Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Realm

  • international realm
  • marine realm
  • political realm
  • private realm
  • public realm

  • Selected Abstracts

    Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) graptolite faunas of the Sandia Region, southern Peru

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
    Jörg Maletz
    Abstract Ordovician graptolite faunas of Peru are restricted to a short interval in the Middle to basal Upper Ordovician, found in three regions of the country. All Peruvian graptolite faunas are strongly dominated by shallow water elements of the Atlantic Faunal Realm, represented largely by Didymograptus s. str. and Aulograptus, but a number of faunal elements of the pandemic isograptid biofacies have recently been discovered in the Sandia Region of SE Peru. Peruvian graptolite faunas are reviewed and the new records from the Sandia Region are discussed in detail. The faunas from the Purumpata and Iparo members of the San José Formation range in age approximately from the Undulograptus austrodentatus Biozone to the Holmograptus lentus Biozone (early to middle Darriwilian). The faunas provide a better understanding of faunal composition and diversity in this region and help to correlate shallow water and deeper water graptolite faunas from this time interval. Biserial graptolites are rare in most samples and usually indeterminable, but a single identifiable specimen of Undulograptus austrodentatus was found, indicating a level close to the base of the Darriwilian. A number of specimens of the genera Isograptus and Arienigraptus from the Sandia Region represent pandemic graptolite faunas of the isograptid biofacies, described for the first time from this region. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Rule of Law in the Realm and the Province of New York: Prelude to the American Revolution

    HISTORY, Issue 301 2006
    British and American views of public law have diverged greatly over the past two hundred years. This article examines the evolution of New York's adherence to the rule of fundamental law and the use of colonial common law courts to protect the rights of New York subjects against the prerogative power of the crown. As a conquered province from 1664 to 1683, New York was denied a legislature. Thereafter the colonial legislative bodies were active in making unsuccessful attempts to claim their birthright as Englishmen. In England the Glorious Revolution represented a major step in the development of parliamentary supremacy. In New York, however, it facilitated an ethnic insurrection followed by the realization that English governmental policy mandated the denial of basic rights of Englishmen to colonial residents. The Glorious Revolution simply made it possible for parliament, as well as the crown, to regulate colonial affairs without any constitutional restrictions prior to 1774. In terms of constitutional dynamics in eighteenth-century England, continued imperial rule through an untrammelled royal prerogative substantially increased the political power and revenues of the crown. Failing to consider the impact of monarchial power in a growing empire, the 1688,9 Convention Parliament laid the foundation for an unbalanced British government in the middle of the eighteenth century. Deprived of patronage and extraordinary revenues at home, the monarchs turned to regulation of their empire and to reaping increased financial benefit. Both of these unintended consequences of the Glorious Revolution threatened parliamentary supremacy, even as parliament's new-found power began to undermine the rule of law in the empire. [source]

    After the Public Realm: Spaces of Representation, Transition and Plurality

    Malcolm Miles
    This essay questions the privileging of the design of public over domestic spaces and buildings in architecture and urban design, and their education, and the identification of public space with a public realm seen as the location of democracy. It cites the case made by Doreen Massey that the division of public and private realms is gendered, allowing men the freedom of public affairs whilst confining women to domesticity; and argues that a dualism of public and private space ignores a third area of transitional spaces which affect patterns of urban sociation. The case of redevelopment in El Raval, Barcelona, demonstrates that public space may be, today, part of an anti-democratic strategy of gentrification. But, if public space constructs a gendered public realm as imposition, there remains, as Hannah Arendt contends, a need for locations of social mixing in which difference is visible. What, if not public space, enables this? [source]

    Arms Transfers beyond the State-to-State Realm

    Denise Garcia
    Arms transfers beyond the state-to-state realm can have harmful effects for international security dramatically affecting the relations and behavior of states. This article examines why an emerging international norm on "prohibiting states to transfer arms to nonstate groups" has failed to diffuse at the international level. It discusses the already available international law framework existing at the regional and international levels upon which the potential norm could be built. The failure of the norm to diffuse at the international level can be primarily explained by the existence of a long-consolidated norm: the customary practice of states to transfer weapons to nonstate actors, that is, groups they deem legitimate to, without any interference or constraint.1 The unrestrained transfer of weapons is an established foreign-policy practice. It is the way states form, uphold alliances, extend friendships, and build spheres of influence (Sorokin 1994). Clearly, no state willingly wants to give this up. Therefore, the multilateral agreement on a norm barring most or all transfers of weapons to nonstate actors would curtail the freedom of action to build spheres of influence as states please. There are genuine ethical and moral dilemmas in this discussion, a nonstate actor may be a freedom fighter or a terrorist depending on different perspectives. The distinction between the categories "state" and "nonstate" actors may risk classifying actors in two camps: the good and the bad, respectively. This is problematic as a few states are known to be the most brutal perpetrators of egregious violations against their own citizens, whereas certain nonstate actors are legitimately fighting for the protection of vulnerable populations. [source]

    Constituting the Public Realm of a Region: Placemaking in the Bi-National Niagaras

    Reconstituting the public realm of a region requires changes in the way it is imagined. This can be done through the use of professional skills to present images and analysis, creative forms of agency able to act in such a realm, and representation of alternative futures for public consideration. The regional public realm is a collective and abstract consciousness as well as a concrete reality. Working at this scale means maintaining a conversation between the imaginal and the material, and between professional and local knowledges. It requires the construction of loosely collaborative partnerships and the adept use of professional skills to selectively organize attention to possibilities for action. [source]

    Genesis and Structure of ,Djenné as a Work of Art': Stakes and Risks in the Realm of World Heritage1

    MUSEUM INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1-2 2006
    Roberto Christian Gatti

    Hauerwas and Kallenberg and The Issue of Epistemic Access to An Extra-Linguistic Realm

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2004
    Scott Smith
    First page of article [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: Journey into the Realm of Requests for Help Presented to Sexual Medicine Specialists: Introducing Male Sexual Distress

    Edoardo S. Pescatori MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The recent availability of noninvasive pharmacological remedies for male sexual function triggered an exponential increase in the number of men requesting help in the sexuality area. Aim., The Italian Society of Andrology explored requests for help, not included in formerly established clinical categories of sexual medicine. Methods., A central board of 67 andrologists identified new areas of requests for help, instrumental for a web-based questionnaire, forwarded to 912 members of the Italian Society of Andrology. Results were submitted to an independent consensus development panel. Main Outcome Measures., A questionnaire response rate of 30.8% was considered acceptable according to standard response rates of medical specialist samples. Results., The Central Board interaction identified two new domains of requests for help: sexual distress and unconventional requests for pro-erectile medications. Web-based questionnaire results suggested that such domains account for 29% and 9% respectively of all requests for help already presented by male patients at sexual medicine clinics. The Independent Consensus Development Panel issued a final consensus document; herewith, the statement defining male sexual distress: A non-transitory condition and/or feeling of inadequacy such as to impair "sexual health" (WHO working definition). Inadequacy can originate both from physiological modifications of male sexual functions, and from diseases, dysfunctions, dysfunctional symptoms and dysmorphisms, both of andrological and non-andrological origin, which do not relate to "erectile dysfunction" (NIH Consensus Development Panel definition), but that might also induce erectile dysfunction. Sexual Distress can lead to a request for help which needs to be acknowledged. Conclusion., The Italian Society of Andrology identified two new areas of requests for help concerning male sexual issues: sexual distress and unconventional requests for pro-erectile medications. These domains, which do not represent new diseases, nonetheless induce the sufferers to seek help and, accordingly, need to be acknowledged. Pescatori ES, Giammusso B, Piubello G, Gentile V, and Pirozzi Farina F. Journey into the realm of requests for help presented to sexual medicine specialists: Introducing male sexual distress. J Sex Med 2007;4:762,770. [source]

    Violence and Recreation: Vacationing in the Realm of Dark Tourism

    Erika M. Robb
    SUMMARY Tourist destinations are typically conceptualized as sites of leisure. However, in recent years places associated with human misery and death have become the focus of sizable touristic interest. This practice, called dark tourism (Lennon and Foley 2000), involves visiting destinations at which violence is the main attraction. Dark tourism includes both places with violent legacies and those at which violence is an ongoing reality. It encompasses a wide variety of visitor motivations,educational, memorial, or recreational. In this article, I take a cross-regional approach to a diverse group of dark tourism sites, from Rwanda and Argentina to the United States and Brazil, considering their aesthetics and the experiences of visitors to contribute to the theoretical exploration of the relationship between tourism and violence. [source]

    Tectonic and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Elements Characteristics of the Tethyan Realm in South China

    YU Yixin
    Abstract: The evolution of the global Tethys Sea can be classified into three stages, Proto-Tethys, Paleo-Tethys and Neo-Tethys. The Tethyan realm has distinctive features of zonations and segmentations along north-south and east-west, respectively, and has variable richness in oil and gas. The petroleum geological conditions of Tethys are complicated, partly represented by multi-layer of source and seal rocks, and reservoirs. The hydrocarbon accumulation elements and periods of the Tethyan realm show gradually younger from west to east and north to south. South China is located in the north belt and Yangtze segment of the Tethyan realm, and its polycyclic tectonic movements were governed by the Tethyan and Pacific realms. The blocks in South China rotated clockwise and counter-clockwise during their drift northward from Gondwana. The belts and segmentations of Tethys in South China are also clear, with six tectonic belts including: Chuxiong-Sichuan; middle Guizhou-Hunan-Hubei; lower Yangtze; Xuefeng-Jiangnan; Guangxi-Hunan-Jiangxi; and Cathaysia. Numerous faults, including compressional, compressional-shear, extensional, extensional-shear and shear are well developed in South China. The fault strikes are mainly NE, NW and NS, in which the NE is the dominant direction. Lower, middle and upper hydrocarbon assemblages, respectively corresponding to Proto-, Paleo- and Neo-Tethys, formed in the Tethyan realm of South China with the lower and middle having excellent hydrocarbon accumulation conditions. An integrated analysis of tectonic evolution, superimposed deformation and later hydrocarbon preservation shows that during the Neo-Tethyan stage in South China, continental sediments were deposited and experienced intense tectonic deformation, which had resulted in different hydrocarbon pool-forming features from those of the Neo-Tethyan realm. [source]

    Explanatory models in the interpretations of clinical features of dental patients within a university dental education setting

    Gerardo Maupome
    Clinicians may acquire biased perceptions during their dental education that can affect decisions about treatment/management of dental decay. This study established explanatory models used by students to interpret clinical features of patients. It employed a stereotypical dental patient under standardised consultation conditions to identify the interpretation of oral health/disease features in the eyes of student clinicians. The study aimed to establish the perceptions of the patient as a client of the university dental clinic, as seen through the ideological lens of a formal Dental Education system. The discourse during simulated clinical consultations was qualitatively analysed to interpret values and concepts relevant to the assessment of restorative treatment needs and oral health status. Three constructs during the consultation were identified: the Dual Therapeutic Realms, the Choices Underlying Treatment Options, and the High-Risk Triad. Comparing these discourse components, the Patient Factors of the Bader and Shugars model for treatment decisions supported the existence of a core set of themes. It was concluded that certain consultation circumstances influenced the adequacy of diagnostic strategies, mainly by introducing loosely defined but highly specific socio-cultural biases ingrained in the Dental Education concepts and diagnostic/treatment needs systems. [source]

    Growth hormone in short children: medically appropriate treatment

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2001
    R Macklin
    Bolt and Mul argue persuasively against the "disease" approach and the "client" approach in addressing the question of whether growth hormone for short children properly belongs in the medical realm. Their own preferred approach, the "suffering" approach, is superior to the others but has practical problems that would arise in its application. An additional ethical issue, not addressed by Bolt and Mul, relates to justice in providing access for children from families of limited financial means to growth hormone treatment. [source]

    In search of simplicity: a self-organizing group communication overlay

    Matei Ripeanu
    Abstract Group communication primitives have broad utility as building blocks for distributed applications. The challenge is to create and maintain the distributed structures that support these primitives while accounting for volatile end-nodes and variable network characteristics. Most solutions proposed to date rely on complex algorithms or on global information, thus limiting the scale of deployments and acceptance outside the academic realm. This article introduces a low-complexity, self-organizing solution for building and maintaining data dissemination trees, which we refer to as Unstructured Multi-source Overlay (UMO). UMO uses traditional distributed systems techniques: layering, soft-state, and passive data collection to adapt to the dynamics of the physical network and maintain data dissemination trees. The result is a simple, adaptive system with lower overheads than more complex alternatives. We implemented UMO and evaluated it on a 100-node PlanetLab testbed and on up to 1024-node emulated ModelNet networks. Extensive experimental evaluations demonstrate UMOs low overhead, efficient network usage compared with alternative solutions, and the ability to quickly adapt to network changes and to recover from failures. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Can online mediation be transformative?

    Tales from the front
    This article briefly reviews the precepts of the transformative model of mediation, examines the types of disputes that are most suited to online mediation, and offers some examples from online commercial mediation to show how some of the ideas and techniques borrowed from the "transformative model" may be applied in the realm of online mediation. [source]

    Configuration Space Control for Wendelstein 7-X

    T. Dodson
    Abstract The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) is a superconducting fusion experiment presently under construction at the Greifswald branch of the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald, Germany. W7-X is a device with extreme geometrical complexity due to the close-packing of components inside the cryostat and their complex three-dimensional shapes. The task of the Configuration Space Control department is to ensure that these components do not collide with each other under the defined set of configurations such as during assembly, at cool down, or during operation at various coil currents, among others. To fulfill this task, sophisticated tools and procedures were developed and implemented within the realm of a newly founded division that focuses on design, configuration control, and configuration management. This paper will discuss the Configuration Space Control process, explore the advantages to the project resulting from the process, and demonstrate its application in the analysis of the cryogenic cooling pipes of Module 5 (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    On the concept of a universal audit of quality and environmental management systems

    Stanislav Karapetrovic
    There is a definite trend in industry today toward the integration of internal management systems (MSs), including those for managing quality, environment, health and safety, and social accountability. The standards describing the minimum requirements for such systems have been made largely compatible, but are not yet fully aligned or integrated. Apart from several national standards for integrated quality, environment and safety MSs, the world has yet to see a corresponding and internationally accepted guideline. In contrast, integrative standardization activities in the realm of MS auditing are proceeding in full force, with the introduction of the pioneering ISO 19011 guideline for quality and environmental auditing expected soon. This paper focuses on the concepts, principles and practices of a truly generic audit, applicable for the evaluation of diverse aspects of organizational performance against the criteria stated in MS standards. A universal audit model based on the systems approach and several important questions regarding the compatibility and integration of the current auditing schemes are discussed. These issues include the ability of integrated audits to foster unification of supported MSs, as well as different strategies for the development of a universal audit guideline (UAG) and integration of function-specific audits. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    Criminology is in need of conceptual revival, and behavior genetics can provide the concepts and research design to accomplish this. Behavior genetics is a biologically-friendly environmental discipline that often tells us more about environmental effects on individual traits than about genetic effects. Anomie/strain theory is used to illustrate the usefulness of behavior genetics to criminological theories. Behavior genetics examines the individual differences that sort people into different modes of adaptation and that lead them to cope constructively or destructively with strain. Behavior genetics and other biosocial perspectives have the potential to help illuminate Agnew's (1997) extension of General Strain Theory (GST) into the developmental realm. [source]

    STORIES AND COSMOGONIES: Imagining Creativity Beyond "Nature" and "Culture"

    ABSTRACT What does it mean to create? Who or what could be said to create? God? Artists? Evolution? Markets? The Dialectic? Do things "just happen" and if so is that a kind of creativity? Taking storytelling as its point of reference, this essay considers the notion of creativity as it applies both to the productions of the human imagination, especially stories, and to the self-making of the material universe. I define creativity broadly as the bringing forth of new material, linguistic, or conceptual formations or the transformation of existing ones and as calling, not for a "cultural poetics," but for a more broadly conceived poetics of making (poesis, in its most inclusive sense), encompassing both the natural and cultural realms as conventionally designated, a poetics capable of articulating the stories human beings tell with cosmogonies detailing the coming-to-being of the physical universe. Extending the purview of creativity beyond the human realm to include the processes shaping the material universe allows us to envision creativity itself in terms of a generative multiplicity that resists articulation in binary oppositional terms and that demands therefore to be thought as ontologically prior to any possible differentiation between the domains of nature and culture, or between reality and its cultural,linguistic representations, challenging us to reimagine not only the relationship between nature and culture but also the problematic of representation that continues to inform much work in the humanities and social sciences. Such a reimagining might proceed precisely from an enlarged understanding of creativity,and in particular of storytelling,and I consider some of the epistemic and writerly implications of this claim for anthropology as a discipline concerned preeminently with exploring and documenting the varieties of human being-in-the-world. [source]

    DISPLACING VIOLENCE: Making Pentecostal Memory in Postwar Sierra Leone

    In this article, I seek to locate the anthropology of social recovery within the work of memory. Following a decade of violent armed conflict in Sierra Leone, displaced youth in a Pentecostal church write and perform plays that are silent on the subject of the war, but renarrate it in the idiom of spiritual warfare against a subterranean demonic realm known as the Underworld. Ideas of the Underworld are part of a local retooling of the Pentecostal deliverance ministry to address Sierra Leone's years of war. Through their struggle against the Underworld, these Pentecostal youth reimagine Sierra Leone's war, reshaping experiences of violence that have shaped them and thereby transforming demonic memory into Pentecostal memory. Just as their own physical displacement is not an entirely negative condition, their displacement of violent memory is enabling rather than repressive. By "forgetting" the war as a direct realist account and reworking it through the lens of the Underworld, they use war itself to re-member their lives. Although they do not lose their memories of terror and violence, they learn to transform these in ways that allow them to create a moral life course in which they are much more than weak dependents. [source]

    Cultural Sovereignty in a Global Art Economy: Egyptian Cultural Policy and the New Western Interest in Art from the Middle East

    Jessica WinegarArticle first published online: 7 JAN 200
    The post-1989 transformation of the Egyptian art world reveals the particular tenacity of colonial logics and national attachments in culture industries built through anticolonial nationalism and socialism. Tensions emerged between and among Western and Egyptian curators, critics, and artists with the development of a foreign-dominated private-sector art market and as Egyptian art begins to circulate internationally. This international circulation of art objects has produced rearranged strategies of governance in the cultural realm, collusions and conflicts between the public and private sector, and, most importantly, a new articulation of cultural sovereignty. [source]

    The art and science of oral examination

    Rania Agha
    ABSTRACT Performing an accurate oral examination is an integral part of a complete dermatological evaluation. As dermatologists, we are frequently asked to assess and treat numerous oral pathologies, which include, but are not limited to, normal variants, infections, ulcers, granulomas, lymphomas, as well as primary and metastatic tumors of the mouth and lips. The oral mucosa can be the window through which one can see and make numerous systemic diagnoses. Some clinicians are apprehensive about performing this evaluation, or feel that this examination is outside of their realm of expertise. These concerns may reflect limited exposure and education during training. Therefore, this article aimed to educate the readers on how to complete an oral examination, demonstrate normal variants, and highlight potential pitfalls and limitations of performing oral biopsies. [source]

    Web-based collaboration for the rest of us

    Paul Cheng-Hsin Liu
    In business, sophisticated digital communications have dramatically enhanced the quality and productivity of distant partnerships. Unfortunately, in the realm of design, this has generally required expensive hardware and software. Here, colleagues Paul Cheng-Hsin Liu, Hsiao-Ching Tsai, and S. Gary Teng propose a less-costly approach to the virtual-design dialogue that opens this collaborative opportunity to small and medium size companies. [source]

    Beyond the Corporate Sphere

    Roger Sametz
    MUCH OF THE thinking and best practices related to branding and design in the corporate realm are of great value in the not-for-profit sector,particularly academia. Roger Sametz reframes fundamental branding strategies to better fit the academic culture, details the steps necessary to build a strong brand in this context, and shares examples of work Sametz Blackstone has done for several institutions. [source]


    ABSTRACT The concept of ,vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on ,vulnerable populations'. However, the term ,vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously ,too broad' and ,too narrow'.1 The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study , that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined.2 In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability. [source]

    The Regulatory State and Turkish Banking Reforms in the Age of Post-Washington Consensus

    Caner Bakir
    ABSTRACT The new era of the Post-Washington Consensus (PWC), promoted under the auspices of International Financial Institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, centres on the need to develop sound financial regulation and strong regulatory institutions, especially in the realm of banking and finance in post-financial crisis developing countries. This article uses an examination of the Turkish banking sector experience with the PWC in the aftermath of the 2001 financial crisis to show its considerable strengths and weaknesses. The authors argue that the emergent regulatory state in the bank-based financial system has a narrow focus on strengthening prudential regulation, whilst ignoring the increased ,financialization' of the Turkish economy. They identify the positive features of the new era of the PWC in terms of prudential regulation, which has become much more robust in its ability to withstand external shocks. At the same time, however, the article highlights some of the limitations of the new era which resemble the limitations of the PWC. These include the distributional impact of the regulatory reforms within the banking sector, and notably the emergence of foreign banks as the major beneficiaries of this process; weaknesses in promoting productive bank intermediation that finance the real economy and economic growth, leading to poverty reduction via growth of employment whilst stimulating financialization within the economy; and finally, the exclusive focus on prudential regulation, whilst ignoring regulatory costs, consumer protection and competition regulation. [source]

    Twilight Institutions: Public Authority and Local Politics in Africa

    Christian Lund
    ABSTRACT Public authority does not always fall within the exclusive realm of government institutions; in some contexts, institutional competition is intense and a range of ostensibly a-political situations become actively politicized. Africa has no shortage of institutions which attempt to exercise public authority: not only are multiple layers and branches of government institutions present and active to various degrees, but so-called traditional institutions bolstered by government recognition also vie for public authority, and new emerging institutions and organizations also enter the field. The practices of these institutions make concepts such as public authority, legitimacy, belonging, citizenship and territory highly relevant. This article proposes an analytical strategy for the understanding of public authority in such contexts. It draws on research from anthropologists, geographers, political scientists and social scientists working on Africa, in an attempt to explore a set of questions related to a variety of political practices and their institutional ramifications. [source]

    The Politics of Vigilance in Southeastern Nigeria

    David Pratten
    ABSTRACT This article argues that governance can be best analysed within modes of vigilance. Where recent work on the post-colonial state has emphasized the symbolic and practical constitution of the state through surveillance and spatialization, so in counterpoint, this analysis illustrates that social engagement with the state is based on conceptions of vigilance and practices of counter-surveillance with both spatial and temporal dimensions. Drawing on an ethnography of Annang youth associations in southeastern Nigeria, this analysis outlines how the micro-politics of vigilance are based on knowledge of the states' patrimonial ,ways of operating' and processes which define internal, localized rights, registers and styles of action. This argument is based on an analysis of popular responses to disorder which contribute to an ,insurgent' construction of the public realm in which groups marginalized and excluded challenge the logic, locations, patterns of discourse and constructions of the public good. [source]

    Rethinking the Emerging Post-Washington Consensus

    Ziya Öni
    The objective of this article is to provide a critical assessment of the emerging Post-Washington Consensus (PWC), as the new influential vision in the development debate. The authors begin by tracing the main record of the Washington Consensus, the set of neoliberal economic policies propagated largely by key Bretton Woods institutions like the World Bank and the IMF, that penetrated into the economic policy agendas of many developing countries from the late 1970s onwards. They then outline the main tenets of the PWC, emerging from the shortcomings of that record and the reaction it created in the political realm. The authors accept that the PWC, in so far as it influences the actual practice of key Bretton Woods institutions, provides an improvement over the Washington Consensus. Yet, at the same time, they draw attention to the failure of the PWC, as reflected in current policy practice, to provide a sufficiently broad framework for dealing with key and pressing development issues such as income distribution, poverty and self-sustained growth. [source]

    Anteroposterior patterning in the limb and digit specification: Contribution of mouse genetics

    Benoît Robert
    Abstract The limb has been a privileged object of investigation and reflection for scientists over the past two centuries and continues to provide a heuristic framework to analyze vertebrate development. Recently, accumulation of new data has significantly changed our view on the mechanisms of limb patterning, in particular along the anterior-posterior axis. These data have led us to revisit the mode of action of the zone of polarizing activity. They shed light on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of patterning linked to the Shh-Gli3 signaling pathway and give insights into the mechanism of activation of these cardinal factors, as well as the consequences of their activity. These new data are in good part the result of systematic Application of tools used in contemporary mouse molecular genetics. These have extended the power of mouse genetics by introducing mutational strategies that allow fine-tuned modulation of gene expression, interchromosomal deletions and duplication. They have even made the mouse embryo amenable to cell lineage analysis that used to be the realm of chick embryos. In this review, we focus on the data acquired over the last five years from the analysis of mouse limb development and discuss new perspectives opened by these results. Developmental Dynamics 235:2337,2352, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Truth, Authenticity, and Rationality

    DIALECTICA, Issue 3 2007
    Ronald De Sousa
    Emotions are Janus-faced. They tell us something about the world, and they tell us something about ourselves. This suggests that we might speak of a truth, or perhaps two kinds of truths of emotions, one of which is about self and the other about conditions in the world. On some views, the latter comes by means of the former. Insofar as emotions manifest our inner life, however, we are more inclined to speak of authenticity rather than truth. What is the difference? We need to distinguish the criteria of correspondence or appropriateness suitable for authenticity from those that embody the criterion of truth. Furthermore there is also a question about the transitions , among states of mind, and between states of mind and behaviour , that emotions encourage. This realm of transitions concerns rationality. After sketching the relevant distinctions, I will endeavour to justify the view that emotions should be appraised in terms of all three terms. [source]