Rectal Cancers (rectal + cancers)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The changing incidence and sites of colorectal cancer in the Israeli Arab population and their clinical implications

Paul Rozen
Abstract Israeli Arabs have been at low risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and had mainly proximal cancer, but increasing CRC is now noted. We examined this trend and CRC site and compared them to the total Jewish population and to the low-risk Jews of Asian-African origin. Israel Cancer Registry CRC data, 1982,2002, for Arabs and Jews was computed by gender, age and site: rectal cancer included recto-sigmoid junction; "right-sided" CRC included the proximal colon up to and also the splenic flexure. During 1982,2002, Arab CRC trends increased significantly in both sexes due to left -sided CRC (women, p = 0.01; men, p = 0.02) and rectal cancers (p = 0.05). Left -sided CRC increased significantly in both men and women aged , 65 years (p = 0.02). Comparing 1982,1984 to 2000,2002, the proportion of right-sided CRC decreased in both genders (p < 0.01) from 39.4 to 27.1% of male CRC, and from 44.8 to 31.3% in females. In general, this pattern of increasing rectal and left-sided CRC had been seen over a decade earlier in Jews of Asian-African origin and then their trend reversed during the last decade. In conclusion, there is a recent trend for left-sided CRC in Israeli Arabs, probably related to their changing life style. These results should influence their cancer preventive lifestyle recommendations, and CRC screening and diagnostic methodologies used. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immunohistochemical patterns in rectal cancer: Application of tissue microarray with prognostic correlations

Eva Fernebro
Abstract We utilized the high-throughput tissue microarray method to characterize immunohistochemical expression patterns with correlations to prognosis in rectal cancer. Immunostaining for the markers Ki-67, Bcl-2, p53, EGFR, E-cadherin, ,-catenin, MLH1 and MSH2 was performed in 269 rectal cancers. Expression profiles were correlated to metastasis-free survival. Immunostaining revealed frequent upregulation and/or aberrant staining patterns for several of the markers, but Ki-67, p53, Bcl-2 and EGFR did not show any correlation to prognosis. However, reduced membranous staining for ,-catenin (p = 0.04), lack of cytoplasmic staining for ,-catenin (p = 0.04), reduced membranous staining for E-cadherin (p = 0.02) and lack of cytoplasmic staining for E-cadherin (p = 0.02) correlated with metastatic disease. Multivariate analysis including the factors Dukes' stage and tumor differentiation grade demonstrated increased risk of metastatic disease in tumors with lack of cytoplasmic staining for ,-catenin (HR = 3.1, p = 0.02), reduced membranous staining for ,-catenin (HR = 1.7, p = 0.06) and reduced membranous staining for E-cadherin (HR = 2.1, p = 0.06). Loss of MMR protein expression was confirmed to be a rare event in rectal cancer with loss of MLH1 staining in 3% and MSH2 in 1% of the tumors. The lack of prognostic information contributed by most of these markers suggests that single markers for prognosis may be of limited value in rectal cancer. However, altered expression of ,-catenin and E-cadherin correlated with metastatic disease, and these markers may have prognostic importance in rectal cancer. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Qualitative assessment of patient experiences following sacrectomy,

K.M. Davidge MD
Abstract Background and Objectives The primary objective was to investigate patient experiences following sacral resection as a component of curative surgery for advanced rectal cancers, soft tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences, decision-making, quality of life, and supportive care needs of patients undergoing sacrectomy. Patients were identified from two prospective databases between 1999 and 2007. A semi-structured interview guide was generated and piloted. Patient interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using standard qualitative research methodology. Grounded theory guided the generation of the interview guide and analysis. Results Twelve patients were interviewed (6 female, 32,82 years of age). The mean interview time was 34,min. Five themes were identified, including: (1) the life-changing impact of surgery on both patients' and their family's lives, (2) patient satisfaction with immediate care in hospital, (3) significant chronic pain related to sacrectomy, (4) patients' need for additional information regarding long-term recovery, and (5) patients' gratitude to be alive. Conclusions Sacrectomy is a life-changing event for patients and their families. Patients undergoing sacrectomy need further information regarding the long-term consequences of this procedure. This need should be addressed in both preoperative multi-disciplinary consultations and at follow-up visits. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010; 101:447,450. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Potential role of human papillomavirus in the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors,,

CANCER, Issue S10 2008
Appathurai Balamurugan MD
Abstract BACKGROUND. The recent licensure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will likely decrease the development of primary in situ and invasive cervical cancers and possibly other HPV-associated cancers such as vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers. Because the HPV vaccine has the ability to impact the development of >1 HPV-associated cancer in the same individual, the risk of developing subsequent primary cancers among cervical cancer survivors was examined. METHODS. Using the 1992 through 2004 data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, 23,509 cervical cancer survivors were followed (mean of 4.8 person-years) for the development of subsequent primary cancers. The observed number (O) of subsequent cancers of all sites were compared with those expected (E) based on age-/race-/year-/site-specific rates in the SEER population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs = O/E) were considered statistically significant if they differed from 1, with an , level of 0.05. RESULTS. Among cervical cancer index cases, there was a significant elevated risk for subsequent in situ cancers of the vagina and vulva (SIRs of 53.8 and 6.6, respectively); and invasive vaginal, vulvar, and rectal cancers (SIRs of 29.9, 5.7, and 2.2, respectively). Significantly elevated risks were observed across race and ethnic populations for subsequent vaginal in situ (SIR for whites of 49.4; blacks, 52.8; Asian/Pacific Islander [API], 91.4; and Hispanics, 55.7) and invasive cancers (SIR for whites of 25.7; blacks, 34.5; API, 48.5; and Hispanics, 25.2). CONCLUSIONS. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantially increased risk of the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors and have implications for the development of prevention and early detection strategies as the role of HPV infection becomes evident. Cancer 2008;113(10 suppl):2919,25. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society. [source]

The impact of spontaneous tumour perforation on outcome following colon cancer surgery

A. S. Abdelrazeq
Abstract Objective, The impact of spontaneous tumour perforation on survival following surgery for colon cancer is unclear. This study compares survival outcomes for patients with perforated colonic cancer with stage-matched nonperforated cancer. Method, A prospective histological database was searched for all patients undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the colon between 1996 and 2002. Patients with T4 cancer were selected and classified into those with spontaneous perforation at the tumour site and those with nonperforated tumour. Patients with synchronous colonic and rectal cancers, familial polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, iatrogenic or remote colonic perforation were excluded. Histological variables were combined with clinical data obtained by case note review. Data were analysed for differences in demographics, histological variables, operative mortality, disease-free and overall survival. Multivariate analysis of factors predictive of overall survival in both groups was performed. Results, Of 960 patients identified, 52 patients had spontaneous tumour perforation and 82 patients served as the T-stage matched control group. Overall survival at 2 years was 47% and 54% and at 5 years was 28% and 33% for perforated and nonperforated cancers respectively. Patients with perforated cancers were more likely to present with metastatic disease and undergo emergency surgery with a higher 30-day mortality. There was a trend towards reduced overall survival in the perforated group (P = 0.06), but no difference in disease-free survival (P = 0.43). On multivariate testing, ,emergency surgery' and ,age >75 years' were the only independent predictors of mortality in the perforated and nonperforated group respectively. Conclusion, Both perforated and nonperforated T4 colon cancers have a poor prognosis. Spontaneous perforation of the cancer is associated with reduced overall survival, due to higher 30-day mortality, but in itself does not appear to significantly impact on disease-free survival. Rather, it is the advanced oncological stage at which perforated cancers present that determines outcome. [source]