Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Reach

  • channel reach
  • downstream reach
  • functional reach
  • global reach
  • km reach
  • lower reach
  • m reach
  • river reach
  • stream reach
  • study reach
  • upper reach
  • upstream reach

  • Terms modified by Reach

  • reach scale

  • Selected Abstracts

    Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Systolic as Compared With Diastolic Heart Failure in Urban America

    Peter A. McCullough MD
    We sought to describe a large heart failure (HF) population with respect to systolic and diastolic abnormalities in terms of demographics, echocardiographic parameters, and survival. Using data abstracted from the Resource Utilization Among Congestive Heart Failure (REACH) study, a targeted subpopulation of 3471 patients had electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and clinical data taken from automated sources during the first year of diagnosis. Among the HF population, 1811 (52.2%) had diastolic HF. Prevalence of diastolic HF trended with age, from 46.4% in those less than 45 years to 58.7% in those 85 years or older (p=0.001 for trend). Patients with diastolic HF had a higher mean ejection fraction (55.7% vs. 28.0%), lower left ventricular end-systolic diameter (3.11 vs. 4.74 cm), and lower left atrium: aortic outlet ratio (1.28 vs. 1.38) (p=0.001 for each comparison). Annualized age, sex, and race-adjusted mortality were 11.2% and 13.0% for those with diastolic and systolic HF, respectively (p=0.001). In a large, racially mixed, urban HF population, those with diastolic HF predominate and enjoy better-adjusted survival than counterparts with systolic HF. [source]

    Implications of REACH for developing countries

    Frank Ackerman
    Abstract The new European Union (EU) chemicals regulation, the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals, or REACH, went into effect in 2007. In the extensive advance discussion of the expected impacts of REACH, questions were raised about the effects of this new chemical policy on developing countries. In particular, will it harm the economies of the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries that historically have been connected to Europe? We found, in brief, that there are only limited, isolated cases where REACH could be problematical for ACP exporters. Almost all ACP exports subject to REACH face insignificant obstacles from the new regulation. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Bioaccessibility studies of ferro-chromium alloy particles for a simulated inhalation scenario: A comparative study with the pure metals and stainless steel

    Klara Midander
    Abstract The European product safety legislation, REACH, requires that companies that manufacture, import, or use chemicals demonstrate safe use and high level of protection of their products placed on the market from a human health and environmental perspective. This process involves detailed assessment of potential hazards for various toxicity endpoints induced by the use of chemicals with a minimum use of animal testing. Such an assessment requires thorough understanding of relevant exposure scenarios including material characteristics and intrinsic properties and how, for instance, physical and chemical properties change from the manufacturing phase, throughout use, to final disposal. Temporary or permanent adverse health effects induced by particles depend either on their shape or physical characteristics, and/or on chemical interactions with the particle surface upon human exposure. Potential adverse effects caused by the exposure of metal particles through the gastrointestinal system, the pulmonary system, or the skin, and their subsequent potential for particle dissolution and metal release in contact with biological media, show significant gaps of knowledge. In vitro bioaccessibility testing at conditions of relevance for different exposure scenarios, combined with the generation of a detailed understanding of intrinsic material properties and surface characteristics, are in this context a useful approach to address aspects of relevance for accurate risk and hazard assessment of chemicals, including metals and alloys and to avoid the use of in vivo testing. Alloys are essential engineering materials in all kinds of applications in society, but their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment are very seldom assessed. Alloys are treated in REACH as mixtures of their constituent elements, an approach highly inappropriate because intrinsic properties of alloys generally are totally different compared with their pure metal components. A large research effort was therefore conducted to generate quantitative bioaccessibility data for particles of ferro-chromium alloys compared with particles of the pure metals and stainless steel exposed at in vitro conditions in synthetic biological media of relevance for particle inhalation and ingestion. All results are presented combining bioaccessibility data with aspects of particle characteristics, surface composition, and barrier properties of surface oxides. Iron and chromium were the main elements released from ferro-chromium alloys upon exposure in synthetic biological media. Both elements revealed time-dependent release processes. One week exposures resulted in very small released particle fractions being less than 0.3% of the particle mass at acidic conditions and less than 0.001% in near pH-neutral media. The extent of Fe released from ferro-chromium alloy particles was significantly lower compared with particles of pure Fe, whereas Cr was released to a very low and similar extent as from particles of pure Cr and stainless steel. Low release rates are a result of a surface oxide with passive properties predominantly composed of chromium(III)-rich oxides and silica and, to a lesser extent, of iron(II,III)oxides. Neither the relative bulk alloy composition nor the surface composition can be used to predict or assess the extent of metals released in different synthetic biological media. Ferro-chromium alloys cannot be assessed from the behavior of their pure metal constituents. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2010;6:441,455. © 2009 SETAC [source]

    Determinants of skin sensitisation potential

    David W. Roberts
    Abstract Skin sensitisation is an important toxicological endpoint. The possibility that chemicals used in the workplace and in consumer products might cause skin sensitisation is a major concern for individuals, for employers and for marketing. In European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) legislation, the sensitising potential should therefore be assessed for chemicals below the 10 ton threshold. Development of methods for prediction of skin sensitisation potential without animal testing has been an active research area for some time, but has received further impetus with the advent of REACH and the EU Cosmetics Directive (EU 2003). This paper addresses the issue of non-animal based prediction of sensitisation by a mechanistic approach. It is known that the sequence of molecular, biomolecular and cellular events between exposure to a skin sensitiser and development of the sensitised state involves several stages, in particular penetration through the stratum corneum, covalent binding to carrier protein, migration of Langerhans cells, presentation of the antigen to naïve T-cells. In this paper each of these stages is considered with respect to the extent to which it is dependent on the chemical properties of the sensitiser. The evidence suggests that, although penetration of the stratum corneum, stimulation of migration and maturation of Langerhans cells, and antigen recognition are important events in the induction of sensitisation, except in certain specific circumstances they can be taken for granted. They are not important factors in determining whether a compound will be a sensitiser or not, nor are they important factors in determining how potent one sensitiser will be relative to another. The ability to bind covalently to carrier protein is the major structure-dependent determinant of skin sensitisation potential. A chemistry-based prediction strategy is proposed involving reaction mechanistic domain assignment, reactivity and hydrophobicity determination, and application of quantitative mechanistic modelling (QMM) or read-across. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Green chemistry for the second generation biorefinery,sustainable chemical manufacturing based on biomass

    James H Clark
    The material needs of society are reaching a crisis point. The demands of a growing and developing world population will soon exceed the capacity of our present fossil resource based infrastructure. In particular, the chemical industry that underpins most industries needs to respond to these challenges. The chemical manufacturing and user industries face an unprecedented range and intensity of drivers for change, the greatest of which, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) has yet to bite. In order to address the key issues of switching to renewable resources, avoiding hazardous and polluting processes, and manufacturing and using safe and environmentally compatible products, we need to develop sustainable and green chemical product supply chains. For organic chemicals and materials these need to operate under agreed and strict criteria and need to start with widely available, totally renewable and low cost carbon,the only source is biomass and the conversion of biomass into useful products will be carried out in biorefineries. Where these operate at present, their product range is largely limited to simple materials (e.g. cellulose), chemicals (e.g. ethanol) and bioenergy/biofuels. Second generation biorefineries need to build on the need for sustainable chemical products through modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing, controlled pyrolysis, catalysis in water and microwave activation, in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?

    Anne Pouillot MS
    Summary The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH. [source]

    Ecotoxicity testing of chemicals with particular reference to pesticides

    Colin H Walker
    Abstract Ecotoxicity tests are performed on vertebrates and invertebrates for the environmental risk assessment of pesticides and other chemicals and for a variety of ecotoxicological studies in the laboratory and in the field. Existing practices and strategies in ecotoxicity testing are reviewed, including an account of current requirements of the European Commission for the testing of pesticides and the recent REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restrictions of Chemicals) proposals for industrial chemicals. Criticisms of existing practices have been made on both scientific and ethical grounds, and these are considered before dealing with the question of possible alternative methods and strategies both for environmental risk assessment and for ecotoxicological studies more generally. New approaches from an ecological point of view are compared with recent developments in laboratory-based methods such as toxicity tests, biomarker assays and bioassays. With regard to the development of new strategies for risk assessment, it is suggested that full consideration should be given to the findings of earlier long-term studies of pollution, which identified mechanisms of action by which environmental chemicals can cause natural populations to decline. Neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption are two cases in point, and biomarker assays for them could have an important role in testing new chemicals suspected of having these properties. In a concluding discussion, possible ways of improving testing protocols are discussed, having regard for current issues in the field of environmental risk assessment as exemplified by the debate over the REACH proposals. The importance of flexibility and the roles of ecologists and ecotoxicologists are stressed in the context of environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2007
    Article first published online: 23 JUL 200
    Lamotrigine for partial, valproate for generalised A large UK trial has shown that lamotrigine is the most effective choice in the treatment of partial epilepsy (Lancet 2007;369: 1000-15). The SANAD trial, commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research's Health Technology Assessment programme, randomised 1721 patients (for whom carbamazepine monotherapy would have been the treatment of choice) to treatment with carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) or topiramate (Topamax). Lamotrigine was associated with a longer time to treatment failure, though time to 12-month remission favoured carbamazepine. Over four years' follow-up, lamotrigine was numerically but not significantly superior. The authors concluded lamotrigine is clinically superior to carbamazepine for partial epilepsy A second arm of the trial, yet to be published, evaluated the treatment of generalised epilepsy and found valproate to be clinically most effective, though topiramate was cost effective for some patients. Chronic pain common in nursing homes Most residents in nursing homes say they have long- term pain but only one in seven say a health professional has ever discussed its treatment with them, according to a report by the Patients' Association ( Pain in Older People ,A Hidden Problem was a qualitative study of 77 older residents in care homes in England. Most were frail and suffered long-term illness. The study found that 85 per cent of residents said they were often troubled by aches or pains and these lasted over a year in 74 per cent. Most described their pain as moderate (33 per cent) or severe (38 per cent) but 8 per cent said it was excruciating. Many reported limitations on mobility and social activities despite a high level of stoicism. All but one were taking medication to relive pain; one-third experienced adverse effects but 78 per cent believed drugs offered the most effective treatment. One-quarter said a doctor or nurse had discussed how to stop their pain worsening, and 15 per cent said they had discussed how to treat their pain. Visits from GPs appeared to be uncommon. Atherothrombotic events despite treatment Between one in five and one in seven of high-risk patients experience atherothrombotic events despite evidence-based treatment, the REACH study has shown (J Am Med Assoc 2007;297:1197-1206). REACH (REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health) is an international observational study involving 68 236 patients with atherothrombotic disease or at least three risk factors. Most were taking conventional evidence-based medication. After one year, the incidence of the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalisation for atherothrombotic events was approximately 15 per cent for patients with coronary artery disease or cardiovascular disease, and 21 per cent in patients with peripheral artery disease and established coronary disease. Event rates increased with the number of vascular beds affected, rising to 26 per cent in patients with three symptomatic arterial disease locations. Extended CD prescribing by nurses and pharmacists The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is consulting on expanding the prescribing of controlled drugs (CDs) by nonmedical prescribers. Currently, nurse independent prescribers can prescribe 12 CDs, including diamorphine and morphine, but pharmacist independent prescribers may not prescribe any CDs. The proposal is to allow both professions to prescribe any CDs within their competence, with the exception of cocaine, diamorphine or dipipanone for the management of addiction. The closing date for consultation is 15 June. Consultation is also underway on expanding the range of CDs nurses and pharmacists can prescribe under a patient group direction (PGD), and their use for pain relief. The closing date for consultation is 20 April. Intrinsa: transdermal testosterone for women A transdermal formulation of testosterone has been introduced for the treatment of low sexual desire associated with distress in women who have experienced an early menopause following hysterectomy involving a bilateral oophorectomy and are receiving concomitant oestrogen therapy. Manufacturer Procter & Gamble says that Intrinsa, a twice-weekly patch, delivers testosterone 300µg every 24 hours, achieving premenopausal serum testosterone levels. Clinical trials showed that Intrinsa reduced distress in 65-68 per cent and increased satisfying sexual activity in 51-74 per cent of women. A month's treatment (eight patches) costs £28.00. Fish oil for secondary ,not primary ,prevention of CHD Supplementing statin therapy with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces the risk of major coronary events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) ,but not in patients with no history of CHD Lancet 2007;369:1090-8). The five-year study in 18 645 patients with total cholesterol levels of 6.5mmol per litre or greater found that the incidence of sudden cardiac death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction in CHD patients treated with EPA plus a statin was 8.7 per cent compared with 10.7 per cent with a statin alone (relative risk reduction 19 per cent). A similar relative risk reduction in patients with no CHD was not statistically significant. There was no difference in mortality between the groups but EPA did reduce unstable angina and nonfatal coronary events. Department pilots information prescriptions The Department of Health has announced 20 sites to pilot information prescriptions prior to a nationwide roll-out in 2008. The prescriptions will guide people with long-term conditions such as diabetes and cancer to sources of support and information about their condition. The Department hopes the project will increase patients' understanding of their discussions with health professionals, empower them to locate the information they need, and provide long-term support. NPSA guidelines for safer prescribing The National Patient Safety Agency ( has published five guidelines to improve medication safety in the NHS. Targeting ,high-risk issues', the guidance covers anticoagulant prescribing, liquid medicines for oral or enteral administration, injectable medicines, epidural injections and infusions, and paediatric intravenous infusions. The implementation of each guide is supported by additional tools and resources. Better adherence not matched to outcomes A systematic review has found that interventions can increase adherence to prescribed medication but there is no evidence that clinical outcomes also improve (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:540-9). The review of 37 trials identified 20 reporting increased adherence. The most effective interventions were behavioural changes to reduce dose demands and those involving monitoring and feedback. Improvements in clinical outcomes were variable and did not correspond to changes in adherence. Antidepressant plus mood stabiliser no better US investigators have found that combining a mood stabiliser with an antidepressant is no more effective than a mood stabiliser alone in preventing mood changes (N Engl J Med 2007; published online 28 March, doi.10.1056/NEJMoa064135). The study found durable recovery occurred in 23.5 per cent of patients treated with a mood stabiliser and adjunctive antidepressant therapy for six months compared with 27.3 per cent of those taking a mood stabiliser plus placebo. [source]


    Tim Bayne
    The phenomenal character of perceptual experience involves the representation of colour, shape and motion. Does it also involve the representation of high-level categories? Is the recognition of a tomato as a tomato contained within perceptual phenomenality? Proponents of a conservative view of the reach of phenomenal content say ,No', whereas those who take a liberal view of perceptual phenomenality say ,Yes'. I clarify the debate between conservatives and liberals, and argue in favour of the liberal view that high-level content can directly inform the phenomenal character of perception. [source]

    REACH: Jetzt kommt es auf die Ausgestaltung an!

    Utz Tillmann Dr.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reach for the Stars: A Strategic Bidding Game

    ECONOMICA, Issue 272 2001
    Lynne M. Pepall
    We examine two,sided competition in a duopoly market for differentiated products. Downstream, the two firms compete in prices. Upstream, they compete in bidding to hire talent input and there is one unique superstar. The outcome depends on the downstream effect of only one firm employing the superstar. When this intensifies downstream competition, both firms are worse off than they would be if no superstar talent were available. When the hiring of the superstar softens downstream competition, both firms benefit, but a ,winner's curse' emerges in which the firm winning the superstar talent earns less profit than its rival. [source]

    Can High-Risk Older Drivers Be Identified Through Performance-Based Measures in a Department of Motor Vehicles Setting?

    Karlene K. Ball PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between performance-based risk factors and subsequent at-fault motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in a cohort of older drivers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA) field sites in Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 4,173 older drivers invited to participate in the study, 2,114 individuals aged 55 to 96 agreed to do so. These analyses focus on 1,910 individuals recruited through MVA field sites. MEASUREMENTS: Gross Impairment Screening Battery, which included Rapid Pace Walk, Head/Neck Rotation, Foot Tap, Arm Reach, Cued Recall, Symbol Scan, Visual Closure subtest of the Motor Free Visual Perception Test (MVPT), Delayed Recall, and Trail Making Test with an Abbreviated Part A and standard Part B; Useful Field of View (UFOV®) subtest 2; a Mobility Questionnaire; and MVC occurrence. RESULTS: In drivers aged 55 and older with intact vision (20/70 far visual acuity and 140° visual field), age, sex, history of falls, and poorer cognitive performance, as measured using Trails B, MVPT, and UFOV subtest 2, were predictive of future at-fault MVC involvement. After adjusting for annual mileage, participants aged 78 and older were 2.11 as more likely to be involved in an at-fault MVC, those who made four or more errors on the MVPT were 2.10 times as likely to crash, those who took 147 seconds or longer to complete Trails B were 2.01 times as likely to crash, and those who took 353 ms or longer on subtest 2 of the UFOV were 2.02 times as likely to incur an at-fault MVC. Older adults, men, and individuals with a history of falls were more likely to be involved in subsequent at-fault MVCs. CONCLUSION: Performance-based cognitive measures are predictive of future at-fault MVCs in older adults. Cognitive performance, in particular, is a salient predictor of subsequent crash involvement in older adults. High-risk older drivers can be identified through brief, performance-based measures administered in a MVA setting. [source]

    The Cleavage of "Unreactive Bonds" Comes into Reach for Practicing Synthetic Chemists

    Shinji Murai
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Broad Reach or Biased Source?

    Decomposing the Hostile Media Effect
    This experiment examined theoretical questions surrounding the hostile media effect,the tendency of partisans on a controversial issue to see news coverage of that issue as biased in favor of the other side. Using opposing groups of partisans in the debate over genetically modified organisms, we tested the influence of source (journalist vs. college student) and reach (mass media vs. classroom composition) on perceptions of bias. The data revealed effects for both factors. Earlier research supported several processing mechanisms underlying the hostile media effect, but using stringent tests, we found evidence only for a categorization bias. [source]

    Understanding of Complexity Expands the Reach of Industrial Ecology

    John R. Ehrenfeld
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reflections on the Reach of Law (and Society) Post 9/11: An American Superhero?

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 2 2003
    Lynn Mather
    First page of article [source]

    Reach out to ENhancE Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): design, methods and recruitment challenges of a home-based exercise and diet intervention to improve physical function among long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer,

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Denise Clutter Snyder
    Abstract Objective: Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase healthcare costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted. Methods: We describe the design and methods of a randomized controlled trial, RENEW (Reach out to ENhancE Wellness), that tests whether a home-based multi-behavior intervention focused on exercise, and including a low saturated fat, plant-based diet, would improve physical functioning among 641 older, long-term (,5 years post-diagnosis) survivors of breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Challenges to recruitment are examined. Results: Twenty thousand and fifteen cases were approached, and screened using a two-step screening process to assure eligibility. This population of long-term, elderly cancer survivors had lower rates of response (,11%) and higher rates of ineligibility (,70%) than our previous intervention studies conducted on adults with newly diagnosed cancer. Significantly higher response rates were noted among survivors who were White, younger, and more proximal to diagnosis and breast cancer survivors (p -values<0.001). Conclusion: Older cancer survivors represent a vulnerable population for whom lifestyle interventions may hold promise. RENEW may provide guidance in allocating limited resources in order to maximize recruitment efforts aimed at this needy, but hard-to-reach population. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A pilot study on disseminating physical activity promotion among cancer survivors: a brief report

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Bernardine M. Pinto
    Abstract There is growing evidence that physical activity (PA) can improve quality of life (QOL) and reduce fatigue in cancer survivors. Research staff or healthcare providers have delivered PA interventions to cancer populations. As a first step to dissemination of a previously tested PA intervention, seven American Cancer Society Reach to Recovery volunteers (mean age,=,57.4 years) were trained to deliver the telephone-based intervention to 25 breast cancer survivors (mean age,=,52.9 years, 56% Stage 2 cancer, mean of 3.3 years since diagnosis). A single group design was used. The theory-based intervention consisted of 12 weekly calls to encourage participants to adopt moderate-intensity PA. Participants' PA, QOL, mood, and fatigue were assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks. Data on intervention feasibility and preliminary effects were collected. The intervention was feasible (mean of 10.7 out of 12 calls were delivered) and acceptable to the volunteers. At 12 weeks, there were significant increases in participants' PA and improvements in fatigue, QOL, and vigor. Effects were maintained at 24 weeks. This pilot study demonstrated that it was feasible for trained volunteers to deliver a telephone-based PA intervention to breast cancer survivors, and there were positive effects on survivors' PA behavior and psychological outcomes. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    God and the Reach of Reason: C. S. Lewis, David Hume, and Bertrand Russell , By Erik J. Wielenberg

    John J. Giannini
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tasmania's Tamar Valley Pulp Mill: A Comparison of Planning Processes Using a Good Environmental Governance Framework

    Fred Gale
    In November 2004, the Tasmanian government requested the state's planning body, the Resource Planning and Development Commission (RPDC), to undertake an evaluation of a proposal to establish a pulp mill at Long Reach near Bell Bay on Tasmania's Tamar Estuary. In early 2007, Gunns Limited, the project's proponent, pulled out of the RPDC process and the government established an alternative, ,fast-track' process under the Pulp Mill Assessment Act (PMAA). This article evaluates the RPDC and the PMAA assessment processes using a ,good environmental governance' framework composed of eight criteria , transparency, accountability, openness, balance, deliberation, efficiency, science and risk. The comparison reveals that although the RPDC process fell short of the ideal, it was markedly superior to the PMAA process that replaced it. The case highlights how political economic power can be used to the detriment of public planning and the communities and environment that rely on it. [source]

    Similar and functionally typical kinematic reaching parameters in 7- and 15-month-old in utero cocaine-exposed and unexposed infants

    E. Z. Tronick
    Abstract This study examined the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on the reaches of 19 exposed and 15 unexposed infants at 7 and 15 months using kinematic measures. Infants sat at a table and reached for a rattle, a toy doll, and a chair. Videotaped reaches were digitized using the Peak Performance system. Kinematic movement variables were extracted (e.g., reach duration, peak velocity, movement units, path length) and ratios computed (e.g., path length divided by number of movement units). Regardless of exposure status, reaches of older infants were faster, more direct, had fewer movement units, and covered more distance with the first movement unit. Exposed infants covered more distance per movement unit than unexposed infants, but there were no other significant differences. Reaches of exposed and unexposed infants were essentially similar. Importantly, reach parameters for these high-risk infants were similar to reach parameters for infants at lower social and biological risk. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 44: 168,175, 2004. [source]

    The Sound of Silence: Valuing Acoustics in Heritage Conservation

    Abstract This paper explores the reasons behind the omission of historic acoustic values from heritage assessments in Australia. Best practice dictates that all cultural heritage values associated with significant places should be assessed in order to make informed conservation and management decisions. However, the multi-sensory nature of aesthetics has been reframed in guidance documentation in ways that run counter to the primary frame. Conventions that have developed around the way places are assessed also work against comprehensive identification of values. As a result, the consideration of aesthetics in cultural heritage is limited to contemporary visual qualities. Furthermore, because the assessment of historic value takes a diachronic rather than synchronic approach, we have little knowledge of the places past communities valued for the sounds they experienced there. Research into landscape preference and acoustic ecology highlights the importance of identifying the inherent acoustic dimension of places and the role sound plays in developing a sense of place. Two landscape areas in Western Australia's south-west with historic acoustic values, the Boranup Sand Patch and the Lower Reaches of the Blackwood River, illustrate how historic soundscapes can provide insightful contrasts and resonances with contemporary values, and how vulnerable such places are when the sound of place is overlooked in land management policies. [source]

    Trends of Superoxide Dismutase and Soluble Protein of Aquatic Plants in Lakes of Different Trophic Levels in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Ai-Ping Wu
    Abstract A limnological study was carried out to determine the responses of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and soluble protein (SP) contents of 11 common aquatic plants to eutrophication stress. Field investigation in 12 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was carried out from March to September 2004. Our results indicated that non-submersed (emergent and floating-leafed) plants and submersed plants showed different responses to eutrophication stress. Both SOD activities of the non-submersed and submersed plants were negatively correlated with their SP contents (P < 0.000 1). SP contents of non-submersed plants were significantly correlated with all nitrogen variables in the water (P < 0.05), whereas SP contents of submersed plants were only significantly correlated with carbon variables as well as ammonium and Secchi depth (SD) in water (P < 0.05). Only SOD activities of submersed plants were decreased with decline of SD in water (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the decline of SOD activities of submersed plants were mainly caused by light limitation, this showed a coincidence with the decline of macrophytes in eutrophic lakes, which might imply that the antioxidant system of the submersed plants were impaired under eutrophication stress. [source]

    Mixed stream channel morphologies: implications for fish community diversity

    Christina M. Cianfrani
    Abstract 1.Stream classification systems are widely used in stream management and restoration. Whereas the principal morphological types of these classification systems are increasingly recognized for their ecological connections, the roles of intermediate and mixed morphologies are still poorly understood, yet may be biologically significant. 2.Twenty-five stream reaches in north-western Vermont were classified by channel morphology to determine whether fish community diversity differed among pool-riffle, mixed (i.e. pool-riffle/cascade, pool-riffle/other) and forced pool-riffle stream morphological groups. Stream reach surveys included cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal profiles, bed substrate characterization, and fish surveys. 3.Three fish community diversity measures were calculated: (1) species richness (S); (2) Shannon,Weaver Index (H,); and (3) Simpson's Index (1/D). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) followed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to explore potential differences in fish diversity among stream morphological groups. Fish diversity was significantly different for all three community diversity measures (P,0.05), with pool-riffle/cascade morphology consistently exhibiting the greatest fish diversity and forced pool-riffle the lowest. 4.These results suggest that fish community diversity is significantly associated with distinct channel morphologies. Generally, pool-riffle/cascade and pool-riffle/other stream morphological groups supported habitats that fostered greater species diversity than more homogeneous and uniform pool-riffle reaches. The observed patterns of diversity are likely to be the result of habitat patches created by variations in flow and other physical characteristics in reaches of mixed morphologies. 5.These results support fish sampling schemes that incorporate morphological heterogeneity, such as proportional-distance designation. Sampling strategies that focus on homogeneous reaches may underestimate diversity, and misrepresent stream condition when fish community data are used in indices of biological integrity (IBIs). Reaches of mixed stream morphologies should be recognized as areas of biological importance in stream and catchment management and in conservation efforts. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Basement Characteristics and Crustal Evolution of the Copper-Gold Metallogenic Belt in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River: Some Isotope Constraints

    ZHOU Taofa
    Abstract Studies of the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicate that the basement of the copper-gold metallogenic belt of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has "two-layer structure" and partly has "multi-layered structure", and is inhomogeneous and shows the distinct feature of E-W provincialism. The calculated model lead ages (t1) are mostly greater than 2600 Ma, and the model neodymium ages (TDM) vary from 953 to 2276 Ma and concentrate in two time intervals: 1800,2000 Ma and 1200,1600 Ma. It is concluded that the basement of the MBYR is composed of the Late Archaeozoic to Middle Proterozoic metamorphic series and that the crust was initiated in the Archaean and continued to grow in the Early and Middle Proterozoic, and the proportion of new crust formed by mantle differentiation during the Late Proterozoic is low. [source]

    Tunneling enhanced by web page content block partition for focused crawling

    Tao Peng
    Abstract The complexity of web information environments and multiple-topic web pages are negative factors significantly affecting the performance of focused crawling. A highly relevant region in a web page may be obscured because of low overall relevance of that page. Segmenting the web pages into smaller units will significantly improve the performance. Conquering and traversing irrelevant page to reach a relevant one (tunneling) can improve the effectiveness of focused crawling by expanding its reach. This paper presents a heuristic-based method to enhance focused crawling performance. The method uses a Document Object Model (DOM)-based page partition algorithm to segment a web page into content blocks with a hierarchical structure and investigates how to take advantage of block-level evidence to enhance focused crawling by tunneling. Page segmentation can transform an uninteresting multi-topic web page into several single topic context blocks and some of which may be interesting. Accordingly, focused crawler can pursue the interesting content blocks to retrieve the relevant pages. Experimental results indicate that this approach outperforms Breadth-First, Best-First and Link-context algorithm both in harvest rate, target recall and target length. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Leadership: a New Frontier in Conservation Science

    estrategia; influencia; liderazgo; manejo; política Abstract:,Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research. Resumen:,El liderazgo es una herramienta crítica para la expansión de la influencia de la ciencia de la conservación, pero los avances recientes en los conceptos y práctica del liderazgo son subutilizados por los científicos de la conservación. Más aun, en la literatura no hay una fundamentación conceptual ni definición de liderazgo en la ciencia de la conservación. Aquí nos basamos en nuestras experiencias de liderazgo, nuestra lectura de literatura sobre liderazgo y discusiones con líderes selectos de la ciencia de conservación para definir liderazgo para la ciencia de la conservación, resumir un conjunto exploratorio de principios de liderazgo aplicables a la ciencia de la conservación y recomendar acciones para expandir la capacidad de liderazgo entre los científicos y los practicantes de la conservación. Definimos dos tipos de liderazgo de la ciencia de la conservación: configuración de la ciencia de la conservación mediante investigación original, y avance hacia la integración del liderazgo en la ciencia de la conservación en la política, el manejo y la sociedad en general. Nos centramos en el segundo tipo de liderazgo porque consideramos que presenta la mejor oportunidad para mejorar la efectividad de la conservación. Identificamos ocho principios de liderazgo derivados principalmente de la literatura sobre "liderazgo adaptativo": reconocer la dimensión social del problema; alternar entre acción y reflexión frecuentemente; obtener y mantener atención; combinar fortalezas de múltiples líderes; extender el alcance mediante redes de relaciones; organizar el esfuerzo estratégicamente; evitar conflictos productivos y desarrollar la biodiversidad. Los científicos y los practicantes de la conservación deberían esforzarse para desarrollarse como líderes y la Sociedad para la Biología de la Conservación, las organizaciones de conservación y la academia deberían respaldar este esfuerzo mediante el desarrollo profesional, la tutoría, la enseñanza y la investigación. [source]

    Modified Single-Sling Myocutaneous Island Pedicle Flap: Series of 61 Reconstructions

    BACKGROUND Bilevel undermining above and below the transverse nasalis muscle in the construction of a myocutaneous island pedicle flap produces a bilateral or unilateral muscular sling with exceptional vascular supply for reconstruction of defects on the distal nose. We present further modification of the single-sling myocutaneous island pedicle flap that expands its application to a wide variety of nasal defects and further defines its usefulness in nasal reconstruction. METHODS A series of 61 consecutive myocutaneous island pedicle flap reconstructions performed after Mohs surgery between March 2005 and July 2006 are presented. Flap modifications are presented, and advantages and limitations are discussed. RESULTS Flap modifications introduce additional reach and rotational mobility to the flap that permit extension of the flap to defects on the nasal tip and distal ala. CONCLUSION Modifications of the bilevel approach to the single-sling nasalis myocutaneous island pedicle flap further define its practicality in nasal reconstruction and expand its application to a variety of nasal defects. [source]

    World Bank Influence and Institutional Reform in Argentina

    Maria F. Tuozzo
    ABSTRACT During the 1990s, reforms concerned with ,good governance' became popular with multilateral and bilateral lenders. This trend was led by the World Bank, which claimed that in order to achieve economic development, institutions mattered. This article looks at governance reforms in Argentina, specifically in the judicial sector, and contends that World Bank involvement affected the nature, reach and depth of these initiatives. The influence of the Bank can be traced through three dimensions that have characterized its approach to institutional reform: donor-driven designs for project reform; reliance on technical approaches; and restricted forms of decision making in project initiatives. Such an approach to institutional change conditioned domestic reform in Argentina and contributed to piecemeal and inadequate initiatives. The author also argues that the Bank's approach in Argentina can be traced to wider strategies that derive from embedded institutional practices and ideological foundations within the institution that throw into question the Bank's capacities to promote such reforms. [source]

    ,Who is the Developed Woman?': Women as a Category of Development Discourse, Kumaon, India

    Rebecca M. Klenk
    This article analyses gendered discourses of development in rural North India, and addresses the usefulness of recent scholarship on development as ,discourse' for understanding connections between development and subjectivity. This scholarship is an excellent point of departure for exploring the contradictions inherent in the institutionalization of economic development and the global reach of its discourses, but it has focused primarily upon development as discourse at official sites of deployment, while paying less attention to how specific discourses and processes of development are appropriated by those constituted as beneficiaries of development. The under-theorization of this aspect has meant that the range of processes through which development projects may encourage new subject positions are poorly understood. By investigating what some women in rural Kumaon have made of their own development, this article contributes to emerging scholarship on development and subjectivity with an ethnographic analysis of the polysemic enthusiasm for development expressed by some of its ,beneficiaries'. [source]