Reaction Interface (reaction + interface)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Numerical analysis of thermal and electrochemical phenomena for anode supported microtubular SOFC

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Daan Cui
Abstract A 2D model considering momentum, heat/species transport and electrochemical phenomena, has been proposed for tubular solid oxide fuel cell. The model was validated using experimental polarization curves and the good agreement with the experimental data was attained. The temperature distributions show that temperature varies severely at the tube inlet than at the tube outlet. The heat generation and transfer mechanisms in electrodes, electrolyte and electrochemical reaction interface were investigated. The results show that the overall electrochemical reaction heat is produced at cathode/electrolyte interface, and a small portion of the heat is consumed at anode/electrolyte interface. The heat produced at cathode/electrolyte interface is about five times as much as that consumed at anode/electrolyte interface. Overwhelming part of the heat transfer between cell and outside occurs at cathode external surface. Most current flow goes into anode from a very small area where the current collectors locates. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Transformation Mechanism of the Dehydration of Diaspore

Lars Löffler
The dehydration of diaspore to corundum was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction at reaction temperatures (400° and 600°C) as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM studies were performed at the reaction interface of partially dehydrated natural diaspore crystals. The corundum produced consisted of thin dense regions which were separated by nanometer-sized pores forming lamellae with a periodicity of 3.7 nm. At the reaction front a transition phase (D,) could be detected in electron diffraction patterns. The phase D, is isotypic to diaspore, but with a larger spacing of the close-packed (100) oxygen planes (aD, from 0.475 to 0.480 nm). The expansion with respect to diaspore is explained by breaking of the hydrogen bonds of diaspore, considered to be the initial step of the transformation. The spacing of the lamellar pore system in corundum is explained by the misfit of the (100) planes of D, and the (0003) planes of corundum. We conclude that at well-fitting regions of the closed-packed planes at the D,/C interface, dense corundum is formed, while at misfitting regions, the formation of corundum is not favored and the pores are produced. Hence, the transformation of the solid phases takes place as a two-step process, i.e., D , D,, C. [source]

Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry for 13C isotopic analysis in life science research

Jean-Philippe Godin
Abstract Among the different disciplines covered by mass spectrometry, measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio crosses a large section of disciplines from a tool revealing the origin of compounds to more recent approaches such as metabolomics and proteomics. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and molecular mass spectrometry (MS) are the two most mature techniques for 13C isotopic analysis of compounds, respectively, for high and low-isotopic precision. For the sample introduction, the coupling of gas chromatography (GC) to either IRMS or MS is state of the art technique for targeted isotopic analysis of volatile analytes. However, liquid chromatography (LC) also needs to be considered as a tool for the sample introduction into IRMS or MS for 13C isotopic analyses of non-volatile analytes at natural abundance as well as for 13C-labeled compounds. This review presents the past and the current processes used to perform 13C isotopic analysis in combination with LC. It gives particular attention to the combination of LC with IRMS which started in the 1990's with the moving wire transport, then subsequently moved to the chemical reaction interface (CRI) and was made commercially available in 2004 with the wet chemical oxidation interface (LC-IRMS). The LC-IRMS method development is also discussed in this review, including the possible approaches for increasing selectivity and efficiency, for example, using a 100% aqueous mobile phase for the LC separation. In addition, applications for measuring 13C isotopic enrichments using atmospheric pressure LC-MS instruments with a quadrupole, a time-of-flight, and an ion trap analyzer are also discussed as well as a LC-ICPMS using a prototype instrument with two quadrupoles. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 26:751,774, 2007 [source]

Nucleation and growth of myrmekite during ductile shear deformation in metagranites

Abstract Myrmekite is extensively developed along strain gradients of continuous, lower amphibolite facies shear zones in metagranites of the Gran Paradiso unit (Western Alps). To evaluate the role of stress, strain energy and fluid phase in the formation of myrmekite, we studied a sample suite consisting of weakly deformed porphyric granites (WDGs), foliated granites (FGs) representative of intermediate strains, and mylonitic granites (MGs). In the protolith, most K-feldspar is microcline with different sets of perthite lamellae and fractures. In the WDGs, abundant quartz-oligoclase myrmekite developed inside K-feldspar only along preexisting perthite lamellae and fractures oriented at a high angle to the incremental shortening direction. In the WDGs, stress played a direct role in the nucleation of myrmekites along interfaces already characterized by high stored elastic strain because of lattice mismatch between K-feldspar and albite. In the FGs and MGs, K-feldspar was progressively dismembered along the growing network of microshear zones exploiting the fine-grained recrystallized myrmekite and perthite aggregates. This was accompanied by a more pervasive fluid influx into the reaction surfaces, and myrmekite occurs more or less pervasively along all the differently oriented internal perthites and fractures independently of the kinematic framework of the shear zone. In the MGs, myrmekite forms complete rims along the outer boundary of the small K-feldspar porphyroclasts, which are almost completely free of internal reaction interfaces. Therefore, we infer that the role of fluid in the nucleation of myrmekite became increasingly important as deformation progressed and outweighed that of stress. Mass balance calculations indicate that, in Al,Si-conservative conditions, myrmekite growth was associated with a volume loss of 8.5%. This resulted in microporosity within myrmekite that enhanced the diffusion of chemical components to the reaction sites and hence the further development of myrmekite. [source]