Reaction Front (reaction + front)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nanocarving of Titania as a Diffusion-Driven Morphological Instability,

Doh-Kwon Lee
Abstract Under strongly reducing conditions at high temperatures titania develops a specific surface morphology, comprising a regular array of fibers with a diameter in the sub-micrometer range. By a chemical diffusion experiment in a defined oxygen potential gradient it is shown that this surface structuring is caused by a diffusion-driven morphological instability of an advancing reaction front (surface). The kinetics of the process is analyzed in terms of linear transport equations. The conditions for the occurrence of the surface instability are discussed and the required materials properties are analyzed. The observed surface structuring is not restricted to titania, rather it has to occur in all nonstoichiometric compounds with predominant cation mobility. [source]

Gasification of char particles in packed beds: analysis and results

S. Dasappa
Abstract In this paper a packed bed of char particles is considered for experimental study and analysis. The packed char bed is modelled by extending the single-particle analysis (Dasappa et al., 1994a, Chem. Eng. Sci.49,2:223,232. Dasappa et al., 1994b, Twenty-fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1619,1628. Dasappa et al., 1998, Twenty-seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1335,1342.). All the reactions related to gasification are introduced into the reaction system as in Dasappa et al. (1998). The propagation of the reaction front into the packed char bed against the air stream is modelled. The results are compared with the experimental data on a model quartz reactor using charcoal. Experimental data of propagation of the reaction front through the packed bed from the present study and of Groeneveld's charcoal gasifier are used for comparison. Using the analysis of Dosanjh et al. 1987 (Combust. Flame68:131,142), it is shown that heat loss dominates the heat generation at the quench condition. It is also shown that increasing the oxygen fraction in air has resulted in flame front to propagate into the char bed. The critical air mass flux for peak propagation rate in a bed of char is found to be 0.1 kg m,2 s. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Towards ground truthing exploration in the central Arctic Ocean: a Cenozoic compaction history from the Lomonosov Ridge

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
M. O'Regan
ABSTRACT The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's Expedition 302, the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX), recovered the first Cenozoic sedimentary sequence from the central Arctic Ocean. ACEX provided ground truth for basin scale geophysical interpretations and for guiding future exploration targets in this largely unexplored ocean basin. Here, we present results from a series of consolidation tests used to characterize sediment compressibility and permeability and integrate these with high-resolution measurements of bulk density, porosity and shear strength to investigate the stress history and the nature of prominent lithostratigraphic and seismostratigraphic boundaries in the ACEX record. Despite moderate sedimentation rates (10,30 m Myr,1) and high permeability values (10,15,10,18 m2), consolidation and shear strength measurements both suggest an overall state of underconsolidation or overpressure. One-dimensional compaction modelling shows that to maintain such excess pore pressures, an in situ fluid source is required that exceeds the rate of fluid expulsion generated by mechanical compaction alone. Geochemical and sedimentological evidence is presented that identifies the Opal A,C/T transformation of biosiliceous rich sediments as a potential additional in situ fluid source. However, the combined rate of chemical and mechanical compaction remain too low to fully account for the observed pore pressure gradients, implying an additional diagenetic fluid source from within or below the recovered Cenozoic sediments from ACEX. Recognition of the Opal A,C/T reaction front in the ACEX record has broad reaching regional implications on slope stability and subsurface pressure evolution, and provides an important consideration for interpreting and correlating the spatially limited seismic data from the Arctic Ocean. [source]

New insights from reactive transport modelling: the formation of the sericitic vein envelopes during early hydrothermal alteration at Butte, Montana

S. Geiger
Abstract A reactive transport computer code has been employed to model hydrothermal alteration of a granitoid rock bordering a discrete vein channel. The model suggests that the grey sericitic and sericitic with remnant biotite alteration envelopes at the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana, can be formed by a reducing, low pH, and low salinity fluid under constant temperature and pressure conditions of approximately 400 C and less than 100 MPa during a time span of approximately 100 years or less. Hydrothermal alteration has little effect on the porosity of the host rock (Butte Quartz Monzonite), and the diffusivity of the aqueous species also changes little. A sequence of mineral reaction fronts characterizes the alteration envelopes. The biotite dissolution front occurs closest to the vein channel and marks the transition from the grey sericitic to sericitic with remnant biotite envelope. The plagioclase dissolution front occurs farthest into the matrix and marks the edge of relatively fresh Butte Quartz Monzonite. From the properties of the quasi-stationary state approximation (Lichtner 1988; Lichtner 1991), it follows that once the sequence of reaction fronts is fully established, their relative locations remain constant and the widths of the reaction zones increase with the square root of time. [source]