(arylene ether)s containing the phenylphosphine oxide moiety were synthesized by the polymerization of substituted oligophenylene diols with bis(fluorophenyl)phenylphosphine oxide. These amorphous polyethers had well-defined structures and showed blue photoluminescence combined with good thermal stability, especially when phenyl or ethoxy side groups were used. The glass-transition temperatures increased when the size of the oligophenylene segment increased from three to five rings or when the length of the alkoxy substituents decreased. Polymers with glass-transition temperatures up to 270 C were obtained. The absorption and photoluminescent spectra shifted to longer wavelengths with an increase in the oligophenylene block. A redshift was also observed on photoluminescent spectra in the transition from solution to the solid state. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 39: 3168,3179, 2001 [source]

    Effect of pressure on the luminescence of a series of methoxy phenylacetylene dendrimers neat and in dilute solution in solid poly(tert -butyl methacrylate)

    A. Zhu
    Abstract The effect of pressure up to 60 kbar was measured on the luminescence peak location and efficiency for a series of methoxy phenylacetylene dendrimers (MeO). Dendrimers MeO-3, MeO-7, MeO-15, MeO-31, MeO-63, and MeO-127 were studied as neat polymers. MeO-3, MeO-15, MeO-63, and MeO-127 were also investigated in dilute solutions in poly(tert -butyl methacrylate). According to measurements of the dilute solutions, there is a charge-transfer (CT) state that, for the smaller dendrimers, lies well above the ,* state; for the larger dendrimers, it is the emitting state at 1 atm. With increasing pressure, the intramolecular CT state is rapidly stabilized, so that at high pressure the emission is from this state for all dendrimers. For the neat polymers, there is an initial redshift that reverses direction at a pressure that is higher for smaller dendrimers. This reversal is attributed to intermolecular CT. There may be changes in the molecular geometry and/or relative orientation of adjacent dendrimers that tend to stabilize the intermolecular CT in the solid state. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 39: 2859,2865, 2001 [source]

    New multiply-lensed galaxies identified in ACS/NIC3 observations of Cl0024+1654 using an improved mass model

    Adi Zitrin
    ABSTRACT We present an improved strong-lensing analysis of Cl0024+1654 (z= 0.39) using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)/NIC3 images, based on 33 multiply-lensed images of 11 background galaxies. These are found with a model that assumes mass approximately traces light, with a low-order expansion to allow for flexibility on large scales. The model is constrained initially by the well-known five-image system (z= 1.675) and refined as new multiply-lensed systems are identified using the model. Photometric redshifts of these new systems are then used to constrain better the mass profile by adopting the standard cosmological relation between redshift and lensing distance. Our model requires only six free parameters to describe well all positional and redshift data. The resulting inner mass profile has a slope of d log M/d log r,,0.55, consistent with new weak-lensing measurements where the data overlap, at r, 200 kpc/h70. The combined profile is well fitted by a high-concentration Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) mass profile, Cvir, 8.6 1.6, similar to other well-studied clusters, but larger than predicted with standard , cold dark matter (,CDM). A well-defined radial critical curve is generated by the model and is clearly observed at r, 12 arcsec, outlined by elongated images pointing towards the centre of mass. The relative fluxes of the multiply-lensed images are found to agree well with the modelled magnifications, providing an independent consistency check. [source]

    Major dry mergers in early-type brightest cluster galaxies

    F. S. Liu
    ABSTRACT We search for ongoing major dry mergers in a well-selected sample of local brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from the C4 cluster catalogue. 18 out of 515 early-type BCGs with redshift between 0.03 and 0.12 are found to be in major dry mergers, which are selected as pairs (or triples) with r -band magnitude difference ,mr < 1.5 and projected separation rp < 30 kpc, and showing signatures of interaction in the form of significant asymmetry in residual images. We find that the fraction of BCGs in major dry mergers increases with the richness of the clusters, consistent with the fact that richer clusters usually have more massive (or luminous) BCGs. We estimate that present-day early-type BCGs may have experienced on average ,0.6 (tmerge/0.3 Gyr),1 major dry mergers and through this process increases their luminosity (mass) by 15 per cent (tmerge/0.3 Gyr),1 (fmass/0.5) on average since z= 0.7, where tmerge is the merging time-scale and fmass is the mean mass fraction of companion galaxies added to the central ones. We also find that major dry mergers do not seem to elevate radio activities in BCGs. Our study shows that major dry mergers involving BCGs in clusters of galaxies are not rare in the local Universe, and they are an important channel for the formation and evolution of BCGs. [source]

    The distribution of ejected subhaloes and its implication for halo assembly bias

    Huiyuan Wang
    ABSTRACT Using a high-resolution cosmological N -body simulation, we identify the ejected population of subhaloes, which are haloes at redshift z= 0 but were once contained in more massive ,host' haloes at high redshifts. The fraction of the ejected subhaloes in the total halo population of the same mass ranges from 9 to 4 per cent for halo masses from ,1011 to ,1012 h,1 M,. Most of the ejected subhaloes are distributed within four times the virial radius of their hosts. These ejected subhaloes have distinct velocity distribution around their hosts in comparison to normal haloes. The number of subhaloes ejected from a host of given mass increases with the assembly redshift of the host. Ejected subhaloes in general reside in high-density regions, and have a much higher bias parameter than normal haloes of the same mass. They also have earlier assembly times, so that they contribute to the assembly bias of dark matter haloes seen in cosmological simulations. However, the assembly bias is not dominated by the ejected population, indicating that large-scale environmental effects on normal haloes are the main source for the assembly bias. [source]

    The properties of the heterogeneous Shakhbazyan groups of galaxies in the SDSS

    D. Capozzi
    ABSTRACT We present a systematic study of the subsample of Shakhbazyan (SHK) groups covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). SHK groups probe an environment with characteristics which are intermediate between those of loose and very compact groups. Surprisingly, we found that several groups identifying algorithms, e.g. Berlind et al. and Tago et al., miss this type of structures. Using the SDSS DR5 spectroscopic data and the photometric redshifts derived in D'Abrusco et al., we identified possible group members in photometric redshift space and derived, for each group, several individual properties (richness, size, mean photometric redshift, fraction of red galaxies, etc.). We also combined pointed and stacked Rosat All Sky Survey (RASS) data to investigate the X-ray luminosities of these systems. Our study confirms that the majority of groups are physical entities with richness in the range 3,13 galaxies, and properties ranging between those of loose and compact groups. We confirm that SHK groups are richer in early-type galaxies than the surrounding environment and the field, as expected from the morphology,density relation and from the selection of groups of red galaxies. Furthermore, our work supports the existence of two subclasses of structures, the first one being formed by compact and isolated groups and the second formed by extended structures. We suggest that while the first class of objects dwells in less dense regions like the outer parts of clusters or the field, possibly sharing the properties of Hickson Compact Groups, the more extended structures represent a mixture of [core + halo] configurations and cores of rich clusters. X-ray luminosities for SHK groups are generally consistent with these results and with the expectations for the LX,,v relation, but also suggest the velocity dispersions reported in literature are underestimated for some of the richest systems. [source]

    GEMINI 3D spectroscopy of BAL + IR + Fe ii QSOs , I. Decoupling the BAL, QSO, starburst, NLR, supergiant bubbles and galactic wind in Mrk 231

    S. Lipari
    ABSTRACT In this paper we present the first results of a study of BAL QSOs (at low and high redshift), based on very deep Gemini GMOS integral field spectroscopy. In particular, the results obtained for the nearest BAL IR,QSO Mrk 231 are presented. For the nuclear region of Mrk 231, the QSO and host galaxy components were modelled, using a new technique of decoupling 3D spectra. From this study, the following main results were found: (i) in the pure host galaxy spectrum an extreme nuclear starburst component was clearly observed, as a very strong increase in the flux, at the blue wavelengths; (ii) the BAL system I is observed in the spectrum of the host galaxy; (iii) in the clean/pure QSO emission spectrum, only broad lines were detected. 3D GMOS individual spectra (specially in the near-infrared Ca ii triplet) and maps confirm the presence of an extreme and young nuclear starburst (8 < age < 15 Myr), which was detected in a ring or toroid with a radius r= 0.3 arcsec , 200 pc, around the core of the nucleus. The extreme continuum blue component was detected only to the south of the core of the nucleus. This area is coincident with the region where we previously suggested that the galactic wind is cleaning the nuclear dust. Very deep 3D spectra and maps clearly show that the BAL systems I and II , in the strong ,absorption lines' Na iD,5889,95 and Ca ii K,3933 , are extended (reaching ,1.4,1.6 arcsec , 1.2,1.3 kpc, from the nucleus) and clearly elongated at the position angle (PA) close to the radio jet PA, which suggest that the BAL systems I and II are ,both' associated with the radio jet. The physical properties of the four expanding nuclear bubbles were analysed, using the GMOS 3D spectra and maps. In particular, we found strong multiple LINER/OF emission-line systems and Wolf,Rayet features in the main knots of the more external super bubble S1 (r= 3.0 kpc). The kinematics of these knots , and the internal bubbles , suggest that they are associated with an area of rupture of the shell S1 (at the south-west). In addition, in the more internal superbubble S4 and close to the core of the nucleus (for r < 0.7 arcsec , 0.6 kpc), two similar narrow emission-line systems were detected, with strong [S ii] and [O i] emission and ,V,,200 km s,1. These results suggest that an important part of the nuclear NLR is generated by the OF process and the associated low-velocity ionizing shocks. Finally, the nature of the composite BAL systems and very extended OF process , of 50 kpc , in Mrk 231 (and similar QSOs) are discussed. In addition, the ,composite hyperwind scenario' (already proposed for BALs) is suggested for the origin of giant Ly, blobs. The importance of study the end phases of Mrk 231, and similar evolving elliptical galaxies and QSOs (i.e. galaxy remnants) is discussed. [source]

    What is the largest Einstein radius in the universe?

    Masamune Oguri
    ABSTRACT The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterizes the strength of gravitational lensing. In particular, the distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cut-off should probe the probability distribution of the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of Monte Carlo realizations of all-sky catalogues of massive clusters. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to parameters characterizing the cosmological model, especially ,8: for a source redshift of unity, they are 42+9,7, 35+8,6 and 54+12,7 arcsec (errors denote 1, cosmic variance), assuming best-fitting cosmological parameters of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year (WMAP5), three-year (WMAP3) and one-year (WMAP1) data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. The mass of the largest lens cluster can be as small as , 1015 M,. For the same source redshift, we expect in all sky ,35 (WMAP5), ,15 (WMAP3) and ,150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 20 arcsec. For a larger source redshift of 7, the largest Einstein radii grow approximately twice as large. Whilst the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the level of the primordial non-Gaussianity currently of interest, the measurement of the abundance of moderately large lens clusters should probe non-Gaussianity competitively with cosmic microwave background experiments, but only if other cosmological parameters are well measured. These semi-analytic predictions are based on a rather simple representation of clusters, and hence calibrating them with N -body simulations will help to improve the accuracy. We also find that these ,superlens' clusters constitute a highly biased population. For instance, a substantial fraction of these superlens clusters have major axes preferentially aligned with the line-of-sight. As a consequence, the projected mass distributions of the clusters are rounder by an ellipticity of ,0.2 and have , 40,60 per cent larger concentrations compared with typical clusters with similar redshifts and masses. We argue that the large concentration measured in A1689 is consistent with our model prediction at the 1.2, level. A combined analysis of several clusters will be needed to see whether or not the observed concentrations conflict with predictions of the flat ,-dominated cold dark matter model. [source]

    A semi-empirical model of the infrared emission from galaxies

    D. C. Ford
    ABSTRACT We present a semi-empirical model for the infrared emission of dust around star-forming sites in galaxies. Our approach combines a simple model of radiative transfer in dust clouds with a state-of-the-art model of the microscopic optical properties of dust grains pioneered by Draine & Li. In combination with the starburst99 stellar spectral synthesis package, this framework is able to produce synthetic spectra for galaxies which extend from the Lyman limit through to the far-infrared. We use it to probe how model galaxy spectra depend on the physical characteristics of their dust grain populations, and on the energy sources which heat that dust. We compare the predictions of our model with the 8- and 24-,m luminosities of sources in the Spitzer First Look Survey, and conclude by using the models to analyse the relative merits of various colour diagnostics in distinguishing systems out to a redshift of 2 with ongoing star formation from those with only old stellar populations. [source]

    Peak energy of the prompt emission of long gamma-ray bursts versus their fluence and peak flux

    L. Nava
    ABSTRACT The spectral-energy (and luminosity) correlations in long gamma-ray bursts are being hotly debated to establish, first of all, their reality against possible selection effects. These are best studied in the observer planes, namely the peak energy Eobspeak versus the fluence F or the peak flux P. In a recent paper, we have started to investigate this problem considering all bursts with known redshift and spectral properties. Here, we consider instead all bursts with known Eobspeak, irrespective of redshift, adding to those a sample of 100 faint BATSE bursts representative of a larger population of 1000 objects. This allows us to construct a complete, fluence-limited, sample, tailored to study the selection/instrumental effects we consider. We found that the fainter BATSE bursts have smaller Eobspeak than those of bright events. As a consequence, the Eobspeak of these bursts is correlated with the fluence, though with a slope flatter than that defined by bursts with z. Selection effects, which are present, are shown not to be responsible for the existence of such a correlation. About six per cent of these bursts are surely outliers of the Epeak,Eiso correlation (updated in this paper to include 83 bursts), since they are inconsistent with it for any redshift. Eobspeak also correlates with the peak flux, with a slope similar to the Epeak,Liso correlation. In this case, there is only one sure outlier. The scatter of the Eobspeak,P correlation defined by the BATSE bursts of our sample is significantly smaller than the Eobspeak,F correlation of the same bursts, while for the bursts with known redshift the Epeak,Eiso correlation is tighter than the Epeak,Liso one. Once a very large number of bursts with Eobspeak and redshift will be available, we thus expect that the Epeak,Liso correlation will be similar to that currently found, whereas it is very likely that the Epeak,Eiso correlation will become flatter and with a larger scatter. [source]

    E+A and companion galaxies , I. A catalogue and statistics

    Chisato Yamauchi
    ABSTRACT Based on our intensive spectroscopic campaign with the GoldCam spectrograph on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 2.1-m telescope, we have constructed the first catalogue of E+A galaxies with spectroscopic companion galaxies, and investigated a probability that an E+A galaxy has close companion galaxies. We selected 660 E+A galaxies with 4.0 < H, EW at a redshift of <0.167 from the Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We selected their companion candidates from the SDSS imaging data, and classified them into true companions, fore/background galaxies and companion candidates using the SDSS and our KPNO spectra. We observed 26 companion candidates of E+A galaxies at the KPNO to measure their redshifts. Their spectra showed that 17 targets are true companion galaxies. The number of spectroscopically confirmed E+A's companions is now 34. This becomes the first catalogue of E+A galaxies with spectroscopic companion systems. We found that E+A galaxies have 54 per cent larger probability of having companion galaxies (7.88 per cent) as compared to the comparison sample of normal galaxies (5.12 per cent). A statistical test shows that the probabilities are different with 99.7 per cent significance. Our results based on spectroscopy tighten the connection between the dynamical merger/interaction and the origin of E+A galaxies. [source]

    The evolution of the galaxy red sequence in simulated clusters and groups

    A. D. Romeo
    ABSTRACT N -body/hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy groups and clusters in a , cold dark matter (,CDM) cosmology are used in order to follow the building-up of the colour,magnitude relation in two clusters and in 12 groups. We have found that galaxies, starting from the more massive, move to the red sequence (RS) as they get aged over times and eventually set upon a ,dead sequence' (DS) once they have stopped their bulk star formation activity. Fainter galaxies keep having significant star formation out to very recent epochs and lie broader around the RS. Environment plays a role as galaxies in groups and cluster outskirts hold star formation activity longer than the central cluster regions. However, galaxies experiencing infall from the outskirts to the central parts keep star formation on until they settle on to the DS of the core galaxies. Merging contributes to mass assembly until z, 1, after which major events only involve the brightest cluster galaxies. The emerging scenario is that the evolution of the colour,magnitude properties of galaxies within the hierarchical framework is mainly driven by star formation activity during dark matter haloes assembly. Galaxies progressively quenching their star formation settle to a very sharp ,red and dead' sequence, which turns out to be universal, its slope and scatter being almost independent of the redshift (since at least z, 1.5) and environment. Differently from the DS, the operatively defined RS evolves more evidently with z, the epoch when it changes its slope being closely corresponding to that at which the passive galaxies population takes over the star-forming one: this goes from z, 1 in clusters down to 0.4 in normal groups. [source]

    Photometric redshifts with surface brightness priors

    Hans F. Stabenau
    ABSTRACT We use galaxy surface brightness as prior information to improve photometric redshift (photo- z) estimation. We apply our template-based photo- z method to imaging data from the ground-based VVDS survey and the space-based GOODS field from HST, and use spectroscopic redshifts to test our photometric redshifts for different galaxy types and redshifts. We find that the surface brightness prior eliminates a large fraction of outliers by lifting the degeneracy between the Lyman and 4000- breaks. Bias and scatter are improved by about a factor of 2 with the prior in each redshift bin in the range 0.4 < z < 1.3, for both the ground and space data. Ongoing and planned surveys from the ground and space will benefit, provided that care is taken in measurements of galaxy sizes and in the application of the prior. We discuss the image quality and signal-to-noise ratio requirements that enable the surface brightness prior to be successfully applied. [source]

    Luminous red galaxy clustering at z, 0.7 , first results using AAOmega

    Nicholas P. Ross
    ABSTRACT We report on the AAT-AAOmega LRG Pilot observing run to establish the feasibility of a large spectroscopic survey using the new AAOmega instrument. We have selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs) using single epoch SDSS riz -photometry to i < 20.5 and z < 20.2. We have observed in three fields including the COSMOS field and the COMBO-17 S11 field, obtaining a sample of ,600 redshift z, 0.5 LRGs. Exposure times varied from 1,4 h to determine the minimum exposure for AAOmega to make an essentially complete LRG redshift survey in average conditions. We show that LRG redshifts to i < 20.5 can be measured in ,1.5 h exposures and present comparisons with 2SLAQ and COMBO-17 (photo)redshifts. Crucially, the riz selection coupled with the three to four times improved AAOmega throughput is shown to extend the LRG mean redshift from z= 0.55 for 2SLAQ to z= 0.681 0.005 for riz -selected LRGs. This extended range is vital for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Furthermore, we show that the amplitude of LRG clustering is s0= 9.9 0.7h,1 Mpc, as high as that seen in the 2SLAQ LRG Survey. Consistent results for this clustering amplitude are found from the projected and semi-projected correlation functions. This high amplitude is consistent with a long-lived population whose bias evolves as predicted by a simple ,high-peak' model. We conclude that a redshift survey of 360 000 LRGs over 3000 deg2, with an effective volume some four times bigger than previously used to detect BAO with LRGs, is possible with AAOmega in 170 nights. [source]

    Radio imaging of the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field , II.

    The 37 brightest radio sources
    ABSTRACT We study the 37 brightest radio sources in the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 24 of 37 objects and photometric redshifts for the remainder, yielding a median redshift zmed for the whole sample of zmed, 1.1 and a median radio luminosity close to the ,Fanaroff,Riley type I/type II (FR I/FR II)' luminosity divide. Using mid-infrared (mid-IR) (Spitzer MIPS 24 ,m) data we expect to trace nuclear accretion activity, even if it is obscured at optical wavelengths, unless the obscuring column is extreme. Our results suggest that above the FR I/FR II radio luminosity break most of the radio sources are associated with objects that have excess mid-IR emission, only some of which are broad-line objects, although there is one clear low-accretion-rate object with an FR I radio structure. For extended steep-spectrum radio sources, the fraction of objects with mid-IR excess drops dramatically below the FR I/FR II luminosity break, although there exists at least one high-accretion-rate ,radio-quiet' QSO. We have therefore shown that the strong link between radio luminosity (or radio structure) and accretion properties, well known at z, 0.1, persists to z, 1. Investigation of mid-IR and blue excesses shows that they are correlated as predicted by a model in which, when significant accretion exists, a torus of dust absorbs ,30 per cent of the light, and the dust above and below the torus scatters ,1 per cent of the light. [source]

    Is AGN feedback necessary to form red elliptical galaxies?

    A. Khalatyan
    ABSTRACT We have used the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code gadget-2 to simulate the formation of an elliptical galaxy in a group-size cosmological dark matter halo with mass Mhalo, 3 1012 h,1 M, at z= 0. The use of a stellar population synthesis model has allowed us to compute magnitudes, colours and surface brightness profiles. We have included a model to follow the growth of a central black hole and we have compared the results of simulations with and without feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have studied the interplay between cold gas accretion and merging in the development of galactic morphologies, the link between colour and morphology evolution, the effect of AGN feedback on the photometry of early-type galaxies, the redshift evolution in the properties of quasar hosts, and the impact of AGN winds on the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We have found that the early phases of galaxy formation are driven by the accretion of cold filamentary flows, which form a disc galaxy at the centre of the dark matter halo. Disc star formation rates in this mode of galaxy growth are about as high as the peak star formation rates attained at a later epoch in galaxy mergers. When the dark matter halo is sufficiently massive to support the propagation of a stable shock, the gas in the filaments is heated to the virial temperature, cold accretion is shut down, and the star formation rate begins to decline. Mergers transform the spiral galaxy into an elliptical one, but they also reactivate star formation by bringing gas into the galaxy. Without a mechanism that removes gas from the merger remnants, the galaxy ends up with blue colours, which are atypical for its elliptical morphology. We have demonstrated that AGN feedback can solve this problem even with a fairly low heating efficiency. Our simulations support a picture where AGN feedback is important for quenching star formation in the remnant of wet mergers and for moving them to the red sequence. This picture is consistent with recent observational results, which suggest that AGN hosts are galaxies in migration from the blue cloud to the red sequence on the colour,magnitude diagram. However, we have also seen a transition in the properties of AGN hosts from blue and star forming at z, 2 to mainly red and dead at z, 0. Ongoing merging is the primary but not the only triggering mechanism for luminous AGN activity. Quenching by AGN is only effective after the cold filaments have dried out, since otherwise the galaxy is constantly replenished with gas. AGN feedback also contributes to raising the entropy of the hot IGM by removing low-entropy tails vulnerable to developing cooling flows. We have also demonstrated that AGN winds are potentially important for the metal enrichment of the IGM a high redshift. [source]

    The SCUBA Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) , VIII.

    SWIRE, SXDF surveys, The nature of faint submillimetre galaxies in SHADES
    ABSTRACT We present the optical-to-submillimetre spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 33 radio and mid-infrared (mid-IR) identified submillimetre galaxies discovered via the SHADES 850-,m SCUBA imaging in the Subaru- XMM Deep Field (SXDF). Optical data for the sources come from the SXDF and mid- and far-IR fluxes from SWIRE. We obtain photometric redshift estimates for our sources using optical and IRAC 3.6- and 4.5-,m fluxes. We then fit SED templates to the longer wavelength data to determine the nature of the far-IR emission that dominates the bolometric luminosity of these sources. The IR template fits are also used to resolve ambiguous identifications and cases of redshift aliasing. The redshift distribution obtained broadly matches previous results for submillimetre sources and on the SHADES SXDF field. Our template fitting finds that active galactic nuclei, while present in about 10 per cent of our sources, do not contribute significantly to their bolometric luminosity. Dust heating by starbursts, with either Arp220 or M82 type SEDs, appears to be responsible for the luminosity in most sources (23/33 are fitted by Arp220 templates, 2/33 by the warmer M82 templates). 8/33 sources, in contrast, are fitted by a cooler cirrus dust template, suggesting that cold dust has a role in some of these highly luminous objects. Three of our sources appear to have multiple identifications or components at the same redshift, but we find no statistical evidence that close associations are common among our SHADES sources. Examination of rest-frame K -band luminosity suggests that ,downsizing' is underway in the submillimetre galaxy population, with lower redshift systems lying in lower mass host galaxies. Of our 33 identifications six are found to be of lower reliability but their exclusion would not significantly alter our conclusions. [source]

    Photometric properties and scaling relations of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    F. S. Liu
    ABSTRACT We investigate the photometric properties of the early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) using a carefully selected sample of 85 BCGs from the C4 cluster catalogue with a redshift of less than 0.1. We perform accurate background subtractions and surface photometry for these BCGs to 25 mag arcsec,2 in the Sloan r band. By quantitatively analysing the gradient of the Petrosian profiles of BCGs, we find that a large fraction of BCGs have extended stellar envelopes in their outskirts; more luminous BCGs tend to have more extended stellar haloes that are likely to be connected with mergers. A comparison sample of elliptical galaxies was chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges, for which the same photometric analysis procedure is applied. We find that BCGs have steeper size,luminosity (R,L,) and Faber,Jackson (L,,,) relations than the bulk of early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the power-law indices (, and ,) in these relations increase as the isophotal limits become deeper. For isophotal limits from 22 to 25 mag arcsec,2, BCGs are usually larger than the bulk of early-type galaxies, and a large fraction (,49 per cent) of BCGs have discy isophotal shapes. The differences in the scaling relations are consistent with a scenario where the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early-type galaxies; in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation. We highlight several possible dry merger candidates in our sample. [source]

    Galaxy growth in the concordance ,CDM cosmology

    Q. Guo
    ABSTRACT We use galaxy and dark halo data from the public database for the Millennium Simulation to study the growth of galaxies in the De Lucia et al. model for galaxy formation. Previous work has shown this model to reproduce many aspects of the systematic properties and the clustering of real galaxies, both in the nearby universe and at high redshift. It assumes the stellar masses of galaxies to increase through three processes, major mergers, the accretion of smaller satellite systems and star formation. We show the relative importance of these three modes to be a strong function of stellar mass and redshift. Galaxy growth through major mergers depends strongly on stellar mass, but only weakly on redshift. Except for massive systems, minor mergers contribute more to galaxy growth than major mergers at all redshifts and stellar masses. For galaxies significantly less massive than the Milky Way, star formation dominates the growth at all epochs. For galaxies significantly more massive than the Milky Way, growth through mergers is the dominant process at all epochs. At a stellar mass of 6 1010 M,, about that of the Milk Way, star formation dominates at z > 1 and mergers at later times. At every stellar mass, the growth rates through star formation increase rapidly with increasing redshift. Specific star formation rates are the decreasing function of stellar mass not only at z= 0 but also at all higher redshifts. For comparison, we carry out a similar analysis of the growth of dark matter haloes. In contrast to the galaxies, growth rates depend strongly on redshift, but only weakly on mass. They agree qualitatively with analytic predictions for halo growth. [source]

    A deep i -selected multiwaveband galaxy catalogue in the COSMOS field,

    A. Gabasch
    ABSTRACT In this paper we present a deep and homogeneous i -band-selected multiwaveband catalogue in the COSMOS field covering an area of about 0.7 deg2. Our catalogue with a formal 50 per cent completeness limit for point sources of i, 26.7 comprises about 290 000 galaxies with information in 8 passbands. We combine publicly available u, B, V, r, i, z and K data with proprietary imaging in H band. We discuss in detail the observations, the data reduction, and the photometric properties of the H -band data. We estimate photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalogue. A comparison with 162 spectroscopic redshifts in the redshift range 0 ,z, 3 shows that the achieved accuracy of the photometric redshifts is ,z/(zspec+ 1) , 0.035 with only ,2 per cent outliers. We derive absolute UV magnitudes and investigate the evolution of the luminosity function evaluated in the rest-frame UV (1500 ). There is a good agreement between the luminosity functions derived here and the luminosity functions derived in the FORS Deep Field. We see a similar brightening of M* and a decrease of ,* with redshift. The catalogue including the photometric redshift information is made publicly available. [source]

    On the variability of quasars: a link between the Eddington ratio and optical variability?

    Brian C. Wilhite
    ABSTRACT Repeat scans by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) of a 278-deg2 stripe along the celestial equator have yielded an average of over 10 observations each for nearly 8000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. Over 2500 of these quasars are in the redshift range such that the C iv, 1549 emission line is visible in the SDSS spectrum. Utilizing the width of these C iv lines and the luminosity of the nearby continuum, we estimate black hole masses for these objects. In an effort to isolate the effects of black hole mass and luminosity on the photometric variability of our data set, we create several subsamples by binning in these two physical parameters. By comparing the ensemble structure functions of the quasars in these bins, we are able to reproduce the well-known anticorrelation between luminosity and variability, now showing that this anticorrelation is independent of the black hole mass. In addition, we find a correlation between variability and the mass of the central black hole. By combining these two relations, we identify the Eddington ratio as a possible driver of quasar variability, most likely due to differences in accretion efficiency. [source]

    The evolution of submillimetre galaxies: two populations and a redshift cut-off

    J. V. Wall
    ABSTRACT We explore the epoch dependence of number density and star formation rate for submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) found at 850 ,m. The study uses a sample of 38 SMG in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-N field, for which cross-waveband identifications have been obtained for 35/38 members together with redshift measurements or estimates. A maximum-likelihood analysis is employed, along with the ,single-source-survey' technique. We find a diminution in both space-density and star formation rate at z > 3, closely mimicking the redshift cut-offs found for quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) selected in different wavebands. The diminution in redshift is particularly marked at a significance level too small to measure. The data further suggest, at a significance level of about 0.001, that two separately evolving populations may be present, with distinct luminosity functions. These results parallel the different evolutionary behaviours of Luminous Infrared Galaxies and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies, and represent another manifestation of ,cosmic down-sizing', suggesting that differential evolution extends to the most extreme star-forming galaxies. [source]

    The 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO survey: QSO clustering and the L,z degeneracy

    J. Dangela
    ABSTRACT We combine the quasi-stellar object (QSO) samples from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ) and the 2dF-Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) and QSO Survey (2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO, hereafter 2SLAQ) in order to investigate the clustering of z, 1.5 QSOs and measure the correlation function (,). The clustering signal in redshift-space and projected along the sky direction is similar to that previously obtained from the 2QZ sample alone. By fitting functional forms for ,(,, ,), the correlation function measured along and across the line of sight, we find, as expected, that ,, the dynamical infall parameter and ,0m, the cosmological density parameter, are degenerate. However, this degeneracy can be lifted by using linear theory predictions under different cosmological scenarios. Using the combination of the 2QZ and 2SLAQ QSO data, we obtain: ,QSO(z= 1.5) = 0.60+0.14,0.11, ,0m= 0.25+0.09,0.07 which imply a value for the QSO bias, b(z= 1.4) = 1.5 0.2. The combination of the 2QZ with the fainter 2SLAQ QSO sample further reveals that QSO clustering does not depend strongly on luminosity at fixed redshift. This result is inconsistent with the expectation of simple ,high peaks' biasing models where more luminous, rare QSOs are assumed to inhabit higher mass haloes. The data are more consistent with models which predict that QSOs of different luminosities reside in haloes of similar mass. By assuming ellipsoidal models for the collapse of density perturbations, we estimate the mass of the dark matter haloes which the QSOs inhabit as ,3 1012 h,1 M,. We find that this halo mass does not evolve strongly with redshift nor depend on QSO luminosity. Assuming a range of relations which relate halo to black hole mass, we investigate how black hole mass correlates with luminosity and redshift, and ascertain the relation between Eddington efficiency and black hole mass. Our results suggest that QSOs of different luminosities may contain black holes of similar mass. [source]

    Deep spectroscopy of the FUV,optical emission lines from a sample of radio galaxies at z, 2.5: metallicity and ionization,

    A. Humphrey
    ABSTRACT We present long-slit near-infrared (NIR) spectra, obtained using the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) instrument at the Very Large Telescope, which sample the rest-frame optical emission lines from nine radio galaxies at z, 2.5. One-dimensional spectra have been extracted and, using broad-band photometry, have been cross-calibrated with spectra from the literature to produce line spectra spanning a rest wavelength of ,1200,7000 . The resulting line spectra have a spectral coverage that is unprecedented for radio galaxies at any redshift. We have also produced a composite of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV),optical line fluxes of powerful, z, 2.5 radio galaxies. We have investigated the relative strengths of Ly,, H,, H,, He ii,1640 and He ii,4687, and we find that Av can vary significantly from object to object. In addition, we have identified new line ratios to calculate electron temperature: [Ne v],1575/[Ne v],3426, [Ne iv],1602/[Ne iv],2423, O iii],1663/[O iii],5008 and [O ii],2471/[O ii],3728. We calculate an average O iii temperature of 14100+1000,600 K. We have modelled the rich emission line spectra, and we conclude that they are best explained by active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization with the ionization parameter U varying between objects. For shock models (with or without the precursor) to provide a satisfactory explanation for the data, an additional source of ionizing photons is required , presumably the ionizing radiation field of the AGN. Single slab photoionization models are unable to reproduce the high- and the low-ionization lines simultaneously: the higher ionization lines imply higher U than do the lower ionization lines. This problem may be alleviated either by combining two or more single slab photoionization models with different U, or by using mixed-medium models such as those of Binette, Wilson & Storchi-Bergmann. In either case, U must vary from object to object. On the basis of N v/N iv] and N iv]/C iv we argue that, while photoionization is the dominant ionization mechanism in the extended emission line regions (EELR), shocks make a fractional contribution (,10 per cent) to its ionization. The N v/N iv] and N iv]/C iv ratios in the broad-line region (BLR) of some quasars suggest that shock ionization may be important in the BLR also. We find that in the EELR of z, 2 radio galaxies the N/H abundance ratio is close to its solar value. We conclude that N/H and metallicity do not vary by more than a factor of 2 in our sample. These results are consistent with the idea that the massive ellipticals which become the hosts to powerful AGN are assembled very early in the history of the universe, and then evolve relatively passively up to the present day. [source]

    Galaxy redshift surveys selected by neutral hydrogen using the Five-hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope

    Alan R. Duffy
    ABSTRACT We discuss the possibility of performing a substantial spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey selected via the 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen using the Five-hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) to be built in China. We consider issues related to the estimation of the source counts and optimizations of the survey, and discuss the constraints on cosmological models that such a survey could provide. We find that a survey taking around two years could detect ,107 galaxies with an average redshift of ,0.15 making the survey complementary to those already carried out at optical wavelengths. These conservative estimates have used the z= 0 H i mass function and have ignored the possibility of evolution. The results could be used to constrain ,=,mh to 5 per cent and the spectral index, ns, to 7 per cent independent of cosmic microwave background data. If we also use simulated power spectra from the Planck satellite, we can constrain w to be within 5 per cent of ,1. [source]

    Black hole growth in hierarchical galaxy formation

    Rowena K. Malbon
    ABSTRACT We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on ,CDM proposed by Baugh et al. Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zero-point of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of the optical luminosity function of quasars. We study the demographics of the black hole population and address the issue of how black holes acquire their mass. We find that the direct accretion of cold gas during starbursts is an important growth mechanism for lower mass black holes and at high redshift. On the other hand, the re-assembly of pre-existing black hole mass into larger units via merging dominates the growth of more massive black holes at low redshift. This prediction could be tested by future gravitational wave experiments. As redshift decreases, progressively less massive black holes have the highest fractional growth rates, in line with recent claims of ,downsizing' in quasar activity. [source]

    Are galaxies with active galactic nuclei a transition population?

    P. B. Westoby
    ABSTRACT We present the results of an analysis of a well-selected sample of galaxies with active and inactive galactic nuclei from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, in the range 0.01 < z < 0.16. The SDSS galaxy catalogue was split into two classes of active galaxies, Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) and composites, and one set of inactive, star-forming/passive galaxies. For each active galaxy, two inactive control galaxies were selected by matching redshift, absolute magnitude, inclination, and radius. The sample of inactive galaxies naturally divides into a red and a blue sequence, while the vast majority of AGN hosts occur along the red sequence. In terms of H, equivalent width (EW), the population of composite galaxies peaks in the valley between the two modes, suggesting a transition population. However, this effect is not observed in other properties such as the colour,magnitude space or colour,concentration plane. Active galaxies are seen to be generally bulge-dominated systems, but with enhanced H, emission compared to inactive red-sequence galaxies. AGN and composites also occur in less dense environments than inactive red-sequence galaxies, implying that the fuelling of AGN is more restricted in high-density environments. These results are therefore inconsistent with theories in which AGN host galaxies are a ,transition' population. We also introduce a systematic 3D spectroscopic imaging survey, to quantify and compare the gaseous and stellar kinematics of a well-selected, distance-limited sample of up to 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies, and 20 inactive control galaxies with well-matched optical properties. The survey aims to search for dynamical triggers of nuclear activity and address outstanding controversies in optical/infrared imaging surveys. [source]

    Anomalous SZ contribution to three-year WMAP data

    R. M. Bielby
    ABSTRACT We first show that the new Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3-yr data confirm the detection by Myers et al. of an extended SZ signal centred on 606 Abell (ACO) clusters with richness class, R, 2. Our results also show SZ decrements around APM and 2MASS groups at increased significance than previously detected. We then follow the approach of Lieu, Mittaz & Zhang and compare the stacked WMAP results for the decrement in 31 clusters with ROSAT X-ray profiles where Lieu et al. found on average less SZ decrement in the WMAP 1-yr data than predicted. We confirm that in the 3-yr data these same clusters again show less SZ decrement than the X-ray data predict. We then analysed the WMAP results for the 38 X-ray clusters with OVRO/BIMA measured SZ decrements as presented by Bonamente et al.. We again find that the average decrement is measured to be significantly less (5.5,) than predicted by the Chandra X-ray data. Thus while we confirm the original detection of an extended SZ effect by Myers et al., these X-ray comparisons may now suggest that the central SZ amplitudes detected by WMAP may actually be lower than expected. One possible explanation is that there is contamination of the WMAP SZ signal by radio sources in the clusters but we argue that this appears implausible. We then consider the possibility that the SZ decrement has been lensed away by foreground galaxy groups. Such a model predicts that the SZ decrement should depend on cluster redshift. A reduction in the SZ decrement with redshift is suggested from the ACO cluster sample and also from comparing the samples of Lieu et al. and Bonamente et al.. However, the mass power spectrum would require a far higher amplitude than currently expected if lensing was to explain the SZ deficit in high-redshift clusters. [source]