Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Reasoning

  • abstract reasoning
  • analogical reasoning
  • clinical reasoning
  • critical reasoning
  • deductive reasoning
  • diagnostic reasoning
  • ethical reasoning
  • inductive reasoning
  • legal reasoning
  • moral reasoning
  • practical reasoning
  • scientific reasoning
  • verbal reasoning

  • Terms modified by Reasoning

  • reasoning ability
  • reasoning method
  • reasoning process
  • reasoning skill
  • reasoning system
  • reasoning task
  • reasoning used

  • Selected Abstracts


    Isabelle Bichindaritz
    Mémoire proposes a general framework for reasoning from cases in biology and medicine. Part of this project is to propose a memory organization capable of handling large cases and case bases as occur in biomedical domains. This article presents the essential principles for an efficient memory organization based on pertinent work in information retrieval (IR). IR systems have been able to scale up to terabytes of data taking advantage of large databases research to build Internet search engines. They search for pertinent documents to answer a query using term-based ranking and/or global ranking schemes. Similarly, case-based reasoning (CBR) systems search for pertinent cases using a scoring function for ranking the cases. Mémoire proposes a memory organization based on inverted indexes which may be powered by databases to search and rank efficiently through large case bases. It can be seen as a first step toward large-scale CBR systems, and in addition provides a framework for tight cooperation between CBR and IR. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    A genealogical study that traces a "broadly Cartesian" pattern of argumentation: from Augustine's scriptural semiotic to the "narrowly Cartesian" practice of foundationalism to Charles Peirce's pragmatic and reparative semiotic. The essay argues (1) that Augustine transformed Stoic logic into a scriptural semiotic; (2) that this semiotic breeds both Cartesian foundationalism and the pragmatic semiotic that repairs it; (3) that Peirce's semiotic displays the latter. In sum, Augustine's inquiry risks foundationalism but also breeds a self-corrective "reparative reasoning." This reasoning is at once scriptural and philosophic. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    The origins of scriptural reasoning, in which Jews, Christians and Muslims study their scriptures in conversation with each other, are described. Some maxims implicit in its form of Abrahamic collegiality are distilled (including the emphasis on friendship rather than consensus) and its institutional setting is analysed under the headings of House (synagogue, church, mosque), campus (university) and tent (settings where scriptural reasoning is practised). The attempt to cope with the superabundance of meaning in the scriptures is explored in terms of doing justice to the plain sense and other senses, using various theoretical conceptualities, and seeking wisdom together, concluding with remarks on scriptural reasoning in the public sphere. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    The essay includes twelve "rules" to define the nature and goals of the practice of Scriptural Reasoning (SR). These rules are intended for heuristic and pedagogic purposes to introduce Scriptural Reasoning to those who have little experience in and knowledge of the practice of SR. The rules emerged from my observations of SR practice and, taken together, the rules are meant to be a guide or "handbook" for future SR practice. [source]


    Wenpin Jiao
    In multi-agent cooperation, the agents will cooperate efficiently if they can accurately anticipate the behavior of their partners. In this work, we put forward a framework (called as,transpositional thinking principle) for reasoning about and predicting the behavior of others and propose an approach to planning the cooperation among agents based on the principle. By using the principle, agents can richen their understanding about the behavior patterns of their partners and then infer their partners' actions more and more accurately. The experiments show that the cooperation among agents will be performed more efficiently and at a low cost when agents can anticipate the behavior of others with a high enough accuracy. [source]

    Strategies in Human Nonmonotonic Reasoning

    Marilyn Ford
    Although humans seem adept at drawing nonmonotonic conclusions, the nonmonotonic reasoning systems that researchers develop are complex and do not function with such ease. This paper explores people's reasoning processes in nonmonotonic problems. To avoid the problem of people's conclusions being based on knowledge rather than on some reasoning process, we developed a scenario about life on another planet. Problems were chosen to allow the systematic study of people's understanding of strict and nonstrict rules and their interactions. We found that people had great difficulty reasoning and we identified a number of negative factors influencing their reasoning. We also identified three positive factors which, if used consistently, would yield rational and coherent reasoning,but no subject achieved total consistency. (Another possible positive factor, specificity, was considered but we found no evidence for its use.) It is concluded that nonmonotonic reasoning is hard. When people need to reason in a domain where they have no preconceived ideas, the foundation for their reasoning is neither coherent nor rational. They do not use a nonmonotonic reasoning system that would work regardless of content. Thus, nonmonotonic reasoning systems that researchers develop are expected to do more reasoning than humans actually do! [source]

    Case,Based Reasoning for Assessing Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits

    Adel Sadek
    Existing transportation planning modeling tools have critical limitations with respect to assessing the benefits of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) deployment. In this article, we present a novel framework for developing modeling tools for quantifying ITS deployments benefits. This approach is based on using case,based reasoning (CBR), an artificial intelligence paradigm, to capture and organize the insights gained from running a dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) model. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, the study develops a prototype system for evaluating the benefits of diverting traffic away from incident locations using variable message signs. A real,world network from the Hartford area in Connecticut is used in developing the system. The performance of the prototype is evaluated by comparing its predictions to those obtained using a detailed DTA model. The prototype system is shown to yield solutions comparable to those obtained from the DTA model, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the approach. [source]

    Taking Language Seriously: An Analysis of Linguistic Reasoning and Its Implications in EU Law

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
    Elina Paunio
    This article discusses legal reasoning at the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The following questions are addressed. First, the authors look at the way linguistic arguments are used in ECJ case-law. Second, they consider whether the requirements of legal certainty, and more specifically that of predictability, may be fulfilled by reference to linguistic arguments in a multilingual legal system. The theoretical starting-point is that of open-endedness of language: no means exists to definitely pin down the meaning of words. Defining the meaning of words in a legal context is necessarily a matter of choice involving evaluative considerations. Consequently, when the ECJ uses linguistic arguments to justify a decision, it is an active agent choosing the meaning of words in a specific case. Essentially, the authors argue that legal reasoning based on linguistic arguments is particularly problematic from the viewpoint of legal certainty and predictability. In this respect, the key importance of systemic and teleological argumentation is emphasised in assuring convincing, acceptable and transparent legal reasoning especially in the context of multilingual EU law. [source]

    Developmental Stages of Age and Moral Reasoning as Predictors of Juvenile Delinquents' Behavioral Intention to Steal Clothing

    William Scott Forney
    This study explored juvenile delinquents' moral reasoning and behavioral intention to steal clothing using age group and the aligned theories of planned behavior and cognitive developmental moralization. Participants (n = 100) were preteen and teen first-time theft/shoplifting offenders participating in a diversion program aimed at preventing future offenses. Factor analysis revealed three strongly correlated dimensions of moral reasoning: risk and need (preconventional ethics), and peers (conventional ethics). Multiple regressions predicted positive moral reasoning that justified stealing clothing for risk, need, and peers by preteens but not teens. Risk and need, but not peers or age group, predicted behavioral intention to steal clothing. Adevelopmental shift existed from preteens to teens in their moral reasoning to steal clothing. Juvenile delinquents that identified with preconventional ethics exhibited behavioral intention to steal clothing. [source]

    Decision making using time-dependent knowledge: knowledge augmentation using qualitative reasoning

    Song Jin Yu
    In this paper we propose a method to enhance the performance of knowledge-based decision-support systems, knowledge of which is volatile and incomplete by nature in a dynamically changing situation, by providing meta-knowledge augmented by the Qualitative Reasoning (QR) approach. The proposed system intends to overcome the potential problem of completeness of the knowledge base. Using the deep meta-knowledge incorporated into the QR module, along with the knowledge we gain from applying inductive learning, we then identify the ongoing process and amplify the effects of each pending process to the attribute values. In doing so, we apply the QR models to enhance or reveal the patterns which are otherwise less obvious. The enhanced patterns can eventually be used to improve the classification of the data samples. The success factor hinges on the completeness of the QR process knowledge base. With enough processes taking place, the influences of each process will lead prediction in a direction that can reflect more of the current trend. The preliminary results are successful and shed light on the smooth introduction of Qualitative Reasoning to the business domain from the physical laboratory application. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reasoning about emotional agents

    John-Jules Ch.
    In this article we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular, we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Int Syst 21: 601,619, 2006. [source]

    A knowledge server for reasoning about temporal constraints between classes and instances of events

    Paolo Terenziani
    Reasoning with temporal constraints is a ubiquitous issue in many computer science tasks, for which many dedicated approaches have been and are being built. In particular, in many areas, including planning, workflow, guidelines, and protocol management, one needs to represent and reason with temporal constraints between classes of events (e.g., between the types of actions needed to achieve a goal) and temporal constraints between instances of events (e.g., between the specific actions being executed). The temporal constraints between the classes of events must be inherited by the instances, and the consistency of both types of constraints must be checked. In this article, we design a general-purpose domain-independent knowledge server dealing with these issues. In particular, we propose a formalism to represent temporal constraints, and we point out two orthogonal parameters that affect the definition of reasoning algorithms operating on them. We then show four algorithms to deal with inheritance and to perform temporal consistency checking (depending on the parameters) and we study their properties. Finally, we report the results we obtained by applying our system to the treatment of temporal constraints in clinical guidelines. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Int Syst 19: 919,947, 2004. [source]

    Evaluation of the Implementation of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes

    Maria Müller-Staub PhD
    PURPOSE.,This paper aims to provide insight into nursing classifications and to report the effects of nursing diagnostics implementation. This paper summarizes the results of six studies. METHODS.,Two systematic reviews, instrument development and testing, a pre,post intervention study, and a cluster-randomized trial were performed. FINDINGS.,The NANDA International classification met most of the literature-based classification criteria, and results showed the Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes (Q-DIO) to be a reliable instrument to measure the documented quality of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. Implementation of standardized nursing language significantly improved the quality of documented nursing diagnoses, related interventions, and patient outcomes. As a follow-up measure, Guided Clinical Reasoning (GCR) was effective in supporting nurses' clinical reasoning skills. CONCLUSIONS.,Carefully implementing classifications led to enhanced, accurately stated nursing diagnoses, more effective nursing interventions, and better patient outcomes. IMPLICATIONS.,Rethinking implementation methods for standardized language and using GCR is recommended. Based on the results of this study, the inclusion of NANDA International diagnoses with related interventions and outcomes in electronic health records is suggested. [source]

    Using NANDA, NIC, and NOC (NNN) Language for Clinical Reasoning With the Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) Model

    CRRN-A, Donald D. Kautz RN
    PURPOSE.,To analyze the degree to which standardized nursing language was used by baccalaureate nursing students completing Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) model worksheets in a clinical practicum. METHODS.,A scoring instrument was developed and 100 worksheets were retrospectively analyzed. FINDINGS.,NANDA nursing diagnoses were correctly stated in 92% of the OPT models. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcomes were explicitly stated in 22%, and implied in 72%. Interventions matched appropriate Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) activities in 61%. CONCLUSIONS.,NANDA, NIC, and NOC (NNN) language was used inconsistently by students in this sample. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE.,If NNN language is to advance nursing knowledge, its promotion, representation in curriculum development, and active use is necessary. Educational research is needed on the facilitators and barriers to NNN language use. [source]

    Experienced and Less-Experienced Nurses Diagnostic Reasoning: Implications for Fostering Students' Critical Thinking

    Catherine G. Ferrario DNSc
    PURPOSE. To compare the use of mental representations (heuristics) in diagnostic reasoning of expert (,5 years' experience) and novice (<5 years' experience) emergency nurses. METHODS. Clinical simulations were completed by a nationwide randomly selected sample of 173 experienced and 46 less-experienced emergency nurses (N =229). FINDINGS. Experienced nurses used the heuristic, Judging by Causal Systems (diagnostic inferences deduced from systems of causal factors) significantly more did than less-experienced nurses. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Standardized nursing diagnoses may cut short the time needed to develop representational thinking and spare cognitive reserves for reasoning needed for complex patients. Faculty need to promote students' cognitive development through strategies that promote active, reflective, and integrative learning. Search terms: Clinical experience, diagnostic reasoning [source]

    Experimental Psychology and Duhem's Problem

    Sam S. Rakover
    Sam S. Rakover, Experimental Psychology and Duhem's Problem, pp. 45,66. The paper proposes a practical answer to Duhem's problem within the framework of experimental psychology. First, this problem is briefly discussed; second, two studies in psychology are presented illustrating how theories are tested. Thirdly, based on the foregoing, an approach called the "Empirical Reasoning" (ER) is developed and justified. It is shown that the ER approach can successfully cope with Duhem's problem. Finally, the ER approach and the Error Statistics approach of Mayo are critically compared with regard to Duhem's problem. [source]

    Notes Comparing Aristotelian Reasoning with That of the Early Confucian School

    Bernard Paul Sypniewski

    Constructing a Universal Scale of High School Course Difficulty

    Dina Bassiri
    This study examined the usefulness of applying the Rasch rating scale model (Andrich, 1978) to high school grade data. ACT Assessment test scores (English, Mathematics, Reading, and Science Reasoning) were used as "common items" to adjust for different grading standards in individual high school courses both within and across schools. This scaling approach yielded an ACT Assessment-adjusted high school grade point average (AA-HSGPA) on a common scale across high schools and cohorts within a large public university. AA-HSGPA was a better predictor of first-year college grade point average (CGPA) than the regular high school grade point average. The best model for predicting CGPA included both the ACT composite score and AA-HSGPA. [source]

    Reasoning about non-linear AR models using expectation maximization

    JOURNAL OF FORECASTING, Issue 6-7 2003
    M. ArnoldArticle first published online: 19 SEP 200
    Abstract A simplified version of the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to search for optimal state sequences in state-dependent AR models whereby no prior knowledge about the state equation is necessary. These sequences can be used to draw conclusions about functional dependencies between the observed process and estimated AR coefficients. Consequently this approach is especially helpful in the identification of functional,coefficient AR models where the coefficients are controlled by the process itself. The approximation of regression functions in first-order non-linear AR models and the localization of multiple thresholds in self-exciting threshold autoregressive models are demonstrated as examples.,Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Jonathan Edwards and the Language of Nature: The Re-Enchantment of the World in the Age of Scientific Reasoning

    Avihu Zakai
    For a long time Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) was thought of more as a preacher of hellfire and revival than as a theologian, and rather as a Calvinist theologian than a philosopher of importance, and he was dismissed accordingly. Yet Edwards was more than a hellfire preacher, more than a theologian. This New England divine was one of the rare individuals anywhere to recognize and answer the challenges posed to traditional Christian belief by the emergence of new modes of thought in early modern history - the new ideas of the scientific thought and the Enlightenment. His force of mind is evident in his exposition of the poverty of mechanical philosophy, which radically transformed the traditional Christian dialectic of God's utter transcendence and divine immanence by gradually dimin-ishing divine sovereignty with respect to creation, providence, and redemption, thus leading to the disenchantment of the world. Edwards constructed a teleological and theological alternative to the prevailing mechanistic interpretation of the essential nature of reality, whose ultimate goal was the re-enchantment of the world by reconstituting the glory of God's majestic sovereignty, power, and will within the order of creation. [source]

    Reasoning across ontologically distinct levels: Students' understandings of molecular genetics

    Ravit Golan Duncan
    Abstract In this article we apply a novel analytical framework to explore students' difficulties in understanding molecular genetics,a domain that is particularly challenging to learn. Our analytical framework posits that reasoning in molecular genetics entails mapping across ontologically distinct levels,an information level containing the genetic information, and a physical level containing hierarchically organized biophysical entities such as proteins, cells, tissues, etc. This mapping requires an understanding of what the genetic information specifies, and how the physical entities in the system mediate the effects of this information. We therefore examined, through interview and written assessments, 10th grade students' understandings of molecular genetics phenomena to uncover the conceptual obstacles involved in reasoning across these ontologically distinct levels. We found that students' described the genetic instructions as containing information about both the structure and function of biological entities across multiple organization levels; a view that is far less constrained than the scientific understandings of the genetic information. In addition, students were often unaware of the different functions of proteins, their relationship to genes, and the role proteins have in mediating the effects of the genetic information. Students' ideas about genes and proteins hindered their ability to reason across the ontologically distinct levels of genetic phenomena, and to provide causal mechanistic explanations of how the genetic information brings about effects of a physical nature. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 44: 938,959, 2007 [source]

    Age Changes in Prosocial Responding and Moral Reasoning in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Nancy Eisenberg
    Age changes' measures of prosocial responding and reasoning were examined. Participants' reports of helping, empathy-related responding, and prosocial moral reasoning were obtained in adolescence (from age 15,16 years) and into adulthood (to age 25,26 years). Perspective taking and approval/interpersonal oriented/stereotypic prosocial moral reasoning increased from adolescence into adulthood, whereas personal distress declined. Helping declined and then increased (a cubic trend). Prosocial moral judgment composite scores (and self-reflective empathic reasoning) generally increased from late adolescence into the early 20s (age 17,18 to 21,22) but either leveled off or declined slightly thereafter (i.e., showed linear and cubic trends); rudimentary needs-oriented reasoning showed the reverse pattern of change. The increase in self-reflective empathic moral reasoning was for females only. Thus, perspective taking and some aspects of prosocial moral reasoning,capacities with a strong sociocognitive basis,showed the clearest increases with age, whereas simple prosocial proclivities (i.e., helping, sympathy) did not increase with age. [source]

    Histologic evaluation of skin damage after overlapping and nonoverlapping flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser pulses: A study on normal human skin as a model for port wine stains

    Petra H.L. Koster MD
    Abstract Background and Objective In the treatment of port wine stains (PWS) with the flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser (FPPDL), no consensus exists about overlapping of pulses. The advantage of overlapping pulses is homogeneous lightening of the PWS; the risk is redundant tissue damage. The aim of this study was to determine the histopathologic effect on human skin of pulsed dye laser pulses with various degrees of overlap, with normal human skin as a model for PWS. Study Design/Materials and Methods Eighteen healthy white volunteers were irradiated with pulsed dye laser pulses with increasing radiant exposure and with different degrees of overlap. Biopsy samples were taken and histologically analysed. Results Overlapping of pulses on normal human skin enhances depth of vascular damage with approximately 30%. Adjacent pulses also show this effect. We found no histologic signs of serious damage to epidermis or dermal connective tissue by using radiant exposure levels of 6,8 J/cm2, regardless of pulse application. Conclusions Reasoning that the mechanism of tissue injury is comparable for normal and PWS skin, we conclude that it is safe to treat PWS with overlapping FPPDL pulses to achieve homogeneous lightening. Lasers Surg. Med. 28:176,181, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    "Bad Mothers" and the Threat to Civil Society: Race, Cultural Reasoning, and the Institutionalization of Social Inequality in a Venezuelan Infanticide Trial

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 2 2000
    Charles L. Briggs
    First page of article [source]

    Reasoning versus knowledge retention and ascertainment throughout a problem-based learning curriculum

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 9 2009
    Anne Collard
    Context, Since 2000, problem-based learning (PBL) seminars have been introduced into the curriculum of medical studies at the University of Liège. We aimed to carry out a cross-sectional investigation of the maturational increase in biomedical reasoning capacity in comparison with factual knowledge retention throughout the curriculum. Methods, We administered a factual knowledge test (i.e. a true/false test with ascertainment degree) and a biomedical reasoning test (i.e. an adapted script concordance test [SCT]) to 104 students (Years 3,6) and a reference panel. The selected topic was endocrinology. Results, On the SCT, the students obtained higher scores in Years 5 and 6 than in Years 3 and 4. In Year 3, the scores obtained on SCT questions in a new context indicated transfer of reasoning skills. On the true/false test, the scores of Year 3 students were significantly higher than those of students in the other three year groups. A positive correlation between SCT scores and true/false test scores was observed only for students in Years 3 and 4. In each group, the ascertainment degree scores were higher for correct than for incorrect responses and the difference was calculated as an index of self-estimation of core knowledge. This index was found to be positively correlated to SCT scores in the four year groups studied. Conclusions, Biomedical reasoning skills are evidenced early in a curriculum involving PBL and further increase during training. This is accompanied by a decrease in factual knowledge retention. The self-estimation of core knowledge appears to be related to reasoning capacity, which suggests there is a link between the two processes. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    The essay includes twelve "rules" to define the nature and goals of the practice of Scriptural Reasoning (SR). These rules are intended for heuristic and pedagogic purposes to introduce Scriptural Reasoning to those who have little experience in and knowledge of the practice of SR. The rules emerged from my observations of SR practice and, taken together, the rules are meant to be a guide or "handbook" for future SR practice. [source]

    The Case for Economic Reasoning in MBA Education Revisited

    Lidija Polutnik
    Laurence S. Moss was a great scholar and author of countless articles and books. During his long career he continued to be excited by economics and history and made these subjects interesting to his students. For almost 30 years, undergraduate students enrolled in his Scams and Frauds class and Contemporary Economic Systems class in large numbers. Larry would engage students to think, to independently question prevailing truths, and to probe further. This essay is a reflection of our shared experience teaching in the full-time MBA program at Babson College. [source]

    At "Permanent Risk": Reasoning and Self-Knowledge in Self-Deception

    In this essay, I defend the following two claims: (1) reflective, critical reasoning is essential to the process of self-deception; and (2), the process of self-deception involves a certain characteristic error of self-knowledge. By appeal to (1) and (2). I hope to show that we can adjudicate the current dispute about the nature of self-deception between those we might term "traditionalists," and those we might term "deflationists." [source]

    Therapists' experiences and perceptions of teamwork in neurological rehabilitation: reasoning behind the team approach, structure and composition of the team and teamworking processes

    Kitty Maria Suddick
    Abstract Background and Purpose.,Teamwork and the interdisciplinary team approach have been strongly advocated for use in the provision of neurological rehabilitation services. However, whether teamwork has been adopted, and in what form, has yet to be established. The present study investigated therapists' experiences and perceptions of the reasoning behind the team approach in neurological rehabilitation, the structure and composition of the team within which they worked and the teamworking process,Method.,This article reports part of an exploratory qualitative study. Five occupational therapists and five physiotherapists from three teams: a rehabilitation centre; a community team; and a stroke unit based within the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with each participant and then transcribed. Content and thematic analysis of the qualitative interview data was carried out, with respondents validating both the transcription and analysis stages.,Results.,Perceived composition and structure of the neurological rehabilitation team was variable across teams and between individual team members. There was disparity as to whether patients were included within the neurological team; the interdisciplinary team approach had not been consistently adopted and there were sub-teams and other team memberships in existence. Reasoning behind the team approach supported the perceived benefits of teamwork from a number of perspectives, and the activities reported as part of the team process were diverse.,Conclusions.,Different teams may choose to use different strategies depending on the aims and context of the team effort. In some instances interdisciplinary teamwork and patient-centred approaches were not adopted consistently and the process of teamwork itself is both complex and diverse. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Political Theory and Practical Public Reasoning

    POLITICAL STUDIES, Issue 2 2010
    Albert Weale
    Political theory and political philosophy (used interchangeably in this article) have always played a role in public life. The argument pursued here is that this is not accidental. We cannot understand in an explanatory sense developments in public policy without understanding the structure of ideas that influence those developments, including the normative presuppositions at the core of those structures of ideas. However, we can pass from explanation in the narrow sense to justification and the evaluation of the merits of those ideas. The techniques of normative political theory are invaluable in this context of justification and evaluation. Two examples are given to illustrate this last claim. [source]