Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Recurrence

  • acute recurrence
  • af recurrence
  • anastomotic recurrence
  • arrhythmia recurrence
  • atrial fibrillation recurrence
  • b recurrence
  • biochemical recurrence
  • bladder cancer recurrence
  • bladder recurrence
  • breast cancer recurrence
  • c recurrence
  • c virus recurrence
  • cancer recurrence
  • carcinoma recurrence
  • clinical recurrence
  • developed recurrence
  • disease recurrence
  • distant recurrence
  • early recurrence
  • endoscopic recurrence
  • experience recurrence
  • fibrillation recurrence
  • first recurrence
  • frequent local recurrence
  • frequent recurrence
  • hbv recurrence
  • hcc recurrence
  • hcv recurrence
  • headache recurrence
  • hepatitis b recurrence
  • hepatitis c recurrence
  • hepatitis c virus recurrence
  • hernia recurrence
  • intrahepatic recurrence
  • isolated local recurrence
  • late recurrence
  • local recurrence
  • local tumor recurrence
  • local tumour recurrence
  • locoregional recurrence
  • low recurrence
  • lymph node recurrence
  • multiple recurrence
  • neck recurrence
  • nodal recurrence
  • node recurrence
  • one recurrence
  • pelvic recurrence
  • post-operative recurrence
  • postoperative recurrence
  • preventing recurrence
  • regional recurrence
  • seizure recurrence
  • severe recurrence
  • stone recurrence
  • stroke recurrence
  • subsequent recurrence
  • symptomatic recurrence
  • systemic recurrence
  • tumor recurrence
  • tumour recurrence
  • ulcer recurrence
  • virus recurrence
  • vt recurrence
  • vte recurrence

  • Terms modified by Recurrence

  • recurrence free survival
  • recurrence group
  • recurrence interval
  • recurrence only
  • recurrence pattern
  • recurrence rate
  • recurrence relation
  • recurrence risk

  • Selected Abstracts


    Shiro Oka
    Bleeding, perforation, and residual/local recurrence are the main complications associated with colonoscopic treatment of colorectal tumor. However, current status regarding the average incidence of these complications in Japan is not available. We conducted a questionnaire survey, prepared by the Colorectal Endoscopic Resection Standardization Implementation Working Group, Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR), to clarify the incidence of postoperative bleeding, perforation, and residual/local recurrence associated with colonoscopic treatment. The total incidence of postoperative bleeding was 1.2% and the incidence was 0.26% with hot biopsy, 1.3% with polypectomy, 1.4% with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and 1.7% with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The total incidence of perforation was 0.74% (0.01% with the hot biopsy, 0.17% with polypectomy, 0.91% with EMR, and 3.3% with ESD). The total incidence of residual/local recurrence was 0.73% (0.007% with hot biopsy, 0.34% with polypectomy, 1.4% with EMR, and 2.3% with ESD). Colonoscopic examination was used as a surveillance method for detecting residual/local recurrence in all hospitals. The surveillance period differed among the hospitals; however, most of the hospitals reported a surveillance period of 3,6 months with mainly transabdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography in combination with the colonoscopic examination. [source]


    Provenzano E
    Background: DCIS represents preinvasive malignant change. With screening mammography DCIS has become a common entity. Its natural history is poorly understood and treatment remains controversial. Using a retrospective population based cohort, we have identified histological and molecular variables predictive of recurrence. Methods: All cases of DCIS reported in Victoria between 1988 and 1992 were entered into the Victorian Cancer Registry. In Situ and Small Cancer Register (ISSIBCR) and followed up annually regarding treatment, the event of recurrence and its nature and location. From this register a cohort of 66 DCIS lesions with subsequent recurrence as in situ or invasive disease were studied histologically, immunohistochemically and with CGH-based genetic analyses comparing them to a nested randomized control group of DCIS without recurrence matched for patient age and year of diagnosis. Recurrences have been analysed by the same techniques to compare them to the primary lesion. Results: 13 histological features were evaluated and lesion size, nuclear pleomorphism, cellular polarity, micropapillary architecture and central necrosis were all significant predictors of recurrence (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed p21 overexpression, bcl2 negativity and ERBB2 positivity to be markers of recurrence. In the case of ERBB2, positivity was a predictor of recurrence even when its overexpression was focal. Primary and recurrent DCIS lesions had similar morphological appearances, and grade of primary DCIS correlated with grade of subsequent invasive cancer. This morphological similarity was paralleled by similar protein expression and genomic changes in both in situ and invasive recurrences. Conclusion: We have identified histological and immunohistochemical markers of recurrence in DCIS, and shown similarities in morphology, protein expression and genetic changes between primary DCIS and its recurrence. [source]


    Shao-Ping Zhu
    SUMMARY 1The serotonin transporter (SERT) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients and animal models. Inhibitors of SERT have been reported to attenuate or reverse experimental PAH, which makes them potential therapeutic options for the treatment of PAH in humans. However, little is known about pathophysiological features after reversal or attenuation of PAH; moreover, the long-term therapeutic effects of SERT inhibitors on PAH remain undetermined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of fluoxetine on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH and associated pathophysiological changes in PAH models. 2Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: (i) an M + F group, in which rats received a single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg, s.c.) and then after 3 weeks were given fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) once daily by gavage from Week 4 to Week 12; (ii) an M/F group, in which 3 weeks after a single MCT (60 mg/kg, s.c.) injection, rats were given fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) by daily gavage from Week 4 to Week 6 and were then given an equivalent volume of saline once daily by gavage from Week 7 to Week 12; (iii) an MCT group, in which 3 weeks after a single MCT (60 mg/kg, s.c.) injection rats were given an equivalent volume of saline by gavage from Week 4 to Week 12; and (iv) a saline group, in which rats received an equivalent volume of saline injection or gavage over the 12 week treatment period. Morphometric changes, pulmonary arterial pressure, percentage wall thickness, right ventricular hypertrophy index and SERT expression were detected at various times during the 12 week treatment period. Survival analysis was performed in each group. 3After 12 weeks treatment, it was found that even through fluoxetine treatment resulted in complete reversal of PAH, PAH recurred after fluoxetine withdrawal. In contrast, continuous administration of fluoxetine prevented the recurrence of PAH and prolonged survival. Analysis of SERT protein levels in rat lung indicated that, compared with values obtained at Week 0, SERT protein increased significantly after discontinuation of fluoxetine but continuous fluoxetine administration inhibited this increase. 4In conclusion, SERT overexpression correlates with the recurrence of PAH after withdrawal of fluoxetine in rats. Continuous fluoxetine administration prevents recurrence of PAH and prolongs survival. [source]

    Recurrence of kernicterus in term and near-term infants in Denmark

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2000
    F Ebbesen
    Classical acute bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) in term and near-term infants had not been seen in Denmark for at least 20 y until 1994. From 1994 to 1998, however, six cases were diagnosed. Aetiology of the hyperbilirubinaemia was known in two infants; spherocytosis and galactosaemia, most likely known in two infants; possible A-O blood type immunization, and unknown in two infants. However, one of these last-mentioned infants had a gestational age of only 36 wk. The maximum plasma total bilirubin concentrations were 531,745 ,mol/L. The increase in the number of cases of kernicterus was considered to have been caused by: (i) a decreased awareness of the pathological signs, (ii) a change in the assessment of the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy, (iii) early discharge of the infants from the maternity ward, (iv) so-called breastfeeding-associated jaundice, (v) demonstration of bilirubin being an antioxidant, and (vi) difficulty in estimating the degree of jaundice in certain groups of immigrants. Accordingly, for prevention: (a) Attempt to change the healthcare workers' understanding of the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy, (b) give further instructions, both orally and in writing, to mothers before discharge from the maternity ward, (c) be more liberal in giving infant formula supplements, (d) conduct home visits by the community nurse at an earlier stage, (e) follow authorized guidelines for phototherapy and exchange transfusion, (f) lower plasma bilirubin concentration limits as an indication for phototherapy and exchange transfusion, (g) screen all term and near-term infants, and (h) measure the skin's yellow colour with a device that corrects for the skin's melanin content. Conclusions: Audit of the six cases presented indicates that measures are necessary in both the primary and secondary healthcare sectors if the risk of kernicterus is to be avoided. Screening may be considered, but in order to identify the problems it would first be reasonable to perform a larger prospective study in which audit is performed on all newborn infants, born at term and near-term, who develop a plasma bilirubin concentration above the exchange transfusion limit. [source]

    Prevalence and predictors of recurrence of major depressive disorder in the adult population

    F. Hardeveld
    Hardeveld F, Spijker J, De Graaf R, Nolen WA, Beekman ATF. Prevalence and predictors of recurrence of major depressive disorder in the adult population. Objective:, Knowledge of the risk of recurrence after recovery of a major depressive disorder (MDD) is of clinical and scientific importance. The purpose of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the prevalence and predictors of recurrence of MDD. Method:, Studies were searched in Medline en PsychINFO using the search terms ,recur*', ,relaps*', ,depress*', ,predict*' and course. Results:, Recurrence of MDD in specialised mental healthcare settings is high (60% after 5 years, 67% after 10 years and 85% after 15 years) and seems lower in the general population (35% after 15 years). Number of previous episodes and subclinical residual symptoms appear to be the most important predictors. Gender, civil status and socioeconomic status seem not related to the recurrence of MDD. Conclusion:, Clinical factors seem the most important predictors of recurrence. Data from studies performed in the general population and primary care on the recurrent course of MDD are scarce. [source]

    Trichloroacetic Acid Matricectomy in the Treatment of Ingrowing Toenails

    BACKGROUND Ingrowing toenails can be treated with conservative therapy or surgery, but frequent relapse can be a problem in conservative therapy and surgical therapy without matricectomy. Thus, permanent nail ablation by partial matricectomy is now accepted as the treatment of choice. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) matricectomy in the treatment of ingrowing nail. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty ingrowing toenail edges in 25 patients were enrolled. TCA matricectomy with 100% trichloroacetic acid after partial nail avulsion was performed. For a few weeks after surgery, postoperative complications such as pain, discharge, and infection were assessed. After a mean follow-up period of 22.9 months, recurrence rate and cosmetic outcomes were investigated to evaluate the effects of the surgery. RESULTS The wounds almost always healed within 2 weeks without prolonged exudative discharge. Pain was mild and transient. A case of secondary infection occurred. Recurrence was found in only two nails of one patient, and the success rate was 95%, with good cosmetic results. CONCLUSION TCA matricectomy showed a low recurrence rate with minimal side effects and was easy to perform in outpatient clinic. Therefore, it may be a good alternative treatment of ingrowing toenails. [source]

    Treatment of Melasma Using Variable Square Pulse Er: YAG Laser Resurfacing

    BACKGROUND Treatment of melasma remains a challenge. Laser treatments show limited efficacy, with a high rate of recurrence and side effects. Recently, variable-pulsed erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have shown favorable results in skin resurfacing, with minimal downtime and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and side effects of variable square pulsed (VSP) Er:YAG laser resurfacing for treatment of epidermal type melasma. METHODS Twenty Thai women with epidermal-type melasma were treated with two passes of VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing using a 7-mm spot size, pulse duration of 300 ,s, and a fluence of 0.4 J/cm2. Two treatments were given 1 month apart. Visual analog scale (VAS), Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) score and melanin index (MI) were measured at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 months after treatment. RESULTS There was a significant improvement in VAS from baseline at 1-, 2-, and 4-month follow-up visits (p<.001). Significant improvement in MASI score at the 2-month visit from baseline (p=.004) was also observed. The average MI measured using melanin reflectance spectrometry measurements corresponded to MASI score rating. CONCLUSIONS VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing effectively but temporarily improved epidermal-type melasma. Recurrence was observed after the treatment was discontinued. [source]

    Imiquimod Treatment of Superficial and Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma: 12-Week Open-Label Trial

    Ketty Peris MD
    Background Imiquimod is an immune response modifier shown to be effective in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Objective To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and response durability of imiquimod 5% cream in selected patients with superficial and/or nodular BCCs. Methods Seventy-five superficial and 19 nodular BCCs in 49 patients were treated with imiquimod once daily three times a week for up to 12 weeks. Results Of the 49 enrolled patients, 1 discontinued the study and 1 was lost to follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, a complete response occurred in 70 of 75 (93.3%) superficial BCCs and a partial response in 4 of 75 (5.3%) superficial BCCs. Ten of 19 (52.6%) nodular BCCs cleared after 12 weeks, whereas 7 (36.8%) showed partial remission. Adverse side effects were limited to local skin reactions. Recurrence was observed in 2 of 70 (2.9%) successfully treated superficial BCCs 6 and 8 months after treatment discontinuation. No recurrence was detected in 68 of 70 (97.1%) superficial BCCs and in 10 successfully treated nodular BCCs after 12 to 34 months of follow-up (mean 23 months). Conclusions In our patient population, treatment of superficial BCCs with topical imiquimod for 12 weeks produced an excellent clinical response overall, with complete remission maintained after a mean of 23 months. KETTY PERIS, MD, ELENA CAMPIONE, MD, TAMARA MICANTONIO, MD, GEORGIANA CLARE MARULLI, MD, MARIA CONCETTA FARGNOLI, MD, AND SERGIO CHIMENTI, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    An Effective Treatment of Dark Lip by Frequency-Doubled Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser

    Somyos Kunachak MD
    Background. Dark lip is a common cosmetic problem in Southeast Asia. There is no known effective treatment. Objective. To propose an effective method for treating dark lips of varying causes with frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Methods. Seventy patients with dark lip, of which 22 were congenital, 24 acquired, and 24 of uncertain cause, were treated by frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a fluence of 2,3.5 J/cm2 (mode 2.5 J/cm2) after application of topical anesthesia. The endpoint of treatment was complete clearance of the pigment. Follow-up time was 24,36 months (mean 29 months). Results. All patients attained complete clearance of the lesion after an average of 2.5 treatments in the congenital group, 2.2 treatments in the acquired group, and 1.8 treatments in the group with uncertain etiology. The mean (SD) number of treatments required by the whole group was 2.1 1.4. Recurrence was observed in one case of congenital origin 3 months after the last treatment. In the remaining cases, results persisted up to the time of follow-up. Herpes simplex reactivation was noted in one case 3 days after treatment. There was no dyschromia, scar formation, or change of skin texture. Conclusion. Dark lip can be effectively treated by frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser without major adverse effects. [source]

    Recurrence of intramucosal esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in a former esophagostomy site: a unique case report

    J. M. Leers
    SUMMARY., A 75-year-old male with a long history of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms developed adenocarcinoma proximally within a long segment of Barrett's esophagus. He was taken for esophagectomy and gastric pull-up, but intraoperatively, he was found to have a marginal blood supply in the gastric tube. A temporary left-sided esophagostomy was created with the gastric tube sutured to the left sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck. Pathology showed an intramucosal adenocarcinoma, limited to the muscularis mucosa with surrounding high-grade dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia. The proximal esophageal margin showed no tumor cells, but there was low-grade dysplasia within Barrett's esophagus. He was reconstructed after several months, and 2 years after reconstruction, the patient noticed a nodule at the former esophagostomy site. Biopsy revealed an implant metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we review the literature and discuss the possible etiology. [source]

    Predictors for Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm after Cardioversion in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2002
    kn M.D.
    Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardioversion (CV) to sinus rhythm (SR) is determined by various clinical and echocardiographic parameters. Transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) parameters have been the focus of clinicians' interests for restoring and maintaining SR. This study determined the clinical, transthoracic, and TEE parameters that predict maintenance of SR in patients with nonvalvular AF after CV. We enrolled 173 patients with nonvalvular AF in the study. TEE could not be performed in 26 patients prior to CV. Twenty-five patients had spontaneously CV prior to TEE. Six patients were excluded because of left atrial (LA) thrombus assessed by TEE. CV was unsuccessful in 6 patients. The remaining 110 consecutive patients (56 men, 54 women, mean age 69 9 years), who had been successfully cardioverted to SR, were prospectively included in the study. Fifty-seven (52%) patients were still in SR 6 months after CV. Age, gender, the configuration of the fibrillation wave on the electrocardiogram, pulmonary venous diastolic flow, and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, mitral annulus calcification, and mitral valve prolapse (MVP) did not predict recurrence. Duration of AF, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), LA diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), left atrial appendage peak flow (LAAPF), LAA ejection fraction (LAAEF), pulmonary venous systolic flow (PVSF), and the presence of LA spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC) predicted recurrence of AF 6 months after CV. In multivariate analysis, LAAEF < 30% was found to be the only independent variable (P < 0.0012) predicting recurrence at 6 months after CV in patients with nonvalvular AF. LAAEF more than 30% had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 88% in predicting maintenance of SR 6 months after CV in patients with nonvalvular AF. In conclusion, TEE variables often used to determine thromboembolic risk also might be used to predict the outcome of CV. [source]

    Recurrence after a First Unprovoked Cryptogenic/Idiopathic Seizure in Children: A Prospective Study from So Paulo, Brazil

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2004
    Anna E. Scotoni
    Summary: Purpose: To evaluate the recurrence risk after a first unprovoked seizure in a large population of children and adolescents of a developing country. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals, between September 1989 and August 1998. Children were enrolled if they had a first unprovoked cryptogenic/idiopathic seizure and maximal interval to the enrollment ,90 days. EEG and computed tomography (CT) were performed in most patients. Potential predictors of recurrence were compared by using the Cox proportional hazards model in univariate and multivariate analyses. Survival analysis was performed by using the Kaplan,Meier curves. Results: Two hundred thirteen children were included. Recurrence occurred in 34% of the patients, and mean time for recurrence was 12 months. Statistical analysis showed significance for seizure recurrence only for patients with abnormal EEGs. CT was performed in 182 patients, and abnormalities were found in 9.5%. Small calcifications were the most frequent finding, and this was not a predictor for recurrence. Conclusions: The risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure in children from a developing country is similar to that found in developed countries. An abnormal EEG is a risk factor for seizure recurrence in children with a cryptogenic/idiopathic seizure. Calcifications on CT do not increase the risk of recurrence. [source]

    Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck: Recurrence and survival study

    Fernando Gomez-Rivera MD
    Abstract Background. Controversy remains regarding the benefits of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for predicting survival in cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck (CMHN). Methods. We analyzed the factors associated with the recurrence and survival of CMHN patients treated in our institution. Results. One hundred thirteen patients underwent SLN biopsy for CMHN in a 12-year period. SLN identification was successful in 96%, with a median of 3 SLNs per patient. Positive-SLNs were identified in 21%. With a median follow-up of 34 months, 28% recurred. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 66% and 78% in patients with SLN-negative, and 39% and 62% in SLN-positive disease. In multivariate analysis, greater Breslow-thickness was associated with decreased DFS rate (HR 2.07, CI 1.04,4.09), and age >60 years (HR 3.53, CI 1.32,9.4) with lower 5-year OS rate. Conclusion. Primary tumor thickness and age were associated with decreased survival, whereas SLN status showed a trend for prognostic significance in CMHN. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008 [source]

    Pain as sign of recurrent disease in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Miriam Smit MSc
    Abstract Background The role of pain in head and neck cancer is seldom addressed. This retrospective study examined in a group of 190 curatively treated patients to what extent pain complaints should be considered to be the first sign of recurrent disease. Methods The research population exists of 95 patients with a recurrent head and neck carcinoma and control group matched for age, gender, primary tumor, and duration of follow-up. Results Of the patients with proven recurrent disease, 70% reported pain complaints as the first symptom. In 35% of these cases, the complaints concerned referred pain, whereas in 65% localized pain complaints in the head and neck were registered. The median interval between reporting localized pain complaints and histologic confirmation of recurrence was 4 months. In the case of referred pain, this delay was 2.5 months. No statistically significant correlation between pain complaints and site of recurrence could be demonstrated. Only 2% of the control group reported pain complaints. Conclusions This study confirms that each pain complaint after intentional curative treatment should be regarded as a warning sign. Recurrence of disease without preceding pain complaints (30%) emphasizes the importance of a thorough follow-up. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 23: 372,375, 2001. [source]

    Early Intervention With Almotriptan Improves Sustained Pain-free Response in Acute Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 10 2003
    Ninan T. Mathew MD
    Objective.,To determine whether treatment of migraine with almotriptan, when pain intensity is mild, improves 1- and 2-hour pain-free and sustained pain-free rates compared with treatment when pain intensity is moderate or severe. Methods.,This was a post hoc analysis derived from an open-label, multicenter, long-term study of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of almotriptan 12.5 mg. Patients who met International Headache Society criteria for migraine with or without aura were eligible. Patients were instructed to take a single dose of almotriptan 12.5 mg at the onset of a migraine attack. Rescue medication could be taken if migraine pain had not disappeared at 2 hours. A second dose of almotriptan 12.5 mg could be taken if head pain recurred within 24 hours of the initial dose. Patients reported the intensity of pain at baseline and at 1 and 2 hours postmedication using a 4-point scale: no pain, mild, moderate, or severe pain. They also reported recurrence of pain (return of moderate or severe pain within 2 to 24 hours of taking the study medication) and use of rescue medication. Rescue medication consisted of supplemental analgesics taken for pain relief at 2 to 24 hours postdose. Ergotamines and other 5-HT1B/1D agonists were excluded as rescue medications. Based on these patient-reported end points, sustained pain-free rates, defined as pain-free at 2 hours with no recurrence from 2 to 24 hours and no use of rescue medication, were calculated. Results.,A higher proportion of migraine attacks of mild intensity were pain-free at 1 hour (35.3%) compared with attacks of moderate or severe intensity (7.5%) (P < .001). Two-hour pain-free rates also were significantly higher with mild intensity pain (76.9%) compared to moderate or severe intensity (43.9%) (P < .001). In addition, recurrence rates and use of rescue medication were reduced when attacks were treated during mild pain. Recurrence was 12.9% for mild pain versus 25.0% for moderate or severe pain (P < .001), and use of rescue medication was 9.4% for mild pain versus 17.2% for moderate or severe pain (P < .001). Sustained pain-free rates were nearly twice as high when attacks were treated during mild intensity pain (66.6%) compared with attacks treated during moderate or severe pain (36.6%) (P < .001). Conclusion.,Treatment with almotriptan 12.5 mg during migraine attacks of mild pain intensity improves 1- and 2-hour pain-free and sustained pain-free responses. [source]

    Migraine Headache Recurrence: Relationship to Clinical, Pharmacological, and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Triptans

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2003
    Gilles Graud MD
    Background and Objectives.,Triptan use is associated with headache recurrence, and this has been cited as an important reason for patient dissatisfaction with the treatment. The mechanism by which recurrence occurs is not clear, and the incidence of recurrence varies with the triptan used. In order to explore the pharmacological and physiological interaction of triptans and migraine headache recurrence further, some specific clinical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic factors that might influence migraine recurrence were evaluated in a review of the major efficacy data for the drugs in the triptan class. These factors were 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor activities, the pharmacokinetic elimination half-life of each triptan, and the clinical efficacy of each compound, determined by the proportion of patients with headache relief and the therapeutic gain over placebo. Methods.,Clinical data were derived from 31 triptan, placebo-controlled, major efficacy studies used in a previous meta-analysis. The mean recurrence rate, mean headache response, and therapeutic gain were calculated using the results from the individual clinical studies. Mean headache response and therapeutic gain were calculated at the time point used to define recurrence in each study. Data for binding affinity and potency were taken from a direct-comparison in vitro pharmacology study, and the elimination half-life quoted in the data sheet for each triptan was used. Rank correlation with recurrence rate was performed for each of the test parameters. Results.,Mean headache recurrence rates ranged from 17% for frovatriptan 2.5 mg to 40% for rizatriptan. Elimination half-life and recurrence were inversely correlated (r = ,1.0, P = .0016). There was also a significant inverse correlation between 5-HT1B receptor potency and recurrence (r = ,0.68, P = .034), but 5-HT1D receptor potency was not correlated with recurrence (r = ,0.20, P = .54). In addition, the binding affinities for the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors were not correlated to headache recurrence. Importantly, it also was demonstrated that initial clinical efficacy was not correlated to headache recurrence. The correlation coefficient for headache response was 0.18 (P = .53) and for therapeutic gain, ,0.11 (P = .71). Conclusion.,The incidence of migraine headache recurrence varies between drugs in the triptan class. Migraine recurrence does not appear to be related to initial clinical efficacy, but is influenced by the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of the individual triptans. The triptans with longer half-lives and greater 5-HT1B receptor potency had the lowest rates of headache recurrence. [source]

    Effects of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Platelet Activation and Disease Recurrence in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2004
    J. Ignasi Elizalde
    ABSTRACT Background., Platelet activation is consistently observed in animal models of Helicobacter pylori infection and could help to explain the alleged epidemiological association between H. pylori and coronary heart disease. Materials and Methods., Ninety-two patients with recent acute coronary syndromes were enrolled. Helicobacter pylori -positive patients were randomized to receive a 7-day course of omeprazole, amoxycillin and metronidazole or placebos. Two months later, H. pylori status was reassessed and baseline parameters, including soluble P-selectin and platelet surface expression of CD62P, CD63 and CD41, were measured again. Patients were followed-up for 1 year or until death or readmission. Results., No baseline differences were observed between H. pylori -positive and -negative cases. Among H. pylori -positive patients, 18 received placebo and 31 received active medication resulting in eradication in 21 cases. No differences were observed in inflammatory parameters or platelet activation markers between patients with persistent or resolved H. pylori infection. However, coronary events recurred at 6 and 12 months, respectively, in 35% and 55% of patients with persisting H. pylori infection compared with 10% and 25% of patients in whom H. pylori was either absent or eradicated (p = .01). Only final H. pylori status [RR 3.07 (95% CI 1.35,98)] and number of coronary risk factors [RR 2.58 (95% CI 1.51,4.41)] were independent predictors of recurrence. Conclusions., Infection with H. pylori does not induce significant platelet activation in patients treated for coronary disease. Helicobacter pylori -infected patients, however, may have an increased risk of recurrence of coronary events. [source]

    Mechanism of Action of Low Recurrence of Gastritis Caused by Helicobacter pylori with the Type II Urease B Gene

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2004
    Md. Badruzzaman
    ABSTRACT Background., Low recurrence of gastritis is seen in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori carrying the type II urease B gene, compared with H. pylori carrying types I and III. The underlying mechanism has been studied in terms of the urease activity and interleukin (IL)-8 production capacity of different strains of H. pylori. Materials and Methods., Forty-five patients infected with different strains of H. pylori (type I; 15, type II; 15 and type III; 15) were enrolled in the study. H. pylori was isolated from gastric mucosa and cultured in the presence of urea at pH 5.5 to evaluate urease activity. The capacity of different strains of H. pylori to induce IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 from a human gastric cancer cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated. Results., The urease activity of type II H. pylori[523 228 g of ammonia/dl/108 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml] was significantly lower than that of type I (1355 1369 g of ammonia/dl/108 CFU/ml) and type III (1442 2229 g of ammonia/dl/108 CFU/ml) (p < .05). Gastric cancer cells cocultured with type II H. pylori produced lower levels of IL-8 mRNA compared with type I and type III H. pylori. The levels of IL-8 were also significantly lower in cultures induced by type II H. pylori compared with those induced by type I and type III H. pylori. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells also produced lower levels of IL-8 when cocultured with type II compared with type I H. pylori. Conclusions., These results indicate that both the lower level of urease activity and the low IL-8-inducing capacity of type II H. pylori might underlie the lower recurrence rate of gastritis caused by type II H. pylori. [source]

    Terlipressin therapy with and without albumin for patients with hepatorenal syndrome: Results of a prospective, nonrandomized study

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Rolando Ortega
    Vasopressin analogues associated with albumin improve renal function in hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). The current study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the treatment, predictive factors of response, recurrence of HRS, and survival after therapy. Twenty-one consecutive patients with HRS (16 with type 1 HRS, 5 with type 2 HRS) received terlipressin (0.5-2 mg/4 hours intravenously) until complete response was achieved (serum creatinine level < 1.5 mg/dL) or for 15 days; 13 patients received intravenous albumin together with terlipressin. Twelve of the 21 patients (57%) showed complete response. Albumin administration was the only predictive factor of complete response (77% in patients receiving terlipressin and albumin vs. 25% in those receiving terlipressin alone, P = .03). Treatment with terlipressin and albumin was associated with a remarkable decrease in serum creatinine level, increase in arterial pressure, and suppression of the renin-aldosterone system. By contrast, no significant changes in these parameters were found in patients treated with terlipressin alone. Only 1 patient showed ischemic adverse effects. Recurrence of HRS occurred in 17% of patients with complete response. The occurrence of complete response was associated with an improved survival. In conclusion, terlipressin therapy reverses HRS in a high proportion of patients. Recurrence rate after treatment withdrawal is uncommon. Albumin appears to improve markedly the beneficial effects of terlipressin. [source]

    Recurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation in Japan

    Satoshi Yamagiwa
    Although there was some initial controversy, there is now a consensus that primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) does indeed recur in both cadaveric and living donated allografts. Recurrence rate after deceased donor liver transplantation (LT) was reported to be 10.9,23% at 5 years. In the present study, we reviewed 221 PBC patients who underwent living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Japan. The 5-year overall survival rate was 79%, and the rate of recurrence based on histological findings was 10% (7/70) after a median time of 36 months. Primary immunosuppression, withdrawal of corticosteroids and human leukocyte antigen matches were not associated with the recurrence. Recurrent PBC appears to have little impact on graft function and survival, but this may become a greater problem with longer follow up. It is noteworthy that the 10-year survival of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients who underwent LDLT wasfound to be only 39.1% in Japan, whereas that of PBC was 72.9%. Factors associated with the poor prognosis include biliary strictures, hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies, and recurrence of PSC. In our study, we reviewed 66 patients with PSC who underwent LDLT in Japan. The 5-year survival rate was 72%, and the rate of recurrence diagnosed on histological and cholangiographic findings was 25% (11/44). Well-defined diagnostic criteria and longer studies are required to characterize the nature of recurrent PSC and its impact on graft survival in more detail. [source]

    Usefulness of follow-up after pancreatoduodenectomy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater

    HPB, Issue 2 2007
    Abstract Background: The prognosis for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater (CAV) is better than for pancreatic cancer. The 5-year survival median rate after resection of CAV is 45%, but late recurrences remain possible. Several survival factors have been identified (lymph nodes, perineural invasion), but few data are available on the type of recurrences, their impact and their management. Patients and methods: A total of 41 patients treated by pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for CAV from 1980 to 2003 were studied retrospectively. Patient selection, long-term survival recurrence rate and recurrence treatment were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards analysis were conducted on this series. Results: The mean follow-up was 48 months. Five-year survival was 62.8%. Eleven patients had recurrences (6,67 months). Recurrence was associated with time to all-causes death (hazard ratio [HR] 4.3, p=0.003). Factors predictive of recurrence were perineural invasion (HR 5.3, p=0.02), lymph node invasion (HR 5.3, p=0.02) and differentiation (HR 0.2, p=0.05). Three patients underwent surgical R0 treatment of their recurrences. Two who presented with solitary liver metastasis are alive and disease-free. Conclusions: Recurrence represents a serious threat in the prognosis of CAV after surgery. Some of these recurrences, in particular liver metastases, are accessible for a curative treatment. This finding supports the usefulness of a close and long-term follow-up after surgery to improve survival of patients with CAV, especially in the group of patients with a good prognosis. [source]

    Predictive value and clinical significance of myenteric plexitis in Crohn's disease

    Siew C. Ng MD
    Abstract Background: Recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) after ileal or colonic resection is common. Myenteric plexitis in the proximal resection margin of an ileocolonic CD resection specimen may indicate ongoing pathology that relates to disease recurrence. We assessed risk factors for myenteric plexitis, the effect of plexitis on clinical recurrence, and whether preoperative medical therapies affect the intensity of plexitis. Methods: Ileocolonic resection specimens from 99 patients with CD were histologically scored for the presence and severity of plexitis. Myenteric plexitis was correlated with immunosuppressive therapy before index surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for plexitis. Results: Myenteric plexitis was present in 43% and 85% of cases in the proximal resection margin and the affected resected segments of CD, respectively. Patients with a previous resection were more likely to have plexitis than those with no previous resection (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21,10.15, P = 0.02), and those with a greater duration of disease were less likely to have plexitis in the proximal resection margin (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48,0.96, P = 0.03). Preoperative immunosuppressive therapy was not associated with a lesser incidence of plexitis. Twelve of 40 (30%) patients with plexitis and 9 of 54 (16%) patients without plexitis in the proximal resection margin subsequently developed clinical recurrence (median 10 months; P = 0.17). Conclusions: Previous resections and shorter disease duration are associated with plexitis in proximal resection margin of CD. The prognostic value of plexitis in postoperative disease recurrence and risk stratification remain to be prospectively established. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

    Virtual colonoscopy compared with conventional colonoscopy for stricturing postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease

    Dr. Livia Biancone
    Abstract Background The place of virtual colonoscopy (VC) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) requiring endoscopic follow-up after surgery is unknown. The authors compared findings from VC versus conventional colonoscopy (CC) for assessing the postoperative recurrence of CD. Methods Sixteen patients with ileocolonic anastomosis for CD were prospectively enrolled from January 2001 to January 2002. Recurrence was assessed by CC according to Rutgeerts et al. VC was performed with a computed tomography scanner, with images examined by three radiologists who were unaware of the endoscopic findings. Results CC showed perianastomotic recurrence in 15 of 16 patients. Perianastomotic narrowing or stenosis was detected by VC in 11 of these 15 patients. There were 11 true positive, 1 true negative, 0 false-positive, and 4 false-negative findings (73% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 20% negative predictive value, 75% accuracy). Among the eight patients showing a rigid stenosis of the anastomosis not allowing passage of the colonoscope, VC detected narrowing or stenosis in seven patients. Conclusions The current findings suggest that although the widespread use of VC in CD is currently not indicated because of possible false-negative findings, this technique may represent an alternative to CC in noncompliant postsurgical patients with a rigid stenosis not allowing passage of the endoscope. [source]

    Retrograde endoscopic laser therapy and ureteroscopic surveillance for transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Objective:, To investigate the efficacy of endoscopic laser therapy and ureteroscopic surveillance for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract. Methods:, Tumors of the upper urinary tract were detected at ureteroscopy. After TCC was diagnosed by biopsy, retrograde endoscopic laser therapy was performed. Recurrent tumors were treated endoscopically and the patients were followed by ureteroscopic surveillance at 3- to 6-month intervals. Results:, Seven patients underwent ureteroscopic treatment. The tumor was grade 1 in five patients and grade 2 in two patients. The average tumor size was 1.3 cm. One patient with large, multifocal tumors died of metastatic disease, and one died of an unrelated cause. One patient requested nephroureterectomy after endoscopic treatment. The remaining four patients were followed up for a mean of 32 months after initial treatment. Each patient received an average of 5.3 ureteroscopic surveillance procedures while 3.3 recurrences on average were detected. Recurrence occurred in all the patients who showed normal radiographic findings. Urine cytology was also of little value in predicting tumor recurrence, except in one patient with carcinoma in situ. The recurrent tumors detected by ureteroscopy were successfully treated by repeated endoscopic procedures. After the follow up, three patients remained alive with no signs indicative of disease, but one patient with an initial grade 2 tumor died of recurrence after 30 months. Conclusions:, Given that ureteroscopic evaluation is essential for surveillance after endoscopic treatment of upper urinary tract TCC because of residual concern about recurrence, patients treated endoscopically should be recommended to undergo long-term endoscopic follow up. [source]

    Radioguided Parathyroidectomy for Recurrent Hyperparathyroidism Caused by Forearm Graft Hyperplasia,

    Rebecca S Sippel
    Abstract One of the surgical options for symptomatic secondary hyperparathyroidism is a total parathyroidectomy with forearm implantation. Recurrence can occur and is most likely caused by hyperplasia of the small fragments of parathyroid tissue implanted in the forearm muscle. Forearm graft hyperplasia can be detected using Tc-99m sestamibi scanning of the forearm, which can show abnormal enhancement at the former graft site. In this report, we present the case of a 49-year-old gentleman with recurrent hyperparathyroidism caused by hyperplasia of forearm graft fragments. Unfortunately, no sutures or clips were placed at his initial surgery to identify the location of the parathyroid tissue in the forearm. Thus, we describe the first reported use of radioguided techniques using Tc-99m sestamibi injection and intraoperative gamma probe to localize parathyroid fragments in the forearm muscle. During our initial exploration, we found that injection of the tracer in the operative arm leads to prohibitively high levels of background activity. During a second exploration, the tracer was injected in the lower extremity, minimizing the background in the forearm and allowing the gamma probe to clearly identify two areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. The intraoperative radioprobe allowed quick identification and removal of the abnormal parathyroid tissue in a case that was made particularly challenging by the absence of marking sutures. [source]

    Long-Term Outcome of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: Impact and Predictors of Very Late Recurrence

    Long-Term Outcome of AF Ablation. Introduction: Ablation eliminates atrial fibrillation (AF) in studies with 1 year follow-up, but very late recurrences may compromise long-term efficacy. In a large cohort, we sought to describe the determinants of delayed recurrence after AF ablation. Methods and Results: Seven hundred and seventy-four patients with AF (428 paroxysmal [PAF, 55%] and 346 persistent or longstanding persistent [PersAF, 45%]) underwent wide area circumferential ablation (WACA, 62%) or pulmonary vein isolation (38%). Over 3.0 1.9 years, there were 135 recurrences in PAF patients and 142 in PersAF patients. AF elimination was achieved in 61% of patients with PersAF at 2 years after last ablation and in 71% of patients with PAF (P = 0.04). This finding was related to a higher initial rate of very late recurrence in PersAF. From 1.0 to 2.5 years, the recurrence increased by 20% (from 37% to 57%) in PersAF patients versus only 12% (from 27% to 39%) in PAF patients. Independent predictors of overall recurrence included diabetes (HR 1.9 [1.3,2.9], P = 0.002) and PersAF (HR 1.6 [1.2,2.0], P < 0.001). Independent predictors of very late recurrence included PersAF (HR 1.7 [1.1,2.7], P = 0.018) and WACA (HR 1.8 [1.1,2.7], P = 0.018), while diabetes came close to significance. In PAF patients, left atrial size >45 mm was identified as an AF-type specific predictor (HR 2.4 [1.3,4.7], P = 0.009), whereas in PersAF patients, no unique predictors were identified. Conclusion: Late recurrences reduced the long-term efficacy of AF ablation, particularly in patients with PersAF and underlying cardiovascular diseases. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 1071-1078) [source]

    Role of Residual Potentials Inside Circumferential Pulmonary Veins Ablation Lines in the Recurrence of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    Residual Potentials After Pulmonary Vein Isolation. Background: Residual gaps due to incomplete ablation lines are known to be the most common cause of recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation. We hypothesized that any residual potentials at the junction of the left atrium and pulmonary vein (PV), inside the circumferential PV ablation (CPVA) lines, would contribute to the recurrence of AF or post-AF ablation atrial flutter (AFL); therefore, the elimination of these potentials increases AF-/AFL-free survival rates. Methods and Results: One hundred and two patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) were enrolled and prospectively randomized to a group with ablation of residual potentials as add-on therapy to CPVA + PV electrical isolation (PVI) (group 1, n = 49), or a group without ablation of the residual potentials (group 2, n = 53). Post-CPVA residual potentials, inside the ablation lines, were identified by contact bipolar electrode mapping catheter and a detailed 3-dimensional voltage map. Twenty-three patients in group 1 and 18 patients in group 2 had post-CPVA residual potentials (46.9% vs 34.0%, P = 0.182). The AF-/AFL-free survival rate during follow-up of 23.3 7.9 months was not different in comparisons between the 2 groups (P = 0.818), and 79.6% and 81.1% of the patients in groups 1 and 2 maintained a sinus rhythm (P = 0.845), respectively. Conclusions: Residual potentials inside CPVA were commonly found in the patients with PAF after CPVA + PVI. Further ablation of residual potentials did not increase the efficacy of catheter ablation in patients with PAF. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 959-965, September 2010) [source]

    Prevalence, Predictors, and Prognosis of Atrial Fibrillation Early After Pulmonary Vein Isolation: Findings from 3 Months of Continuous Automatic ECG Loop Recordings

    Introduction: Following pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF), early recurrences are frequent, benign and classified as a part of a "blanking period." This study characterizes early recurrences and determines implications of early AF following PVI. Methods and Results: Seventy-two consecutive patients (59.8 10.7 years, 69% male) were studied following PVI for paroxysmal or persistent AF. Subjects were fitted with an external loop recorder for automatic, continuous detection of AF recurrence for 3 months. AF prevalence was highest 2 weeks after PVI (54%) and declined to an eventual low of 22%. A significant number (488, 34%) of recurrences were asymptomatic; however, all patients with ,1 AF event had ,1 symptomatic event. No clear predictor of early recurrence was identified. Forty-seven (65%) patients had at least 1 AF episode, predominantly (39 of 47 patients, 83%) within 2 weeks of PVI. Of the 33 patients who did not experience AF within the first 2 weeks, 85% (28/33) were complete responders (P = 0.03) at 12 months. Recurrence at any time within 3 months was not associated with procedural success or failure. Conclusions: Early AF recurrence peaks within the first few weeks after PVI, but continues at a lower level until the completion of monitoring. A blanking period of 3 months is justified to identify patients with AF recurrences that do not portend procedure failure. Freedom from AF in the first 2 weeks following ablation significantly predicts long-term AF freedom. [source]

    Predicting Recurrence of Vasovagal Syncope: A Simple Risk Score for the Clinical Routine

    Background: Predictors for recurrence of syncope are lacking in patients with vasovagal syncope. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence of syncope and develop a simple prognostic risk score of clinical value. Methods: Two hundred seventy-six patients with a history of vasovagal syncope were prospectively followed for 2 years. Diagnosis of vasovagal syncope was based on clinical history and negative standard work-up. Inclusion in the study was independent from the result of the head-up tilt test, which was performed in all cases. Risk factors for syncope recurrence were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards regression model and implemented in a risk score, which was validated with the log-rank test and an internal cross-validation. Results: The Cox-regression analysis identified the number of previous syncopal events, history of bronchial asthma, and female gender as predictors for syncope recurrence (all P < 0.05). In contrast, head-up tilt test response had no predictive value (P = 0.881). Developing a risk score, study patients were identified as having high (recurrence rate during 2 years of follow-up: 37.2%), intermediate (24.8%), and low (6.5%) risk for syncope recurrence (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] of score 0.83, P < 0.01; Log-rank test for event-free survival, P < 0.005). Conclusions: In patients with vasovagal syncope, risk of recurrence can be stratified and is predictable based on a simple risk score. [source]

    The Morphology Changes in Limb Leads after Ablation of Verapamil-Sensitive Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia and Their Correlation with Recurrence

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the morphology changes in limb leads of ECGs after successful ablation of verapamil sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT) and their correlation with tachycardia recurrence. Methods: Between January 2001 and December 2006, 116 patients who underwent successful ablation of ILVT were included in the study. Twelve-lead surface ECG recordings during sinus rhythm were obtained in all patients before and after ablation to compare morphology changes in limb leads. Results: The ECG morphology changes after ablation were divided into two categories: one with new or deepening Q wave in inferior leads and/or disappearance of Q wave in leads I and aVL, and the other without change. The changes in any Lead II, III, or aVF after ablation occurred significantly more in patients without recurrence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) (P < 0.0001, 0.002, and 0.0001, respectively). The patients with recurrence of VT tended to have no ECG changes, compared with those without recurrence of VT (P = 0.009). The sensitivity of leads II, III, and aVF changes in predicting nonrecurrence VT were 66.7%, 78.7%, and 79.6%, specificity were 100%, 75%, and 87.5%, and nonrecurrence predictive value of 100%, 97.7%, and 98.9%, respectively. When inferior leads changes were combined, they could predict all nonrecurrence patients with 100% specificity. Conclusions: Successful radiofrequency ablation of ILVT could result in morphology changes in limb leads of ECG, especially in inferior leads. The combined changes in inferior leads can be used as an effective endpoint in ablation of this ILVT. [source]