Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Recall

  • correct recall
  • delayed recall
  • dietary recall
  • dream recall
  • event recall
  • free recall
  • good recall
  • immediate recall
  • memory recall
  • patient recall
  • story recall
  • verbal recall

  • Terms modified by Recall

  • recall antigen
  • recall bias
  • recall frequency
  • recall interval
  • recall performance
  • recall period
  • recall rate
  • recall response
  • recall system
  • recall task
  • recall test

  • Selected Abstracts


    I. G. Thomson
    Purpose To determine if patients presenting for colonoscopy can remember information discussed in the informed consent process. Focusing on whether patients know of the possible risks. Methodology A prospective study of patients presenting for elective colonoscopy through the Colorectal Unit. Patients were consented in outpatient clinics prior to the procedure using the colonoscopy consent form supplied by Queensland Health. On the day of the procedure a 2 page questionnaire with 13 questions was completed by the patient prior to their colonoscopy. Indications for colonoscopy date of consent & procedure and seniority of consenting doctor were obtained from medical records. Results 100 patients completed the questionnaire. 94% of patients could correctly identify colonoscopy as the procedure being undertaken. 45% of patients were able to identify that there were any risks involved with the procedure. Only 28% of patients could name perforation as a possible risk. h regard to other investigative options 83% could not identify any from a list of three. Despite this 92% felt they were given enough information and were happy to proceed. Conclusion This study highlights room for improvement in the current informed consent process. The current process falls short in educating patients of the possible serious risks involved. Patients do not recall other therapeutic options given. The consent process does convey basic information allowing the patient to identify the name of the investigation and anatomical area investigated. Despite these shortcomings most patients felt they were given enough information to proceed. [source]

    Maze Learning and Recall in a Weakly Electric Fish, Mormyrus rume proboscirostris Boulenger (Mormyridae, Teleostei),

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Alice G. Walton
    Mormyrus rume proboscirostris, African weakly electric fish, were trained to seek shelter in a meander maze, and following path acquisition released into the empty arena with all maze cues removed, either from the original start box or from a novel site (recall). We demonstrate that fish use their active electrosense, sight, and lateral line synergistically in maze acquisition and recall. In the presence of an electric roadmap consisting of an array of aluminum and Plexiglas objects, fish employed landmark orientation. But fish ignored visual markers and relied on internalized motor routines, which was inconsistent with evidence for cognitive mapping. [source]

    Ability of Patients to Accurately Recall the Severity of Acute Painful Events

    Adam J. Singer MD
    Abstract. Objective: Pain studies require prospective patient enrollment to ensure accurate pain assessment. The authors correlated pain assessments of an acute painful episode over a one-week period and determined the accuracy of patient pain severity recall over time. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive, longitudinal study. Participants were a convenience sample of 50 emergency department patients with acute pain resulting from injuries or painful invasive procedures. A trained research assistant administered a structured pain survey containing demographic and historical features to all patients. Patients sequentially assessed their pain severity using a vertical 100-mm visual analog scale marked "most pain" at the top, a verbal numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 100 from none to worst (NRS100), and a verbal numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 10 from none to worst (NRS10). Patients were contacted by phone and asked to reassess their initial pain severity one and seven days later using the two verbal numeric rating scales. Analysis of pain assessments using the various scales at the three time intervals was performed with Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There were 50 patients with a mean age of 41 years. Correlation between initial pain assessments on the three scales ranged from 0.83 to 0.92. Correlations between the initial and 24-hour assessments were NRS100-0.98 and NRS10-0.98. Correlations between the initial and one-week assessments were NRS100-0.96 and NRS10-0.97. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed no significant change in pain assessments over time for both verbal numeric scales. Conclusions: Pain severity assessments of acute painful events one and seven days later were similar and highly correlated with initial assessments using both verbal numeric scales. Patients accurately recall the severity of an acute painful episode for at least one week after its occurrence, which may allow retrospective pain assessments. [source]

    Predicting Individual Differences in Recall by Infants Born Preterm and Full Term

    INFANCY, Issue 1 2006
    Carol L. Cheatham
    A heterogeneous sample of infants with preterm histories and infants born full term participated in a study of declarative memory and rate of encoding, as measured in an imitation task and an examining task, respectively. Here we report the comparisons of the performances of infants born very preterm (27,34 weeks gestation) and moderately preterm (35,37 weeks gestation) to infants born full term (38,41 weeks gestation) and tested at 12 months corrected age (from due date). Lower levels of recall were seen among the infants born very preterm. Rate of encoding, weeks gestation, and score on the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were tested as possible sources of individual differences in recall. Rate of encoding and MDI predicted delayed ordered recall. Implications for early detection of cognitive difficulties in children with preterm histories are discussed. [source]

    Interrelations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and sociodemographic factors in the prediction of early cognitive abilities

    S. C. J. Huijbregts
    Abstract Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Association Between Apolipoprotein E4 and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Adults

    Chris J. Packard DSc
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of apolipoprotein E on cognitive decline in a cohort of elderly men and women. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Five thousand eight hundred four subjects aged 70 to 82 from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects were assessed at baseline and over a mean 3.2-year (range 0.7,4.2) follow-up for memory (Picture-Word Recall), speed of information processing (Stroop and Letter-Digit Coding), global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), and activities of daily living. RESULTS: At baseline, subjects with apolipoprotein E4 versus those without E4 had poorer memory performance (mean score difference ,0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI)=,0.31 to ,0.09) for immediate recall and ,0.32 (95% CI=,0.48 to ,0.16) for delayed recall and slower information processing (difference in Stroop, 2.79 seconds, (95% CI=1.20,4.28); Letter-Digit score, ,0.36, (95% CI=,0.77,0.05). Subjects with apolipoprotein E4 showed a greater decline in immediate (,0.22, 95% CI=,0.33 to ,0.11) and delayed (,0.30, 95% CI=,0.46 to ,0.15) memory scores but no significant change in speed of information processing (Stroop, P=.17; Letter-Digit, P=.06). Memory scores decreased 2.5% from baseline in those without E4, 4.3% in E4 heterozygotes (P=.01 for immediate and P=.03 for delayed, vs no E4) and 8.9% to 13.8% in E4 homozygotes (P=.04 for immediate and P=.004 for delayed, vs heterozygotes). Apolipoprotein E4 was associated with greater decline in instrumental activities of daily living (P<.001). Cognitive decline was not associated with lipoprotein levels. CONCLUSION: Findings in PROSPER indicate that E4 is associated with more-rapid cognitive decline and may, therefore, predispose to dementia. [source]

    Memory Complaint Is Not Necessary for Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Does Not Predict 10-Year Trajectories of Functional Disability, Word Recall, or Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire Limitations

    Jama L. Purser PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and utility of memory complaint in a geographically representative cohort and, in cases with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), to determine whether memory complaint alters 10-year trajectories of disability in activities of daily living (ADLs), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) score, and 20-item word recall. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Washington and Iowa counties, Iowa. PARTICIPANTS: Iowa Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (N=3,673; aged ,65; 61.3% female; 99.9% white). MEASUREMENTS: Age, sex, education, SPMSQ score, 20-item word recall, ADL or instrumental ADL disability, and chronic medical conditions. RESULTS: The prevalence of memory complaint was 34%. Although proportionally more cognitively impaired individuals were in the memory complaint group (34% vs 27%), the pattern of subclassification into cognitively intact and MCI Stage 1 and 2 subgroups was similar for people with and without memory complaint. Median SPMSQ score and number of words recalled at baseline were comparable across memory complaint categories in each subgroup. MCI participants without subjective memory complaint constituted a larger proportion of the overall sample than individuals with subjective memory complaint (460 (14%) vs 295 (8.9%)) and of persons objectively classified as having MCI (61% vs 39%). The distribution of individual 10-year change in ADL disability, SPMSQ score, and word recall were similar for those with and without memory complaint across all subgroups of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Memory complaint is not necessary for MCI diagnosis and does not distinguish cases with different progression rates in disability or cognitive impairment. 2006. [source]

    Can High-Risk Older Drivers Be Identified Through Performance-Based Measures in a Department of Motor Vehicles Setting?

    Karlene K. Ball PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between performance-based risk factors and subsequent at-fault motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in a cohort of older drivers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA) field sites in Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 4,173 older drivers invited to participate in the study, 2,114 individuals aged 55 to 96 agreed to do so. These analyses focus on 1,910 individuals recruited through MVA field sites. MEASUREMENTS: Gross Impairment Screening Battery, which included Rapid Pace Walk, Head/Neck Rotation, Foot Tap, Arm Reach, Cued Recall, Symbol Scan, Visual Closure subtest of the Motor Free Visual Perception Test (MVPT), Delayed Recall, and Trail Making Test with an Abbreviated Part A and standard Part B; Useful Field of View (UFOV®) subtest 2; a Mobility Questionnaire; and MVC occurrence. RESULTS: In drivers aged 55 and older with intact vision (20/70 far visual acuity and 140° visual field), age, sex, history of falls, and poorer cognitive performance, as measured using Trails B, MVPT, and UFOV subtest 2, were predictive of future at-fault MVC involvement. After adjusting for annual mileage, participants aged 78 and older were 2.11 as more likely to be involved in an at-fault MVC, those who made four or more errors on the MVPT were 2.10 times as likely to crash, those who took 147 seconds or longer to complete Trails B were 2.01 times as likely to crash, and those who took 353 ms or longer on subtest 2 of the UFOV were 2.02 times as likely to incur an at-fault MVC. Older adults, men, and individuals with a history of falls were more likely to be involved in subsequent at-fault MVCs. CONCLUSION: Performance-based cognitive measures are predictive of future at-fault MVCs in older adults. Cognitive performance, in particular, is a salient predictor of subsequent crash involvement in older adults. High-risk older drivers can be identified through brief, performance-based measures administered in a MVA setting. [source]

    Stages of Change, Processes of Change, and Social Support for Exercise and Weight Gain in Postpartum Women

    Colleen Keller
    Objectives:, To test the extent to which social support and variables included in the Transtheoretical Model were explanatory for exercise initiation and weight maintenance in postpartum women. Design:, A cross-sectional descriptive design. Setting:, Data were collected in the participant's homes. Participants:, Postpartum women who had normal pregnancies were interviewed and measured on body fat, physical activity, and psychosocial scales. Main outcome measure:, (a) Stages of exercise change measure, (b) Seven Day Recall, (c) Friend and Family Support for Exercise Scale, (d) Processes of Change Questionnaire, and (e) body fat measures including body mass index and percent body fat. Results:, Forty percent reported engaging in vigorous activity less than 1 hour daily, 55% walked less than four city blocks daily, and 52% engaged in less than 2 hours of vigorous weekend activity. Multilinear regression showed that the processes of change contributed 36% to the body mass index, and 21% of the variance in waist-thigh ratio. Of the processes of change, environmental reevaluation correlated significantly with body mass index. Conclusion:, The impact of a woman's weight on others as well as information concerning the health effects of obesity and physical activity could enhance the initiation of exercise in the postpartum woman. JOGNN, 35, 232-240; 2006. DOI: 10.1111/J.1552-6909.2006.00030.x [source]

    Patient Recall in Advanced Education in Prosthodontics Programs in the United States

    Fatemeh S. Afshari DMD
    Abstract Purpose: This study surveyed program directors of Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPP) in the United States to determine the extent, type, incidence, and perceived effectiveness of implemented recall systems. Material and Methods: Surveys were sent to AEPP directors across the United States to assess their program's recall protocol. This survey first identified whether an active recall program existed. For programs with recall systems, rigor in promoting ongoing oral health was surveyed by focusing on recall frequency, patient tracking protocol, involved personnel, interaction with other university departments, provided clinical procedures, and therapy completion protocol. Whether the directors perceived that their recall system was successful was also investigated. Results: Thirty-three of 46 programs responded, giving a response rate of 72%. Of these 33 programs, only 21 (64%) had an active recall system, although 30 (91%) believed recall to be important. Twelve (57%) directors with recall programs considered their system to be effective. Conclusions: Prosthodontic program directors felt their program's recall effectiveness could be improved. Due to the numerous potential benefits of an active recall system, AEPPs should consider implementing or enhancing their recall programs. Further studies are indicated to determine specific criteria that describe an effective recall system for prosthodontic programs within the context of patient health promotion, program curriculum, and financial ramifications. [source]

    No persisting effect of partial sleep curtailment on cognitive performance and declarative memory recall in adolescents

    JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Issue 1-Part-I 2010
    Summary Growing evidence indicates that sleep facilitates learning and memory processing. Sleep curtailment is increasingly common in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of short-term sleep curtailment on declarative memory consolidation in adolescents. A randomized, cross-over study design was chosen. Twenty-two healthy subjects, aged 14,16 years, spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with a bedtime of 9 h during the first night (adaptation), 4 h during the second (partial sleep curtailment) and 9 h during the third night (recovery). The control condition consisted of three consecutive nights with bedtimes of 9 h. Both experimental conditions were separated by at least 3 weeks. The acquisition phase for the declarative tests was between 16:00 and 18:00 hours before the second night. Memory performance was examined in the morning after the recovery night. Executive function, attention and concentration were also assessed to control for any possible effects of tiredness. During the 4-h night, we observed a curtailment of 50% of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM), 5% of slow wave sleep (SWS) and 70% of REM sleep compared with the control night. Partial sleep curtailment of one night did not influence declarative memory retrieval significantly. Recall in the paired-associate word list task was correlated positively with percentage of non-REM sleep in the recovery night. Declarative memory consolidation does not appear to be influenced by short-term sleep curtailment in adolescents. This may be explained by the high ability of adolescents to compensate for acute sleep loss. The correlation between non-REM sleep and declarative memory performance supports earlier findings. [source]

    The Influence of the Social Use and the History of Acquisition of Euskera on Comprehension and Recall of Scientific Texts in Euskera and Castilian

    LANGUAGE LEARNING, Issue 3 2002
    Arantxa Gorostiaga
    This study examined the influence of the social use and the history of acquisition of Euskera (the Basque language) on comprehension and recall of two versions (Euskera ,Castilian) of a scientific text read by bilingual high school and college students. Comprehension was measured by performance on an inferential task and recall by efficiency on a test that assessed recognition of essential and supplementary information in the text. Results suggested that both extensive social use and an active history of acquisition of a language improve the level of comprehension of a text written in that language. However, neither factor facilitated the recognition of essential information in the text. The possible implications of these results for education are discussed. [source]

    Complication Risk with Pulse Generator Change: Implications When Reacting to a Device Advisory or Recall

    Background:Recent advisories and recalls of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have highlighted the need for evidence-based recommendations regarding management of patients with advisory devices. In order to better facilitate decision-making when weighing the relative risks and benefits of performing generator changes in these patients, we conducted a review to assess operative complication rates. Methods:We reviewed generator changes performed between 2000 and 2005 at the Mayo Clinic-Rochester, including a total of 732 change-outs consisting of 570 done for elective replacement indicators (ERI) and 162 for manufacturer advisories or recalls. Complications included all those requiring reoperation, occurring within a 60-day period postoperatively and directly attributable to the generator change. These included infection requiring device excision, hematoma requiring evacuation, and incisional dehiscence requiring reclosure. Results:Operation-associated complications requiring intervention were noted in 9 patients, or 1.24% of our population. Of these nine complications, eight occurred among patients receiving pulse generator replacement for ERI (1.40%) and one occurred in a patient receiving replacement for a manufacturer advisory or recall (0.62%). Complications included 5 infections, 3 hematomas, and 1 incisional dehiscence. Conclusions:Generator replacement is not a benign procedure and associated risks must be weighed in the context of other variables when making management choices in patients with advisory or recall devices. [source]

    Recall and recognition of brand names: A comparison of word and nonword name types

    PSYCHOLOGY & MARKETING, Issue 7-8 2002
    Dawn Lerman
    Despite the common recommendation that brand names be memorable, little is known about the effect of brand name type on various forms of memory processing such as recall and recognition. As such, this article extends prior research by comparing recall and recognition for three sets of brand names: words versus nonwords, relevant (i.e., related to a product attribute) words versus irrelevant (i.e., unrelated to a product attribute) words, and relevant words cuing an advertised attribute versus relevant words cuing an unadvertised attribute. The results of an experimental study indicate that memory for these brand name types depends on whether it is accessed via recall or recognition. Based on these results, implications for naming new products are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Rapid mixing of Gibbs sampling on graphs that are sparse on average

    Elchanan Mossel
    Abstract Gibbs sampling also known as Glauber dynamics is a popular technique for sampling high dimensional distributions defined on graphs. Of special interest is the behavior of Gibbs sampling on the Erd,s-Rényi random graph G(n,d/n), where each edge is chosen independently with probability d/n and d is fixed. While the average degree in G(n,d/n) is d(1 - o(1)), it contains many nodes of degree of order log n/log log n. The existence of nodes of almost logarithmic degrees implies that for many natural distributions defined on G(n,p) such as uniform coloring (with a constant number of colors) or the Ising model at any fixed inverse temperature ,, the mixing time of Gibbs sampling is at least n1+,(1/log log n). Recall that the Ising model with inverse temperature , defined on a graph G = (V,E) is the distribution over {±}Vgiven by . High degree nodes pose a technical challenge in proving polynomial time mixing of the dynamics for many models including the Ising model and coloring. Almost all known sufficient conditions in terms of , or number of colors needed for rapid mixing of Gibbs samplers are stated in terms of the maximum degree of the underlying graph. In this work, we show that for every d < , and the Ising model defined on G (n, d/n), there exists a ,d > 0, such that for all , < ,d with probability going to 1 as n ,,, the mixing time of the dynamics on G (n, d/n) is polynomial in n. Our results are the first polynomial time mixing results proven for a natural model on G (n, d/n) for d > 1 where the parameters of the model do not depend on n. They also provide a rare example where one can prove a polynomial time mixing of Gibbs sampler in a situation where the actual mixing time is slower than npolylog(n). Our proof exploits in novel ways the local tree like structure of Erd,s-Rényi random graphs, comparison and block dynamics arguments and a recent result of Weitz. Our results extend to much more general families of graphs which are sparse in some average sense and to much more general interactions. In particular, they apply to any graph for which every vertex v of the graph has a neighborhood N(v) of radius O(log n) in which the induced sub-graph is a tree union at most O(log n) edges and where for each simple path in N(v) the sum of the vertex degrees along the path is O(log n). Moreover, our result apply also in the case of arbitrary external fields and provide the first FPRAS for sampling the Ising distribution in this case. We finally present a non Markov Chain algorithm for sampling the distribution which is effective for a wider range of parameters. In particular, for G(n, d/n) it applies for all external fields and , < ,d, where d tanh(,d) = 1 is the critical point for decay of correlation for the Ising model on G(n, d/n). © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Random Struct. Alg., 2009 [source]

    Race and the Recall: Racial and Ethnic Polarization in the California Recall Election

    Gary M. Segura
    In the 2003 recall election in California, Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante received more than 1.25 million fewer votes in the replacement election than votes cast against the recall of Gray Davis. A much smaller group voted "yes" on the recall but voted for Bustamante. The principal underlying explanation is racial and ethnic polarization. Using L.A. Times exit poll data, we compare the characteristics of voters who displayed the two unusual behavioral patterns with those who voted in more conventional ways. We find that Latinos and African Americans are far less likely than non-Hispanic whites and Asian Americans to have defected from Bustamante given a "no" vote on the recall, and far more likely to have voted for Bustamante given a potentially strategic "yes" vote on the recall. The patterns of defection are consistent with racial polarization on Proposition 54, lending further credence to our claim that race and ethnicity persists as an important factor in vote choice, even in environments with a history of minority electoral success. [source]

    Randomized Clinical Trial of Propofol With and Without Alfentanil for Deep Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department

    James R. Miner MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objectives were to compare the efficacy, occurrence of adverse events, and recovery duration of propofol with and without alfentanil for use in procedural sedation in the emergency department (ED). Methods:, This was a randomized nonblinded prospective trial of adult patients undergoing procedural sedation for painful procedures in the ED. Patients with pain before the procedure were given intravenous (IV) morphine sulfate until their pain was adequately treated at least 20 minutes before starting the procedure. Patients received 1 mg/kg propofol either with or without a supplemental dose of 10 ,g/kg alfentanil for deep procedural sedation. Doses, vital signs, nasal end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), pulse oximetry, and bispectral electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis scores were recorded. Subclinical respiratory depression was defined as a change in ETCO2 of >10 mmHg, an oxygen saturation of <92% at any time, or an absent ETCO2 waveform at any time. Clinical events related to respiratory depression were noted during the procedure, including the addition of or increase in the flow rate of supplemental oxygen, the use of a bag-valve mask apparatus, airway repositioning, or stimulation to induce breathing. After the procedure, patients were asked if they experienced pain during the procedure or had recall of the procedure. Results:, A total of 150 patients were enrolled; 146 underwent sedation and were included in the analysis. Seventy-four patients received propofol, and 71 received propofol with alfentanil. No clinically significant complications were noted. Subclinical respiratory depression was seen in 24/74 patients in the propofol group and 30/71 patients in the propofol/alfentanil group (effect size = 9.8%, 95% CI = ,5.8% to 25.5%). Clinical signs of respiratory depression included an increase in supplemental oxygen use in 25 of the 74 propofol patients and 31 of the 71 propofol/alfentanil patients (effect size 9.9%, 95% CI = ,5.9% to 25.7%), the use of bag-valve mask apparatus in seven patients in the propofol group and 12 in the propofol/alfentanil group (effect size = 5.6%, 95% CI = ,3.5% to 18.4%), airway repositioning in 13 propofol patients and 20 propofol/alfentanil patients (effect size = 10.6%, 95% CI = ,3.0% to 24.2%), and stimulation to induce breathing in 11 propofol patients and 20 propofol/alfentanil patients (effect size = 13.3%, 95% CI = 0.1% to 26.5%). The total time of the procedure was longer for the alfentanil/propofol group (median = 11 minutes, range = 5,22 minutes) than for the propofol group (median = 9 minutes, range = 1 to 43 minutes; effect size = 1.93 minutes, 95% CI = 0.73 to 2.58, p = 0.02). Pain during the procedure was reported by 10 of the 74 patients in the propofol group and 7 of the 71 patients in the propofol/alfentanil group (effect size = 4.5%, 95% CI = ,6.8% to 14.1%). Recall of some part of the procedure was reported by 12 patients in the propofol group and 9 in the propofol/alfentanil group (effect size = 3.5%, 95% CI = ,7.9% to 15.0%). All procedures were successfully completed. Conclusions:, The use of supplemental alfentanil with propofol for procedural sedation did not result in a difference in reported pain or recall immediately after the procedure. There was an increase in the proportion of patients who required stimulation to induce respiration during the procedure in patients who received propofol with supplemental alfentanil. The addition of supplemental opioid to procedural sedation with propofol does not appear beneficial. [source]

    Impaired working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their siblings

    Kok Wei Wee MD (USM) MMED (PSY) (USM)
    Abstract Introduction: Impairment of working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well described. If similar impairment in working memory can be demonstrated among their siblings, this could suggest impaired working memory is a genetic component of ADHD. Methods: Fifty-seven subjects were recruited: (1) ADHD group (n=21); (2) siblings of ADHD children group (n=15); and (3) non-ADHD children with chronic medical condition as the control group (n=21). All subjects were aged between 6 and 15 years, and ADHD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR. Those with other comorbidity or IQ<70 were excluded. Digit Recall was used for assessment of the phonological loop component, Maze Memory test for the visuospatial sketch pad component and Backward Digit Recall for the central executive component of working memory. Results: ADHD children and their siblings showed similar impairment and both differed from the control group on the Maze Memory test. ADHD children also showed impairment in the Digit Recall test; however, the sibling group did not differ from the control group on this test. The Backward Digit Recall score did not show any significant difference between the three groups. Discussion: Impairment of the visuospatial sketch pad component of working memory seems to cluster in ADHD children and their siblings. Thus, impairment of the visuospatial sketch pad component of working memory may point towards a genetic predisposition of ADHD. [source]

    Use of the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform System of Task Analysis for persons with schizophrenia: A preliminary study

    Ginette Aubin
    Background/aim:,Task analysis that targets information processing skills is an essential tool to understanding difficulties encountered by people with schizophrenia in their daily activities. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the use of the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform (PRPP) System of Task Analysis for this clientele. The specific objectives were to describe information processing difficulties as measured by the PRPP and to examine preliminary evidence of construct validity and interrater reliability. Methods:,In the first part of this study, 10 participants with schizophrenia living in the community were assessed using the PRPP during both a simple and a complex meal preparation task. Community functioning was measured using the Independent Living Skills Survey. In the second part, interrater reliability was appraised using three trained raters, who scored 15 participants preparing the complex meal preparation task. Results:,Analysis of performance demonstrates that people with schizophrenia have difficulties especially in the Perceive and Plan quadrants of the PRPP and are more challenged in the complex task. The PRPP total score for the complex task is strongly related to the community functioning score. Results indicate good interrater reliability for the PRPP total score and moderate interrater reliability for the quadrant scores. Conclusion:,Despite the small sample size, results from this preliminary study support the use of the PRPP System of Task Analysis to further explore the impact cognitive deficits have on daily task performance and thus on community functioning in people with schizophrenia. [source]

    The effectiveness of multimedia programmes in children's vocabulary learning

    Joana Acha
    The present experiment investigated the effect of three different presentation modes in children's vocabulary learning with a self-guided multimedia programmes. Participants were 135 third and fourth grade children who read a short English language story presented by a computer programme. For 12 key (previously unknown) words in the story, children received verbal annotations (written translation), visual annotations (picture representing the word), or both. Recall of word translations was better for children who only received verbal annotations than for children who received simultaneously visual and verbal annotations or visual annotations only. Results support previous research about cognitive load in e-learning environments, and show that children's learning processes are hindered by limited working memory. This finding implies a challenge for multimedia programmes designed for children and based on self-regulated learning. [source]

    Recall and detection rates in screening mammography

    CANCER, Issue 11 2004
    Bonnie C. Yankaskas Ph.D
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Filtering and Counting of Extended Connectivity Fingerprint Features Maximizes Compound Recall and the Structural Diversity of Hits

    Ye Hu
    Extended connectivity fingerprints produce variable numbers of structural features for molecules and quantitative comparison of feature ensembles is typically carried out as a measure of molecular similarity. As an alternative way to utilize the information content of extended connectivity fingerprint features, we have introduced a compound class-directed feature filtering technique. In combination with a simple feature counting protocol, feature filtering significantly improves the performance of extended connectivity fingerprint similarity searching compared with state-of-the-art fingerprint search methods. Subsets of extended connectivity fingerprint features that are unique to active compounds are found to be responsible for high compound recall. Moreover, feature filtering and counting is shown to result in significantly higher scaffold hopping potential than data fusion or fingerprint averaging methods. Extended connectivity fingerprint feature filtering and counting represents one of the simplest similarity search methods introduced to date, yet it produces top compound recall and maximizes the scaffold diversity of hits, which is a longstanding goal of similarity searching. [source]

    Randomized Clinical Trial of Propofol Versus Ketamine for Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department

    James R. Miner MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to compare the occurrence of respiratory depression, adverse events, and recovery duration of propofol versus ketamine for use in procedural sedation in the emergency department (ED). Methods:, This was a randomized nonblinded prospective clinical trial of adult patients undergoing procedural sedation for painful procedures in the ED. Patients with pain before the procedure were treated with intravenous (IV) morphine sulfate until their pain was adequately treated at least 20 minutes before starting the procedure. Patients were randomized to receive either propofol 1 mg/kg IV followed by 0.5 mg/kg every 3 minutes as needed or ketamine 1.0 mg/kg IV followed by 0.5 mg/kg every 3 minutes as needed. Doses, vital signs, nasal end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), and pulse oximetry were recorded. Subclinical respiratory depression was defined as a change in ETCO2 of >10 mm Hg, an oxygen saturation of <92% at any time, or an absent ETCO2 waveform at any time. Clinical interventions related to respiratory depression were noted during the procedure, including the addition of or increase in the flow rate of supplemental oxygen, the use of a bag-valve mask apparatus, airway repositioning, or stimulation to induce breathing. After the procedure, patients were asked if they experienced pain during the procedure and had recall of the procedure. Physicians were asked to describe any adverse events or the occurrence of recovery agitation. Results:, One-hundred patients were enrolled; 97 underwent sedation and were included in the analysis. Fifty patients received propofol and 47 received ketamine. Subclinical respiratory depression was seen in 20 of 50 patients in the propofol group and 30 of 47 patients in the ketamine group (p = 0.019, effect size 22.8%; 95% CI = 4.0% to 43.6%). Clinical interventions related to respiratory depression were used in 26 of 50 propofol patients and 19 of 47 ketamine patients (p = 0.253, effect size = ,13.7%; 95% CI = ,33.8% to 6.4%). The median times of the procedures were 11 minutes (range = 4 to 33 minutes) for the ketamine group versus 10 minutes (range = 5 to 33 minutes) for the propofol group (p = 0.256). The median time to return to baseline mental status after the procedure was completed was 14 minutes (range = 2 to 47 minutes) for the ketamine group and 5 minutes (range = 1 to 32 minutes) for the propofol group (p < 0.001). Pain during the procedure was reported by 3 of 50 patients in the propofol group and 1 of 47 patients in the ketamine group (effect size = ,3.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = ,11.9 to 4.1). Recall of some part of the procedure was reported by 4 of 50 patients in the propofol group and 6 of 47 patients in the ketamine group (effect size = 4.8%, 95% CI = ,7.6% to 17.1%). Forty-eight of 50 procedures were successful in the propofol group and 43 of 47 in the ketamine group (p = 0.357, effect size = 0.3%; 95% CI = ,7.8% to 8.4%). Recovery agitation was reported in 4 of 50 in the propofol group and 17 of 47 in the ketamine group (effect size = 28.2%, 95% CI = 12.4% to 43.9%). Conclusions:, This study detected a higher rate of subclinical respiratory depression in patients in the ketamine group than the propofol group. There was no difference in the rate of clinical interventions related to respiratory depression, pain, or recall of the procedure between the groups. Recovery agitation was seen more frequently in patients receiving ketamine than in those receiving propofol. The time to regain baseline mental status was longer in the ketamine group than the propofol group. This study suggests that the use of either ketamine or propofol is safe and effective for procedural sedation in the ED. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:604,611 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Variable Memory Strategy Use in Children's Adaptive Intratask Learning Behavior: Developmental Changes and Working Memory Influences in Free Recall

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2007
    Martin Lehmann
    Variability in strategy use within single trials in free recall was analyzed longitudinally from second to fourth grades (ages 8,10 years). To control for practice effects another sample of fourth graders was included (age 10 years). Video analyses revealed that children employed different strategies when preparing for free recall. A gradual shift from labeling to cumulative rehearsal was present both with increasing age and across different list positions. Whereas cumulative rehearsal was frequent at early list positions, labeling was dominant at later list portions. Working memory capacity predicted the extent of cumulative rehearsal usage, which became more efficient with increasing age. Results are discussed in the context of the adaptive strategy choice model. [source]

    The Time to Talk: The Influence of the Timing of Adult,Child Talk on Children's Event Memory

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2004
    Fiona McGuigan
    To investigate the influence of the nature and timing of adult,child talk on event recall, this study engaged 63 three-year-olds and 65 five-year-olds in a staged event and interviewed them 2 weeks later. Children were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: elaborative pre-, during-, and post-talk, and empty talk (during the event). Children in the elaborative, relative to the empty, talk conditions made fewer errors. Furthermore, post-talk had the greatest influence on correct recall, although for the 5-year-olds, during-talk was also facilitative. Recall was enhanced to a greater extent by the child's contribution to the talk, relative to that of the adult. The findings contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms by which adult,child conversations influence recall. [source]

    Emergency Medicine Practitioner Knowledge and Use of Decision Rules for the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: Variations by Practice Setting and Training Level

    Michael S. Runyon MD
    Abstract Background Several clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been validated for pretest probability assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE), but the authors are unaware of any data quantifying and characterizing their use in emergency departments. Objectives To characterize clinicians' knowledge of and attitudes toward two commonly used CDRs for PE. Methods By using a modified Delphi approach, the authors developed a two-page paper survey including 15 multiple-choice questions. The questions were designed to determine the respondents' familiarity, frequency of use, and comprehension of the Canadian and Charlotte rules. The survey also queried the frequency of use of unstructured (gestalt) pretest probability assessment and reasons why physicians choose not to use decision rules. The surveys were sent to physicians, physician assistants, and medical students at 32 academic and community hospitals in the United States and the United Kingdom. Results Respondents included 555 clinicians; 443 (80%) work in academic practice, and 112 (20%) are community based. Significantly more academic practitioners (73%) than community practitioners (49%) indicated familiarity with at least one of the two decision rules. Among all respondents familiar with a rule, 50% reported using it in more than half of applicable cases. A significant number of these respondents could not correctly identify a key component of the rule (23% for the Charlotte rule and 43% for the Canadian rule). Fifty-seven percent of all respondents indicated use of gestalt rather than a decision rule in more than half of cases. Conclusions Academic clinicians were more likely to report familiarity with either of these two specific decision rules. Only one half of all clinicians reporting familiarity with the rules use them in more than 50% of applicable cases. Spontaneous recall of the specific elements of the rules was low to moderate. Future work should consider clinical gestalt in the evaluation of patients with possible PE. [source]

    NMR chemical shift measurements revisited: High precision measurements

    P. Granger
    Abstract Accurate chemical shifts are now accessible with high field NMR spectrometers. After the recall of the basic formulae, methods are proposed to measure chemical shifts with a high precision. Using two coaxial rotors at the magic angle, the necessary parameters used for correction are measured. The influence of different factors on the precision of the NMR measurements is discussed. Some proposals are given for MAS experiments used with solid-state samples. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 184,193, 2007. [source]

    Gossip-based search selection in hybrid peer-to-peer networks

    M. Zaharia
    Abstract We present GAB, a search algorithm for hybrid peer-to-peer networks, that is, networks that search using both flooding and a distributed hash table (DHT). GAB uses a gossip-style algorithm to collect global statistics about document popularity to allow each peer to make intelligent decisions about which search style to use for a given query. Moreover, GAB automatically adapts to changes in the operating environment. Synthetic and trace-driven simulations show that compared to a simple hybrid approach that always floods first, trying a DHT if too few results are found, GAB reduces the response time by 25,50% and the average query bandwidth cost by 45%, with no loss in recall. GAB scales well, with only a 7% degradation in performance despite a tripling in system size. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tunneling enhanced by web page content block partition for focused crawling

    Tao Peng
    Abstract The complexity of web information environments and multiple-topic web pages are negative factors significantly affecting the performance of focused crawling. A highly relevant region in a web page may be obscured because of low overall relevance of that page. Segmenting the web pages into smaller units will significantly improve the performance. Conquering and traversing irrelevant page to reach a relevant one (tunneling) can improve the effectiveness of focused crawling by expanding its reach. This paper presents a heuristic-based method to enhance focused crawling performance. The method uses a Document Object Model (DOM)-based page partition algorithm to segment a web page into content blocks with a hierarchical structure and investigates how to take advantage of block-level evidence to enhance focused crawling by tunneling. Page segmentation can transform an uninteresting multi-topic web page into several single topic context blocks and some of which may be interesting. Accordingly, focused crawler can pursue the interesting content blocks to retrieve the relevant pages. Experimental results indicate that this approach outperforms Breadth-First, Best-First and Link-context algorithm both in harvest rate, target recall and target length. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A systematic review of structured group interventions with mentally disordered offenders

    Edward A.S. Duncan
    Background,Over the last 15 years, rehabilitation of offenders has been rigorously researched, resulting in new knowledge and understanding about factors decreasing recidivism amongst them. Typically, such interventions have been based on cognitive behavioural therapy. However, until recently, little research had been carried out on the rehabilitation of offenders with mental disorder. The authors present the first systematic review of the efficacy of structured group interventions with mentally disordered offenders. Aim,To evaluate structured group interventions with mentally disordered offenders through systematic review of the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness. Methods,A standardized search strategy, with complementary methods of data retrieval to ensure a high degree of recall, was employed. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to sample heterogeneity and lack of comparable data. Instead, effect sizes were calculated on all papers with sufficient data. Pooled effect sizes were calculated for groups of interventions with a similar focus. Results,Twenty studies were retrieved that fitted the inclusion criteria. It was possible to categorize these, predominantly British, studies into four main themes: problem-solving; anger/aggression management; self-harm; and other. The mean pooled effect sizes for the first two groups were suggestive of a moderate to high effect, but methodological variation means that these findings should still be treated as preliminary. Discussion and conclusions,Calculated effect sizes give optimism for the efficacy of structured group interventions with mentally disordered offenders. It is important now that more rigorous and consistent research methods be applied, even in secure hospital environments. Some suggestions towards achieving this are offered, drawing from the work to date, inclusive of the need for agreement on common outcome measures and development of networks to improve sample sizes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]