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## Reynolds Number (reynold + number)
Kinds of Reynolds Number
Terms modified by Reynolds Number
## Selected Abstracts## Determining friction coefficients for interrill flows: the significance of flow filaments and backwater effects EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 5 2003Dr David L. DunkerleyAbstract Friction coefficients in overland flows are customarily estimated from mean flow properties (depth, velocity, slope) that subsume spatial variations in flow arising from two major causes: microtopography and obstacles. This paper uses laboratory experiments in shallow flumes to examine the extent of non-uniformity in flow conditions associated with each cause. Randomly placed emergent obstacles in a flume with a shallow axial channel generally yielded higher hydraulic roughness than the same pattern of obstacles on a planar flume, as well as greater variation in roughness as the obstacle locations were altered. In both flumes, hydraulic roughness fell with increasing Reynolds number for 10% obstacle cover, showed a flattening trend at 20% cover, and exhibited a convex-downward trend at 30% obstacle cover. These results indicate the progressive onset of flow controls at narrow gaps in the obstacle field. In such flows, the use of mean flow properties conceals the existence of two main subdivisions of flow: flow filaments and backwater flows. In the experiments, flow filaments involved velocities more than twice the overall mean, whereas backwater flows were much slower than the mean. The existence of fast-moving flow filaments may be significant in understanding soil transport in surface runoff, and backwater depths may modify splash detachment. Similarly, friction coefficients that fail to reflect these important non-uniform flow components may not be optimal for hydraulic calculations or in erosion models. It is concluded that new approaches to observing and processing flow data may be required, in order to avoid the loss of important flow detail that is entailed in assuming uniform flow conditions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Organic litter: dominance over stones as a source of interrill flow roughness on low-gradient desert slopes at Fowlers Gap, arid western NSW, Australia EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 1 2003David DunkerleyAbstract Thirty-six runoff plot experiments provide data on flow depths, speeds, and Darcy,Weisbach friction coefficients (f) on bare soil surfaces, and surfaces to which were added sufficient extra plant litter or surface stones to provide projected cover of 5, 10 and 20 per cent. Precision flow depth data were derived with a computer-controlled gantry and needle gauge for two different discharges for each plot treatment. Taking a fixed flow intensity (Reynolds number, Re = 150) for purposes of comparison shows means of f = 17·7 for bare soil surfaces, f = 11·4 for added stone treatments, and f = 23·8 for added litter treatments. Many individual values of f for stone treatments are lower than for the bare soil surface, but all litter treatments show increases in fcompared to bare soil. The lowering of f in stone treatments relates to the submerged volume that the stones occupied, and the associated concentration of flow onto a smaller part of the plot surface. This leads to locally higher flow intensities and lower frictional drag along threads of flow that the obstacles create. Litter causes higher frictional drag because the particles are smaller, and, for the same cover fraction, are 100 times more numerous and provide 20 times the edge or perimeter length. Along these edges, which in total exceed 2·5 m g,1 (equivalent to 500 m m,2 for a loading of 2 t ha,1), surface tension draws up water from between the litter particles. This reduces flow depth there, and as a consequence of the lower flow intensity, frictional drag rises. Furthermore, no clear passage remains for the establishment of flow threads. These findings apply to shallow interrill flows in which litter is largely immobile. The key new result from these experiments is that under these conditions, a 20 per cent cover of organic litter can generate interrill frictional retardation that exceeds by nearly 41 per cent that of a bare soil surface, and twice that contributed by the same cover fraction of surface stones. Even greater dominance by litter can be anticipated at the many dryland sites where litter covers exceed those tested here. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Estimating the mean speed of laminar overland flow using dye injection-uncertainty on rough surfaces EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 4 2001David DunkerleyAbstract A common method for estimating mean flow speeds in studies of surface runoff is to time the travel of a dye cloud across a measured flow path. Motion of the dye front reflects the surface flow speed, and a correction must be employed to derive a value for the profile mean speed, which is always lower. Whilst laminar flow conditions are widespread in the interrill zone, few data are available with which to establish the relationship linking surface and profile mean speeds, and there are virtually none for the flow range 100,<,Re,<,500 (Re,=,Reynolds number) which is studied here. In laboratory experiments on a glued sand board, mean flow speeds were estimated from both dye speeds and the volumetric flow relation v,=,Q/wd with d measured using a computer-controlled needle gauge at 64 points. In order to simulate conditions applicable to many dryland soils, the board was also roughened with plant litter and with ceramic tiles (to simulate surface stone cover). Results demonstrate that in the range 100,<,Re,<,500, there is no consistent relation between surface flow speeds and the profile mean. The mean relationship is v,=,0·56 vsurf, which departs significantly from the theoretical smooth-surface relation v,=,0·67 vsurf, and exhibits a considerable scatter of values that show a dependence on flow depth. Given the inapplicability of any fixed conversion factor, and the dependence on flow depth, it is suggested that the use of dye timing as a method for estimating v be abandoned in favour of precision depth measurement and the use of the relation v,=,Q/wd, at least within the laminar flow range tested. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Thermal modeling and simulation of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and charcoal gasification system ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 3 2009C. Ozgur ColpanAbstract In this study we propose a novel integrated charcoal gasification and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, which is intended to produce electricity and heat simultaneously. This system mainly consists of an updraft gasifier using air and steam as the gasification agents, a planar and direct internal reforming SOFC and a low temperature gas cleanup system. The performance of this system is assessed through numerical modeling using a pre-developed and validated heat transfer model of the SOFC and thermodynamic models for the rest of the components. These models are used to simulate the performance of the cell and system for a case study. In addition, a parametric study is conducted to assess the effect of Reynolds number at the fuel channel inlet of the SOFC on the cell performance, e.g., fuel utilization and power density, and the system performance, e.g., electrical efficiency, exergetic efficiency, and power to heat ratio. The number of stacks is also calculated for different Reynolds numbers to discuss the economical feasibility of the integrated system. The results show that the electrical efficiency, exergetic efficiency and power to heat ratio of this system are 33.31%, 45.72%, and 1.004, respectively, for the base case. The parametric study points out that taking the Reynolds number low yields higher electrical and exergetic efficiencies for the system, but it also increases the cost of the system. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2009 [source] ## Influence of temperature on hydrodynamic costs of morphological defences in zooplankton: experiments on models of Eubosmina (Cladocera) FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2000R. LagergrenAbstract 1.,If swimming speed is correlated to fitness (e.g. by affecting food intake or the chance to evade predators) or considerable energy is expended in swimming, zooplankton wearing protruding structures (as predator defence) that significantly increase drag resistance must pay a cost for the better protection against predators that these traits imply. 2.,In an experiment with plastic models, the drag and energy consumption of swimming in two species of Eubosmina were examined. Eubosmina longispina has a typical Bosmina morphology with a low carapace and short antennule, whereas E. coregoni gibbera has a very high carapax and long antennule. 3.,At 5 °C, E. c. gibbera had 32,45% higher drag than E. longispina. At 20 °C, the difference is 20,45%. 4.,A mathematical model of swimming predicts that these differences in drag should result in 18,20 (at 5 °C) or 14,16 (at 20 °C) percentage lower speed for E. c. gibbera than for E. longispina if they use the same amount of energy in swimming. 5.,The relative difference in drag or swimming speed between the two species was highest at low Reynolds number (i.e. low speed or low temperature). These results show that hydrodynamic costs of extreme morphology may increase with decreasing temperature. 6.,The increased cost of morphological antipredator defence at low temperatures may be enlightening with regard to the role of temperature in the induction of cyclomorphic traits in zooplankton. This may be one explanation for why extreme forms of E. c. gibbera and some Daphnia are only found in the summer when water temperature is high. [source] ## Nonlinear Flow in Karst Formations GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2009David A. ChinThe variation of effective hydraulic conductivity as a function of specific discharge in several 0.2-m and 0.3-m cubes of Key Largo Limestone was investigated. The experimental results closely match the Forchheimer equation. Defining the pore-size length scale in terms of Forchheimer parameters, it is demonstrated that significant deviations from Darcian flow will occur when the Reynolds number exceeds 0.11. A particular threshold model previously proposed for use in karstic formations does not show strong agreement with the data near the onset of nonlinear flow. [source] ## Reconstruction of the Water Table from Self-Potential Data: A Bayesian Approach GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2009A. JardaniGround water flow associated with pumping and injection tests generates self-potential signals that can be measured at the ground surface and used to estimate the pattern of ground water flow at depth. We propose an inversion of the self-potential signals that accounts for the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer and a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the streaming current coupling coefficient. We recast the inversion of the self-potential data into a Bayesian framework. Synthetic tests are performed showing the advantage in using self-potential signals in addition to in situ measurements of the potentiometric levels to reconstruct the shape of the water table. This methodology is applied to a new data set from a series of coordinated hydraulic tomography, self-potential, and electrical resistivity tomography experiments performed at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site, Idaho. In particular, we examine one of the dipole hydraulic tests and its reciprocal to show the sensitivity of the self-potential signals to variations of the potentiometric levels under steady-state conditions. However, because of the high pumping rate, the response was also influenced by the Reynolds number, especially near the pumping well for a given test. Ground water flow in the inertial laminar flow regime is responsible for nonlinearity that is not yet accounted for in self-potential tomography. Numerical modeling addresses the sensitivity of the self-potential response to this problem. [source] ## Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow over two rotating circular cylinders at low Reynolds number HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 4 2010Nikolay Pavlovich MoshkinAbstract This paper presents a numerical investigation of the characteristics of two-dimensional heat transfer in a steady laminar flow around two rotating circular cylinders in a side-by-side arrangement. The simulation is validated by comparing our computational results for the large gap-spacing between cylinder surfaces with the available numerical and experimental data for a single cylinder. Numerical simulations were carried out for the Reynolds number range 10,Re ,40, for the Prandtl number range 0.7,Pr ,50, and for a variety of absolute rotational speeds (|,|,2.5) at different gap spacings. The study revealed that for the range of parameters considered the rate of heat transfer decreases with the increasing speed of rotation. An increase of the Prandtl number resulted in an increase in the average Nusselt number. The streamlines and isotherms are plotted for a numbers of cases to show the details of the velocity and thermal fields. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20293 [source] ## Study on heat transfer characteristics of porous metallic heat sink with conductive pipe under bypass effect HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 3 2009Sheng-Chung TzengAbstract The work investigated the forced convection heat transfer of the heat sink situated in a rectangular channel by considering the bypass effect. The fluid medium was air. The relevant parameters were the Reynolds number (Re), the relative top by-pass gap (C/H), and the relative side by-pass gap (S/L). The size of the heat sink was 60 mm (L)×60 mm(W)×24 mm(H). Two heat sinks were employed as test specimens: (A) the 0.9-porosity aluminum foam heat sink and (B) the 0.9-porosity aluminum foam heat sink with a 20 mm diameter copper cylinder. The copper cylinder was used as a conductive pipe of heat sink. The average Nusselt number was examined under various forced convection conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that increasing by-pass space decreased the Nusselt number. Besides, the average Nusselt number of mode B heat sink was higher than that of mode A heat sink by 30% for the case without by-pass flow. The heat transfer enhancement by the copper cylinder would decline as the by-pass space grew. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20247 [source] ## Heat transfer on tube bundles embedded horizontally in a liquid-fluidized bed: 2nd report: On tube bundles of fundamental layouts including in-line layouts HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 3 2009Kenichi HashizumeAbstract Heat transfer coefficients were measured on tube bundles of fundamental layouts including in-line layouts embedded horizontally in a liquid-fluidized bed. Tested tube layouts were single tubes, transverse single tube rows, longitudinal single tube rows, and in-line arranged tube bundles. A total of 7 kinds of particles were used. Comparisons of the experimental data showed a good agreement with the heat transfer correlation developed for staggered layouts, when the average liquid velocity through each tube bundle was used as the reference velocity for the particle Reynolds number. Distribution of the local heat transfer coefficient was also investigated around tubes. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20245 [source] ## Melting of a vertical ice cylinder inside a rotating cylindrical cavity filled with binary aqueous solution HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 6 2008Yoshimi KomatsuAbstract The melting of a vertical ice cylinder into a homogeneous calcium chloride aqueous solution inside a rotating cylindrical cavity with several rotating speeds is considered experimentally. The melting mass and temperature are measured on four initial conditions of the solution and four rotating speeds of the cavity. The temperature of the liquid layer becomes uniform by the mixing effect resulting from cavity rotation and it enhances the melting rate of the ice cylinder. As the cavity-rotating speed increases, the melting rate increases. The dimensionless melting mass is related to the Fourier number and the rotating Reynolds number in each initial condition, therefore an experimental equation that is able to quantitatively calculate the dimensionless melting mass is presented. It is seen that the melting Nusselt numbers increase again in the middle of the melting process. The ice cylinder continues to melt in spite of the small temperature difference between the ice cylinder and the solution. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 37(6): 359,373, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20211 [source] ## Effect of the plate thermal resistance on the heat transfer performance of a corrugated thin plate heat exchanger HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 3 2006Hiroshi IwaiAbstract Two-dimensional conjugate conduction/convection numerical simulations were carried out for flow and thermal fields in a unit model of a counter-flow-type corrugated thin plate heat exchanger core. The effects of the thermal resistance of the solid plate, namely the variation of the plate thickness and the difference of the plate material, on the heat exchanger performance were examined in the Reynolds number range of 100 ## An unsteady flow structure on a heated rotating disk under mixed convection HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 6 2005Noriyuki FuruichiAbstract A flow field under mixed convection on a heated rotating disk has been measured using an ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP). The measured velocity field is a spatio-temporal one as a function of radial coordinates and time. The objective of this paper is to clarify the vortex structure caused by the instability between buoyancy and centrifugal force. The vortex appears under typical conditions of Reynolds numbers and Grashof numbers and it moves toward the outside of the disk. This behavior can be classified into two patterns. The size of the vortex structure decreases with an increasing Reynolds number and increases with the Grashof number. The traveling velocity of the vortex increases with the Grashof number. Moreover, it decreases with an increasing Reynolds number in spite of increasing centrifugal force. According to these results, the region dominated by natural, forced, and mixed convection is classified in the relationship between Reynolds and Grashof numbers. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 34(6): 407,418, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20074 [source] ## Experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow with surfactant additives using PIV and PDA HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 2 2005Wang DezhongAbstract Drag reduction of turbulent water flow with surfactant (CTAC) additives was experimentally investigated. By using PIV and PDA measurements, the spatial velocity distribution of surfactant solution flow was clarified in a two-dimensional water channel. With an increasing Reynolds number, it was found that drag reduction of surfactant solution flow is enhanced within the region of drag reduction. However, in the region of post drag reduction, the drag-reducing coefficient approaches one without surfactant when Reynolds number is increased. In the near-wall region, velocity profiles of the drag-reducing fluid are similar to, but not the same as, the laminar profiles of the Newtonian fluid. When compared to the case of water flow without surfactant, the velocity contour lines of the drag-reducing fluid run approximately parallel to the wall. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 34(2): 99,107, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20047 [source] ## Effect of tabs on impinging heat transfer HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 7 2001Munehiko HiwadaAbstract The present work experimentally investigates the effect of vortex generators, in the form of small tabs projecting normally into the flow at the nozzle exit, on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of an axisymmetric impinging air jet in the subcritical Reynolds number range. With this comes the expectation of a large eddy structure variation and the possibility of active control. Local heat transfer and static pressure were measured on a target plate for a round air jet issuing from a circular nozzle with rectangular tabs whose numbers and lengths changed at a constant nozzle-to-plate gap (L/d = 8) and jet Reynolds number (Re = 34,000). The main results are the following: When two tabs were set at the exit of the circular nozzle, Cpw and Nu profiles flatten in the direction of the tab setting. In the case of three tabs, however, among both Cpw and Nu profiles a concentric profile is found, as well as in the case without any tabs. © 2001 Scripta Technica, Heat Trans Asian Res, 30(7): 561,570, 2001 [source] ## Anchor ice formation in streams: a field study HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 16 2009Morten SticklerAbstract In northern steep streams anchor ice is commonly observed during winter, and plays a key role when considering in-stream conditions. The understanding, however, of the nature of anchor ice formation is less understood, in particular, under natural conditions. In the following, observations of anchor ice formation in three stream environments with different physical characteristics are presented. Results demonstrate that anchor ice not only form in riffle areas, but also in shallow and slow running stream sections. No linkage between spatial distribution of anchor ice and calculated dimensionless numbers (Froude and Reynolds number) was found. Furthermore, analyses on growth and density showed that anchor ice may be distinguished by two main types. (1) Type I: Lower density forming on top of substrata. (2) Type II: Higher density forming between the substrata filling interstitial spaces. Distribution of anchor ice Types I and II suggests a relation between intensity of turbulence expressed by the Reynolds number, growth pattern and density. As anchor ice has both physical and biological implications on in-stream environments, findings from the present study may be of particular interest to cold region freshwater stream management. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Variability of shallow overland flow velocity and soil aggregate transport observed with digital videography HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 20 2008A. SidorchukAbstract Field experiments at Tiramoana station 30 km north of Christchurch, New Zealand using an erosion plot 16·5 m long, 0·6 m wide, and with a slope of 14,14·5° on rendzina soil aimed to measure the variability of flow velocity and of soil aggregates transport rate in shallow overland flow. Discharge/cross-section area ratio was used to estimate mean velocity, and high-speed digital video camera and image analysis provided information about flow and sediment transport variability. Six flow runs with 0·5,3·0 L s,1 discharges were supercritical with Froude numbers close to or more than 1. Mean flow velocity followed Poiseuille law, float numbers were more than 1·5 and hydraulic resistance was an inverse proportional function of the Reynolds number, which is typical for laminar flows. Hence actual velocity varied through time significantly and the power spectrum was of ,red-noise', which is typical for turbulent flow. Sediment transport rates had even higher variability, and soil aggregates transport was a compound Poisson process. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Numerical solutions for flow in porous media INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 7 2003J.G. WangAbstract A numerical approach is proposed to model the flow in porous media using homogenization theory. The proposed concept involves the analyses of micro-true flow at pore-level and macro-seepage flow at macro-level. Macro-seepage and microscopic characteristic flow equations are first derived from the Navier,Stokes equation at low Reynolds number through a two-scale homogenization method. This homogenization method adopts an asymptotic expansion of velocity and pressure through the micro-structures of porous media. A slightly compressible condition is introduced to express the characteristic flow through only characteristic velocity. This characteristic flow is then numerically solved using a penalty FEM scheme. Reduced integration technique is introduced for the volumetric term to avoid mesh locking. Finally, the numerical model is examined using two sets of permeability test data on clay and one set of permeability test data on sand. The numerical predictions agree well with the experimental data if constraint water film is considered for clay and two-dimensional cross-connection effect is included for sand. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## The flow-field downstream of a collapsible tube during oscillation onset INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2009N. K. TruongAbstract The flow-field immediately downstream of a collapsible tube during oscillation onset starting from the collapsed state was measured using two-dimensional high-speed particle image velocimetry. Both tube and fluid were chosen to produce oscillation at the lowest possible Reynolds number, of just over 300. The flow was examined in the plane formed by the tube axis extended into the downstream pipe and the major axis of the tube collapse cross-section. The resulting time-series of spatial fields of 2D velocity vectors was analysed by frequency content and by proper orthogonal decomposition. Areas of the flow where oscillation initially occurs were identified. Flow disturbances centred at various frequencies were identified, some associated with the growing oscillation arising from the instability of the fluid,structure interaction between the main flow and the tube and others associated with the instability of the confined twin jets emanating from the collapsed-tube throat. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Numerical study of lid-driven flow in orthogonal and skewed porous cavity INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2008D. Jaya KrishnaAbstract Effects of Reynolds number, Darcy number, porosity, aspect ratio and skewness are studied in detail for lid-driven cavity flows filled with fluid-saturated porous medium. A generalized non-Darcy approach has been considered to account for linear and non-linear drag forces. The governing equations are solved by using finite volume method. A quadrilateral cell in a semi-staggered arrangement has been employed and is transformed into a standard square element using local body-fitting co-ordinates by co-ordinate transformation. Details of the flow physics reveal that by the reduction of Darcy number, the primary vortex becomes weaker and tends to move towards the lid. As a measure of volume flow rate maximum stream function value is considered. It is found that, with the reduction in Darcy number and with the increase in Reynolds number and skewness the maximum stream function value reduces. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Laminar and turbulent flow calculations through a model human upper airway using unstructured meshes INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 12 2007P. NithiarasuAbstract In this paper, numerical investigation of airflow through a human upper airway is presented using an unstructured-based characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme. The CBS scheme used in the present study employs a fully explicit matrix-free solution procedure along with artificial compressibility. A one equation Spalrat,Allmaras (SA) turbulence model is employed to study low and moderate Reynolds number flows. A detailed discussion of the qualitative and quantitative results is presented. The results show a strong influence of the Reynolds number on the flow pattern and quantities of interest, pressure drop and wall shear stress. It is also apparent that SA model can be employed on unstructured meshes to predict the steady flow with good accuracy. Thus, the novelties of the present paper are: use of the unstructured mesh-based solution algorithm and the successful application of the SA model to a typical human upper airway. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Hybrid finite element/volume method for shallow water equations INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 13 2010Shahrouz AliabadiAbstract A hybrid numerical scheme based on finite element and finite volume methods is developed to solve shallow water equations. In the recent past, we introduced a series of hybrid methods to solve incompressible low and high Reynolds number flows for single and two-fluid flow problems. The present work extends the application of hybrid method to shallow water equations. In our hybrid shallow water flow solver, we write the governing equations in non-conservation form and solve the non-linear wave equation using finite element method with linear interpolation functions in space. On the other hand, the momentum equation is solved with highly accurate cell-center finite volume method. Our hybrid numerical scheme is truly a segregated method with primitive variables stored and solved at both node and element centers. To enhance the stability of the hybrid method around discontinuities, we introduce a new shock capturing which will act only around sharp interfaces without sacrificing the accuracy elsewhere. Matrix-free GMRES iterative solvers are used to solve both the wave and momentum equations in finite element and finite volume schemes. Several test problems are presented to demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the numerical method. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## An updated interactive boundary layer method for high Reynolds number flows INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2006F. ÁlvarezAbstract The quasi-simultaneous interactive boundary layer (IBL) method is improved with the iterative correction of an inviscid operator. The updated interactive boundary layer method (UIBL) presented in this work, uses the Hess,Smith panel method (HSPM) as an inviscid operator to update the outer flow calculation and the inviscid velocity in the interaction law (IL). The discretization of the Hilbert integral (HI) from the original method is modified to reduce the error introduced by the calculation of the HI in a restricted domain. The method is tested on a flat plate with a small indentation for two-dimensional, steady, incompressible and laminar flow. The UIBL method is capable to predict the flow separation and reattachment with good accuracy. The accuracy of the results is competitive with the numerical solution of the Navier,Stokes equations (NSE). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Steady and unsteady incompressible flow in a double driven cavity using the artificial compressibility (AC)-based characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2005P. NithiarasuAbstract In this paper, the explicit characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme has been employed to solve both steady and unsteady flows inside a non-rectangular double driven cavity. This problem is recently suggested as a benchmark problem for incompressible flows. Both unstructured and structured meshes have been employed in the present study to make sure that the predicted results are as close to reality as possible. The results obtained show the existence of steady state at lower Reynolds numbers (,1000) and transient states at higher Reynolds numbers. The flow approaches a turbulent state as the Reynolds number is increased to 10 000. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Simulating sedimentation of liquid drops INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 14 2004M. Adekojo WaheedAbstract This work was carried out to investigate the effect of fluid properties on the flow pattern and on the sedimentation velocity of an axisymmetric steady flow of a Newtonian fluid past a liquid drop in an unbounded region. The governing equations of motion were solved by the finite element method. The results show that the flow pattern of a liquid drop depends strongly both on the Reynolds number and on the ratio of the viscosity between the drop and the surrounding flowing fluids. The viscosity ratio in the range 0.02<,*<50 has appreciable effect on the drag coefficient. Finally, a correlation for the sedimentation velocity is presented. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann computation of channel flow past a square cylinder with an upstream control bi-partition INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 6 2010M. A. MoussaouiAbstract The present paper deals with the application of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation (MRT-LBE) for the simulation of a channel flow with a bi-partition located upstream of a square cylinder in order to control the flow. Numerical investigations have been carried out for different heights and positions of the bi-partition at Reynolds number of 250. Key computational issues involved are the computation of fluid forces acting on the square cylinder, the vortex shedding frequency and the impact of such bluff body on the flow pattern. A particular attention is paid to drag and lift coefficients on the square cylinder. The predicted results from MRT-LBE simulations show that in most cases, the interaction was beneficial insofar as the drag of the square block was lower with the bi-partition than without it. Fluctuating side forces due to vortex shedding from the main body were also reduced for most bi-partition positions. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Laminar separation bubble on an Eppler 61 airfoil INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 6 2010Samir B. SavaliyaAbstract Laminar separation bubble that occurs on the suction side of the Eppler 61 airfoil at Re=46000 is studied. The incompressible flow equations are solved using a stabilized finite element method. No turbulence model is used. The variation of the bubble length and its location, with the angle of attack (,), is studied in detail. An abrupt increase in the lift coefficient is observed at ,,4.5°. It is found to be related to a sudden decrease in the separation bubble length at the trailing edge of the airfoil. Significant differences are observed in the results from the 2D and 3D computations. Stall is observed in 3D simulations, but is found to be absent in 2D. The laminar bubble, which fails to reattach in 3D for ,>14°, continues to reattach for , as large as 20° in the 2D computations. Reynolds stress calculations in both 2D and 3D indicate the extent to which the outer flow is affected by the presence of bubble. It is found that the Reynolds stress components and are of comparable order of magnitude indicating that spanwise fluctuations are significant. The effect of the time window used to compute the time-averaged aerodynamic coefficients is studied. The time-averaged and root mean square (rms) value of the aerodynamic coefficients are calculated for both 2D and 3D computations and compared with the previously published experimental results. The 3D computations show good agreement with the earlier data. The variation of the rms value of the aerodynamic coefficients with angle of attack shows certain peaks. The cause of their appearance is investigated. The effect of Reynolds number is studied. The increase in Re at ,=10° is found to reduce the bubble length and cause it to move closer to the leading edge. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## A hybrid Padé ADI scheme of higher-order for convection,diffusion problems INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 5 2010Samir KaraaArticle first published online: 8 SEP 200Abstract A high-order Padé alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is proposed for solving unsteady convection,diffusion problems. The scheme employs standard high-order Padé approximations for spatial first and second derivatives in the convection-diffusion equation. Linear multistep (LM) methods combined with the approximate factorization introduced by Beam and Warming (J. Comput. Phys. 1976; 22: 87,110) are applied for the time integration. The approximate factorization imposes a second-order temporal accuracy limitation on the ADI scheme independent of the accuracy of the LM method chosen for the time integration. To achieve a higher-order temporal accuracy, we introduce a correction term that reduces the splitting error. The resulting scheme is carried out by repeatedly solving a series of pentadiagonal linear systems producing a computationally cost effective solver. The effects of the approximate factorization and the correction term on the stability of the scheme are examined. A modified wave number analysis is performed to examine the dispersive and dissipative properties of the scheme. In contrast to the HOC-based schemes in which the phase and amplitude characteristics of a solution are altered by the variation of cell Reynolds number, the present scheme retains the characteristics of the modified wave numbers for spatial derivatives regardless of the magnitude of cell Reynolds number. The superiority of the proposed scheme compared with other high-order ADI schemes for solving unsteady convection-diffusion problems is discussed. A comparison of different time discretizations based on LM methods is given. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Prediction of entrance length and mass suction rate for a cylindrical sucking funnel INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 6 2010Dipti Prasad MishraAbstract Conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy have been solved numerically for a cylindrical funnel with louvers (lateral openings on the side wall of the cylindrical funnel through which air can come into it) to compute the suction rate of air into the funnel. The nozzle placed centrally at the bottom of the cylinder ejects high-velocity hot gaseous products so that atmospheric air gets sucked into the funnel. The objective of the work is to compute the ratio of the rate of mass suction to that of the mass ejected by the nozzle for different operating conditions and geometrical size of the funnel. From the computation it has been found that there exists optimum funnel diameter and optimum funnel height for which the mass suction is the highest. The protruding length of the nozzle into the funnel has almost no effect on the mass suction rate after a certain funnel height. The louvers opening area has a very high impact on the mass suction rate. The entrance length for such a sucking funnel is strikingly much lower compared with a simple cylindrical pipe having uniform flow at the inlet at same Reynolds number. A new correlation has been developed to propose the entrance length for a sucking pipe, the rate of mass suction into it and the exhaust plume temperature over a wide range of operating parameters that are normally encountered in a general funnel operations of naval or merchant ship. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Numerical implementation of Aristov,Pukhnachev's formulation for axisymmetric viscous incompressible flows INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS, Issue 10 2010N. P. MoshkinAbstract In the present work a finite-difference technique is developed for the implementation of a new method proposed by Aristov and Pukhnachev (Doklady Phys. 2004; 49(2):112,115) for modeling of the axisymmetric viscous incompressible fluid flows. A new function is introduced that is related to the pressure and a system similar to the vorticity/stream function formulation is derived for the cross-flow. This system is coupled to an equation for the azimuthal velocity component. The scheme and the algorithm treat the equations for the cross-flow as an inextricably coupled system, which allows one to satisfy two conditions for the stream function with no condition on the auxiliary function. The issue of singularity of the matrix is tackled by adding a small parameter in the boundary conditions. The scheme is thoroughly validated on grids with different resolutions. The new numerical tool is applied to the Taylor flow between concentric rotating cylinders when the upper and lower lids are allowed to rotate independently from the inner cylinder, while the outer cylinder is held at rest. The phenomenology of this flow is adequately represented by the numerical model, including the hysteresis that takes place near certain specific values of the Reynolds number. Thus, the present results can be construed to demonstrate the viability of the new model. The success can be attributed to the adequate physical nature of the auxiliary function. The proposed technique can be used in the future for in-depth investigations of the bifurcation phenomena in rotating flows. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] |