Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Ratio

  • abundance ratio
  • acceptor ratio
  • acid ratio
  • activity ratio
  • adc ratio
  • adjusted hazard ratio
  • adjusted odds ratio
  • adp ratio
  • adsorption ratio
  • adult sex ratio
  • age-adjusted odds ratio
  • agent ratio
  • air ratio
  • alanine aminotransferase ratio
  • albumin ratio
  • allelic odds ratio
  • alt ratio
  • altered ratio
  • aminotransferase ratio
  • amplitude ratio
  • anisotropy ratio
  • approximate ratio
  • area ratio
  • aspect ratio
  • atomic ratio
  • atp ratio
  • auc ratio
  • average ratio
  • b ratio
  • background ratio
  • bax/bcl-2 ratio
  • benefit ratio
  • best feed conversion ratio
  • bijvoet ratio
  • binding ratio
  • biomass ratio
  • birth sex ratio
  • blend ratio
  • blending ratio
  • block ratio
  • blood ratio
  • body weight ratio
  • book-to-market ratio
  • branching ratio
  • brood sex ratio
  • c ratio
  • ca ratio
  • calcium ratio
  • capillary-to-fibre ratio
  • carbohydrate ratio
  • carbon isotope ratio
  • carbon ratio
  • catalyst ratio
  • cd4+/cd8+ ratio
  • cd4/cd8 ratio
  • cd8 ratio
  • cell ratio
  • characteristic ratio
  • charge ratio
  • chl b ratio
  • cholesterol ratio
  • clay ratio
  • cn ratio
  • co ratio
  • cod ratio
  • collagen ratio
  • colony sex ratio
  • common odds ratio
  • composition ratio
  • compression ratio
  • concentration ratio
  • constriction ratio
  • contraction ratio
  • contrast ratio
  • contrast-to-noise ratio
  • control ratio
  • conversion ratio
  • cost ratio
  • cost-benefit ratio
  • cost-effectiveness ratio
  • coverage ratio
  • cox hazard ratio
  • cr ratio
  • creatinine ratio
  • crude odds ratio
  • current ratio
  • cv ratio
  • cytoplasmic ratio
  • d ratio
  • damping ratio
  • debt ratio
  • decreased ratio
  • delivery ratio
  • density ratio
  • depth ratio
  • diagnostic odds ratio
  • diameter ratio
  • diastereomeric ratio
  • different aspect ratio
  • different molar ratio
  • different ratio
  • different weight ratio
  • digit ratio
  • disc ratio
  • distribution ratio
  • dna ratio
  • dose ratio
  • draw ratio
  • drawing ratio
  • dry weight ratio
  • duty ratio
  • eddington ratio
  • efficiency ratio
  • element ratio
  • elemental ratio
  • elongation ratio
  • emission-line ratio
  • enantiomer ratio
  • enantiomeric ratio
  • energy ratio
  • enhancement ratio
  • equal sex ratio
  • equivalence ratio
  • equivalent ratio
  • estimated odds ratio
  • et ratio
  • exchange ratio
  • expansion ratio
  • expected ratio
  • expression ratio
  • extinction ratio
  • extraction ratio
  • f ratio
  • fa ratio
  • fat ratio
  • fatty acid ratio
  • fe ratio
  • feed conversion ratio
  • feed efficiency ratio
  • feed ratio
  • female ratio
  • female sex ratio
  • female-biased sex ratio
  • fev1/fvc ratio
  • fiber ratio
  • fibre ratio
  • fide et ratio
  • financial ratio
  • fixed ratio
  • flow rate ratio
  • flow ratio
  • fluorescence ratio
  • flux ratio
  • fm ratio
  • food conversion ratio
  • fraction ratio
  • frequency ratio
  • fsh ratio
  • gain ratio
  • gas ratio
  • gender ratio
  • geometric mean ratio
  • globulin ratio
  • glucose ratio
  • glutathione ratio
  • graft-to-recipient weight ratio
  • grafting ratio
  • greater ratio
  • growth ratio
  • h ratio
  • hardness ratio
  • hazard ratio
  • hdl cholesterol ratio
  • hdl ratio
  • hedge ratio
  • hedging ratio
  • height ratio
  • hf ratio
  • high aspect ratio
  • high c ratio
  • high contrast ratio
  • high ratio
  • highest ratio
  • hip ratio
  • hit ratio
  • hydrolysis ratio
  • i ratio
  • ii ratio
  • iii ratio
  • incidence rate ratio
  • incidence ratio
  • income ratio
  • increased odds ratio
  • increased ratio
  • increasing ratio
  • incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
  • induction ratio
  • initial ratio
  • initiator molar ratio
  • initiator ratio
  • insulin ratio
  • intensity ratio
  • international normalize ratio
  • intraperitoneal fat ratio
  • ion ratio
  • isomer ratio
  • isotope ratio
  • isotopic ratio
  • km ratio
  • l ratio
  • large aspect ratio
  • large surface-to-volume ratio
  • leaf area ratio
  • length ratio
  • leverage ratio
  • light ratio
  • likelihood ratio
  • lipid ratio
  • liquid ratio
  • liquid-to-solid ratio
  • load ratio
  • loading ratio
  • loan-to-value ratio
  • log-likelihood ratio
  • low aspect ratio
  • low ratio
  • lower feed conversion ratio
  • lower ratio
  • lymph node ratio
  • lymphocyte ratio
  • m/z ratio
  • magnetization transfer ratio
  • male ratio
  • male-to-female ratio
  • market-to-book ratio
  • mass ratio
  • mass-to-charge ratio
  • mass-to-light ratio
  • maternal mortality ratio
  • matrix ratio
  • mean ratio
  • medication possession ratio
  • metabolic ratio
  • metabolite ratio
  • metal ratio
  • mg ratio
  • mixing ratio
  • mixture ratio
  • mol ratio
  • molar ratio
  • mole ratio
  • molecular ratio
  • monomer feed ratio
  • monomer ratio
  • monomer reactivity ratio
  • morbidity ratio
  • mortality hazard ratio
  • mortality odds ratio
  • mortality rate ratio
  • mortality ratio
  • mrna ratio
  • n ratio
  • na+/k+ ratio
  • naa/cho ratio
  • negative likelihood ratio
  • negative poisson ratio
  • ni ratio
  • nitrogen isotope ratio
  • nitrogen ratio
  • no ratio
  • node ratio
  • noise ratio
  • noise-to-harmonic ratio
  • normalize ratio
  • nutrient ratio
  • o ratio
  • odd ratio
  • odds ratio
  • off current ratio
  • offspring sex ratio
  • oh ratio
  • operational sex ratio
  • optimal hedge ratio
  • optimal ratio
  • output ratio
  • ovule ratio
  • oxygen isotope ratio
  • oxygen ratio
  • p molar ratio
  • p ratio
  • p&g ii ratio
  • paired-pulse ratio
  • partition ratio
  • patient ratio
  • peak height ratio
  • peak intensity ratio
  • peak ratio
  • percent ratio
  • performance ratio
  • phase ratio
  • phosphorus ratio
  • plasma concentration ratio
  • plasma ratio
  • poisson ratio
  • pooled odds ratio
  • population ratio
  • population sex ratio
  • positive likelihood ratio
  • positive ratio
  • positivity ratio
  • possession ratio
  • power ratio
  • pressure ratio
  • prevalence odds ratio
  • prevalence rate ratio
  • prevalence ratio
  • price ratio
  • primary sex ratio
  • product ratio
  • production ratio
  • progeny sex ratio
  • progressive ratio
  • protein efficiency ratio
  • protein ratio
  • r ratio
  • radius ratio
  • rankl ratio
  • rankl/opg ratio
  • rate ratio
  • reactivity ratio
  • recovery ratio
  • redox ratio
  • reduction ratio
  • reflux ratio
  • rehydration ratio
  • relative ratio
  • relative risk ratio
  • resistance ratio
  • respiratory exchange ratio
  • response ratio
  • risk ratio
  • risk-benefit ratio
  • root ratio
  • root-to-shoot ratio
  • s/n ratio
  • sacrifice ratio
  • same ratio
  • secondary sex ratio
  • segregation ratio
  • sex ratio
  • sharpe ratio
  • shoot ratio
  • signal intensity ratio
  • significant odds ratio
  • size ratio
  • skewed sex ratio
  • slip ratio
  • sodium adsorption ratio
  • solid ratio
  • solubility ratio
  • solvent ratio
  • split ratio
  • sr ratio
  • stable carbon isotope ratio
  • stable isotope ratio
  • standardized incidence ratio
  • standardized morbidity ratio
  • standardized mortality ratio
  • starch ratio
  • stellar mass ratio
  • stiffness ratio
  • stoichiometric ratio
  • stress ratio
  • stretch ratio
  • student ratio
  • substrate ratio
  • summary odds ratio
  • surface-to-volume ratio
  • swell ratio
  • swelling ratio
  • testosterone ratio
  • th1/th2 ratio
  • therapeutic ratio
  • thickness ratio
  • time ratio
  • time-varying hedge ratio
  • tof ratio
  • train-of-four ratio
  • trans ratio
  • transfer ratio
  • treatment ratio
  • uptake ratio
  • urinary ratio
  • utility ratio
  • v ratio
  • value ratio
  • variance ratio
  • various aspect ratio
  • various molar ratio
  • various ratio
  • varying ratio
  • velocity ratio
  • viscosity ratio
  • void ratio
  • volume ratio
  • vp ratio
  • waist-hip ratio
  • waist-to-hip ratio
  • water ratio
  • wave ratio
  • wealth ratio
  • weight ratio
  • width ratio
  • wood ratio

  • Terms modified by Ratio

  • ratio analysis
  • ratio approach
  • ratio bandwidth
  • ratio bias
  • ratio change
  • ratio close
  • ratio curve
  • ratio decrease
  • ratio decreased
  • ratio determination
  • ratio distortion
  • ratio distribution
  • ratio estimate
  • ratio estimation
  • ratio estimator
  • ratio fell
  • ratio greater
  • ratio increase
  • ratio index
  • ratio mass spectrometer
  • ratio mass spectrometry
  • ratio measurement
  • ratio method
  • ratio model
  • ratio only
  • ratio r
  • ratio similar
  • ratio stability
  • ratio statistic
  • ratio test
  • ratio used
  • ratio value
  • ratio variation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Use of a blocking antibody method for the flow cytometric measurement of ZAP-70 in B-CLL

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 4 2006
    Mark Shenkin
    Abstract Background: In this study we developed a method to measure the amount of ZAP-70 [zeta accessory protein] in B-CLL cells without relying on the ZAP-70 expression of patient B or T cells to normalize fluorescence intensity. Methods: B-CLL cells were fixed with formaldehyde before surface staining with gating antibodies CD19PC5 and CD5FITC. The cells were permeabilized with saponin, and the ZAP-70 antigen was blocked in one tube with unlabeled antibody to ZAP-70 [clone 1E7.2]. Zap-70-PE was then added to this tube. ZAP-70-PE was added to a second tube without unlabeled antibody to ZAP-70. The mean fluorescence intensity of the ZAP-70 in the tube without unlabeled antibody divided by the mean fluorescence intensity of the ZAP-70 in the tube with unlabeled antibody equals the RATIO of total fluorescence to non-specific ZAP-70 fluorescence in the B-CLL cells. In a second method of analysis, a region is created in the histogram showing ZAP-70 fluorescence intensity in the tube with unlabeled antibody to ZAP-70. This region is set to 0.9% positive cells. This same region is then used to measure the % positive [%POS] ZAP-70 cells in the tube without unlabeled antibody to ZAP-70. The brighter the ZAP-70 fluorescence above the non-specific background, the higher the %POS. Results: Due to the varying amount of non-specific staining between patient B-CLL cells and other cells, the blocking antibody method yielded a more quantitative and reproducible measure of ZAP-70 in B-CLL cells than other methods, which use the ratio of B-CLL fluorescence to normal B or T-cell fluorescence. Using this improved method, ZAP-70 was determined to be negative if the RATIO was less than 2:1 and positive if the RATIO was greater than 2:1. ZAP-70 was determined to be negative if the %POS was less than 5% and positive if the %POS was greater than 5%, a cut-off value lower than previous values published, due to exclusion of non-specific staining. Both cut-offs were based upon patient specimen distribution profiling. Conclusions: Use of a blocking antibody resulted in a robust, reproducible clinical B-CLL assay that is not influenced by the need to measure the amount of ZAP-70 in other cells. ZAP-70 results segre gate patients into indolent and aggressive groups suggested by published clinical outcomes. 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2008
    Max Reuter
    Theory predicts that males adapt to sperm competition by increasing their investment in testis mass to transfer larger ejaculates. Experimental and comparative data support this prediction. Nevertheless, the relative importance of sperm competition in testis size evolution remains elusive, because experiments vary only sperm competition whereas comparative approaches confound it with other variables, in particular male mating rate. We addressed the relative importance of sperm competition and male mating rate by taking an experimental evolution approach. We subjected populations of Drosophila melanogaster to sex ratios of 1:1, 4:1, and 10:1 (female:male). Female bias decreased sperm competition but increased male mating rate and sperm depletion. After 28 generations of evolution, males from the 10:1 treatment had larger testes than males from other treatments. Thus, testis size evolved in response to mating rate and sperm depletion, not sperm competition. Furthermore, our experiment demonstrated that drift associated with sex ratio distortion limits adaptation; testis size only evolved in populations in which the effect of sex ratio bias on the effective population size had been compensated by increasing the numerical size. We discuss these results with respect to reproductive evolution, genetic drift in natural and experimental populations, and consequences of natural sex ratio distortion. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2007
    Jon R. Linklater
    We assessed the extent to which traits related to ejaculate investment have evolved in lines of Drosophila melanogaster that had an evolutionary history of maintenance at biased sex ratios. Measures of ejaculate investment were made in males that had been maintained at male-biased (MB) and female-biased (FB) adult sex ratios, in which levels of sperm competition were high and low, respectively. Theory predicts that when the risk of sperm competition is high and mating opportunities are rare (as they are for males in the MB populations), males should increase investment in their few matings. We therefore predicted that males from the MB lines would (1) exhibit increased investment in their first mating opportunities and (2) deplete their ejaculates at a faster rate when mating multiply, in comparison to FB males. To investigate these predictions we measured the single mating productivity of males from three replicates each of MB and FB lines mated to five wild-type virgin females in succession. In contrast to the first prediction, there was no evidence for differences in productivity between MB and FB line males in their first matings. The second prediction was upheld: mates of MB and FB males suffered increasingly reduced productivity with successive matings, but the decline was significantly more pronounced for MB than for FB males. There was a significant reduction in the size of the accessory glands and testes of males from the MB and FB regimes after five successive matings. However, the accessory glands, but not testes, of MB males became depleted at a significantly faster rate than those of FB males. The results show that male reproductive traits evolved in response to the level of sperm competition and suggest that the ability to maintain fertility over successive matings is associated with the rate of ejaculate, and particularly accessory gland, depletion. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2002
    Therese Ann Markow
    Abstract., As commonly observed among closely related species within a variety of taxa, Drosophila species differ considerably in whether they exhibit sexual dimorphism in coloration or morphology. Those Drosophila species in which male external sexual characters are minimal or absent tend, instead, to have exaggerated ejaculate traits such as sperm gigantism or seminal nutrient donations. Underlying explanations for the interspecific differences in the presence of external morphological sexual dimorphism versus exaggerated ejaculate traits are addressed here by examining the opportunity for sexual selection on males to occur before versus after mating in 21 species of Drosophila. Female remating frequency, an important component of the operational sex ratio, differs widely among Drosophila species and appears to dictate whether the arena of sexual selection is prior to, as opposed to after, copulation. Infrequent female mating results in fewer mating opportunities for males and thus stronger competition for receptive females that favors the evolution of male characters that maximize mating success. On the other hand, rapid female remating results in overlapping ejaculates in the female reproductive tract, such that ejaculate traits which enhance fertilization success are favored. The strong association between female remating frequency in a given species and the presence of sexually selected external versus internal male characters indicates that the relationship be examined in other taxa as well. [source]


    ABSTRACT Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB) and elastic modulus (EM) of edible films prepared from 5, 7 and 9% whey protein isolate (WPI) plasticized with different levels of glycerol (Gly) (WPI : Gly = 3.6:1, 3:1 and 2:1) were investigated in order to completely characterize WPI-Gly films. On increasing protein concentration an increase in TS and EAB was observed. On the other hand, increasing Gly led to a decrease in TS and EM, while EAB increased. The addition of pullulan (Pul) into the film forming solution (FFS) increased EAB while TS, EM and thermal properties were reduced. This suggested that Pul had a similar effect as plasticizers. Films with higher Pul content showed lighter protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that hydrogen bonding was high in WPI : Pul films as compared with the control. This is attributed to the protein-polysaccharide interactions brought about by the dominance of Pul in the FFS. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This work describes some physical properties of films based on blends of whey protein isolate (WPI) and pullulan (Pul), made after a previous study on some characteristics of films based on pure WPI plasticized by glycerol. The most studied proteins in the edible films technology being gluten and WPI, the use of Pul in mixture with WPI is considered as a new investigation to explore the utilization of WPI-Pul in edible film and coating materials applied to food products. Furthermore, the use of WPI-Pul films and coatings could potentially extend the shelf life and improve the stability of the coated products as shown by the resultant properties in this investigation and previous works. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Raquel Carmona
    In the fall, when 61% of the fronds of the Gelidium sesquipedale (Clem.) Born. et Thur. population located in Albufeira (southern Portugal) were reproductive, about 90% of these fronds were tetrasporophytes, whereas an equal percentage of female and male gametophytes was found (5%). The comparison of physiological performances of the reproductive phases (males, females and tetrasporophytes) did not reveal a physiological advantage of tetrasporic fronds. There were no significant differences either in the photosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, nitrate reductase activity, or biochemical composition of adult fronds. On the other hand, vegetative recruitment and spore production in the laboratory were significantly different. The re-attachment to calcareous substrate and the subsequent rhizoidal growth were faster in tetrasporophytes. Particular levels of temperature, rather than irradiance, had an important effect on the phase differences in the spore release, attachment, and germination rates. Significant results were the higher release of carpospores at all irradiances at 17C, and the higher attachment percentage of carpospores at 13C versus tetraspores. Under higher temperatures (21C), tetraspores showed higher attachment rates while carpospores germinated more. G. sesquipedale cystocarps released carpospores for 2 months, while tetrasporangia stopped shedding tetraspores after 1 month, resulting in a 3-fold higher production of carpospores than tetraspores. Results showed that vegetative and spore recruitment may explain the low gametophyte,tetrasporophyte ratio of the studied population of G. sesquipedale as opposed to the physiological performance of phases. [source]


    ABSTRACT The effects of cooking water-to-rice (W/R) ratio on the sensory characteristics of cooked rice eating quality of 14 varieties of Thai rice were investigated in relation to their physicochemical properties. Milled rice samples were cooked with five W/R ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.5 on a weight basis and presented to 12 trained panelists for sensory evaluation. A three-way analysis of variance and a principal component analysis identified the intensity of sensory hardness as the main characteristic of cooked rice. It decreased with increasing W/R ratio whereas sensory stickiness decreased. The overall acceptability based on appearance, texture and flavor attributes reached peak levels corresponding to optimum W/R ratios for different rice varieties, and was highly correlated with sensory hardness and stickiness. Partial least squares regression models of optimum W/R ratio and peak overall acceptability gave coefficients of determination of 0.991 and 0.980, respectively, thus indicating that the optimum W/R ratio and the acceptability ratings of cooked rice could be reliably predicted from the physicochemical properties such as the apparent amylose content, protein content, gel consistency, alkali-spreading value and grain elongation ratio of milled rice. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Sensory evaluation of cooked rice eating qualities is a difficult task to carry out routinely on a day-to-day basis. Presently, rice varieties are categorized according to grain dimensions and selective physicochemical traits that reflect on the eating quality of cooked rice. Though it has been long realized that the amount of water used for cooking and rice physicochemical properties highly influence the eating quality of cooked rice, no information is currently available on the quantitative evaluation of these factors. Results of this study showed that models could be developed to quantify the optimum amount of water for cooking rice of different varieties with the most desirable sensory eating qualities. The prediction of peak overall sensory acceptability scores that correspond to the optimum cooking water-to-rice ratio could be useful for categorizing rice varieties based on their impact on sensory eating quality and for the development of baseline information for consumers by the rice industry. [source]


    Charles Ka Yui Leung
    Based on infinite horizon models, previous theoretical works show that the empirical stock price movement is not justified by the changes in dividends. The present paper provides a simple overlapping generations model with constant fundamentals in which the stock price displays volatility and negative autocorrelation even without changes in dividend. The horizon of the agents matters. In addition, as in recent empirical works, the aggregate consumption,wealth ratio ,predicts' the asset return. Thus, this framework may be useful in understanding different stylized facts in asset pricing. Directions for future research are also discussed. [source]


    J16 The beginning of the present century has been marked by a shift in attention from "excess" female mortality to discrimination in natality in explaining the "lowness" of the sex ratio or proportion of women in India's population. Such a shift in focus seemingly suggests that discrimination in intra-family allocation of resources has reduced substantially in India. In this context, an attempt has been made to decompose the observed lowness of the sex ratio in India vis--vis that of the stable population into that attributable to: (1) age structure difference, (2) excess female mortality, and (3) abnormalities in sex ratios at birth in India. Estimated contributions by each factor suggest that, as late as 2001, excess female mortality or the lowness of the relative survival advantage of women is the single most important determinant of "missing" women in India. The results also point to the importance of age structure difference, which accounts for a little more than 17% of the lowness of the sex ratio in India in 2001. [source]


    Winston R. MOORE
    E31; E32; E61; C22 From time to time, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) makes resources available to member states for short-term balance-of-payments support under an agreed arrangement know as a program. Most IMF programs include quantitative performance criteria for key macroeconomic variables, which borrowers must meet to obtain Fund resources. Standard open economy models predict that if policymakers are able to credibly commit to reducing inflation, rational economic agents will lower their expectations of inflation and, therefore, the trade-off between inflation and output will fall. The present study tests whether IMF programs, by lending credibility to a country's adjustment program, influence the inflation,output trade-off. The results from the study suggest that IMF programs do not significantly influence the inflation,output trade-off. This finding is robust to changes in the estimation approach, the method used to obtain the output gap estimates and outliers. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2006
    HAROLD E. ERNSTArticle first published online: 21 DEC 200
    The author considers Pope John Paul II's 1998 encyclical, Fides et ratio, as bringing into view new horizons for Catholic philosophical theology by virtue of its endorsement of a constrained philosophical pluralism. Through a retrospective examination of the history of magisterial interventions as depicted in the encyclical, the author notes how a progressive openness to philosophical pluralism relates to the changed status of Thomism within magisterial teaching on the practice of Catholic philosophical theology. Fides et ratio describes an evolution in magisterial emphasis from proscription to prescription, which corresponds to change in the status of Thomism from an absolute to an exemplary norm. Attention to this decisive shift in the normative status of Thomism, as implied within the encyclical itself, provides both new illumination on the Pope's general intentions and new clarity with regard to some contested interpretive issues. Finally, the author highlights several new challenges that are implied by this development in magisterial teaching. [source]


    Xinting Fan
    Abstract Because they are scaled by price, the ability of size (i.e., the market capitalization of a firm) and the book-to-market equity ratio to determine expected returns may, according to Berk (1995), reflect only a simultaneity bias. The two-stage least squares approach is used to control for this bias and to investigate the economic meanings of these variables. We discover that size and the book-to-market ratio contain distinct and significant components of financial distress, growth options, the momentum effect, liquidity, and firm characteristics. Our findings support Berk in his contention that that size and the book-to-market ratio reflect a combination of different economic mechanisms that are misspecified in the expected return process. [source]

    Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop pulmonary hypertension syndrome

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2005
    T. S. K. M. Rabie
    Summary Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different broiler dam lines that originated from the White Plymouth Rock breed was used to produce a three-generation population. This population was used for the detection and localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting PHS-related traits. Ten full-sib families consisting of 456 G2 birds were typed with 420 microsatellite markers covering 24 autosomal chromosomes. Phenotypic observations were collected on 4202 G3 birds and a full-sib across family regression interval mapping approach was used to identify QTL. There was statistical evidence for QTL on chicken chromosome 2 (GGA2), GGA4 and GGA6. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosomes 5, 8, 10, 27 and 28. The most significant QTL were located on GGA2 for right and total ventricular weight as percentage of body weight (%RV and %TV respectively). A related trait, the ratio of right ventricular weight as percentage to total ventricular weight (RATIO), reached the suggestive threshold on this chromosome. All three QTL effects identified on GGA2 had their maximum test statistic in the region flanked by markers MCW0185 and MCW0245 (335,421 cM). [source]

    Risk of tuberculosis is higher with anti,tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody therapy than with soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor therapy: The three-year prospective french research axed on tolerance of biotherapies registry,

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
    F. Tubach
    Objective Tuberculosis (TB) is associated with anti,tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, but whether this association is drug-specific remains a concern. Our objective was to describe cases of TB associated with anti-TNF mAb therapy, identify risk factors, and estimate the incidence. Methods We conducted an incidence study and a case,control analysis to investigate the risk of newly diagnosed TB associated with the use of anti-TNF agents. As part of the French Research Axed on Tolerance of Biotherapies (RATIO) registry, for 3 years we collected cases of TB among French patients receiving anti-TNF mAb therapy for any indication; for each case, 2 patients treated with anti-TNF agents served as control subjects. Results We collected 69 cases of TB in patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis (n = 40), spondylarthritides (n = 18), inflammatory colitis (n = 9), psoriasis (n = 1) and Behet's disease (n = 1) with infliximab (n = 36), adalimumab (n = 28), and etanercept (n = 5). None of the patients had received correct chemoprophylactic treatment. The sex- and age-adjusted incidence rate of TB was 116.7 per 100,000 patient-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 12.2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.7,15.5) and was higher for therapy with infliximab and adalimumab than for therapy with etanercept (SIR 18.6 [95% CI 13.4,25.8] and SIR 29.3 [95% CI 20.3,42.4] versus SIR 1.8 [95% CI 0.7,4.3], respectively). In the case,control analysis, exposure to infliximab or adalimumab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for TB (odds ratio [OR] 13.3 [95% CI 2.6,69.0] and OR 17.1 [95% CI 3.6,80.6], respectively). Other risk factors were age, the first year of anti-TNF mAb treatment, and being born in an endemic area. Conclusion The risk of TB is higher for patients receiving anti-TNF mAb therapy than for those receiving soluble TNF receptor therapy. The increased risk with early anti-TNF treatment and the absence of correct chemoprophylactic treatment favor the reactivation of latent TB. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2010
    Gabriel D. G. Debout
    We investigated sex allocation in the Neotropical ant Allomerus octoarticulatus var. demerarae. Because Allomerus is a plant symbiont, we could make geographically extensive collections of complete colonies and of foundresses in saplings, allowing us to estimate not only population- and colony-level sex allocation but also colony resource levels and the relatednesses of competing ant foundresses. This species exhibits a strongly split sex ratio, with 80% of mature colonies producing ,90% of one sex or the other. Our genetic analyses (DNA microsatellites) reveal that Allomerus has a breeding system characterized by almost complete monogyny and a low frequency of polyandry. Contrary to theoretical explanations, we find no difference in worker relatedness asymmetries between female- and male-specialist colonies. Furthermore, no clear link was found between colony sex allocation and life history traits such as the number of mates per queen, or colony size, resource level, or fecundity. We also failed to find significant support for male production by workers, infection by Wolbachia, local resource competition, or local mate competition. We are left with the possibility that Allomerus exhibits split sex ratios because of the evolution of alternative biasing strategies in queens or workers, as recently proposed in the literature. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2005
    Ken R. Helms
    Abstract Because workers in the eusocial Hymenoptera are more closely related to sisters than to brothers, theory predicts that natural selection should act on them to bias (change) sex allocation to favor reproductive females over males. However, selection should also act on queens to prevent worker bias. We use a simulation approach to analyze the coevolution of this conflict in colonies with single, once-mated queens. We assume that queens bias the primary (egg) sex ratio and workers bias the secondary (adult) sex ratio, both at some cost to colony productivity. Workers can bias either by eliminating males or by directly increasing female caste determination. Although variation among colonies in kin structure is absent, simulations often result in bimodal (split) colony sex ratios. This occurs because of the evolution of two alternative queen or two alternative worker biasing strategies, one that biases strongly and another that does not bias at all. Alternative strategies evolve because the mechanisms of biasing result in accelerating benefits per unit cost with increasing bias, resulting in greater fitness for strategies that bias more and bias less than the population equilibrium. Strategies biasing more gain from increased biasing efficiency whereas strategies biasing less gain from decreased biasing cost. Our study predicts that whether queens or workers evolve alternative strategies depends upon the mechanisms that workers use to bias the sex ratio, the relative cost of queen and worker biasing, and the rates at which queen and worker strategies evolve. Our study also predicts that population and colony level sex allocation, as well as colony productivity, will differ diagnostically according to whether queens or workers evolve alternative biasing strategies and according to what mechanism workers use to bias sex allocation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2004
    Ken R. Helms
    Abstract A recent study by Fournier et al. (2003) provides important new information on sex allocation in the ant Pheidole pallidula, and proposes a new scenario for sex-ratio evolution in P. pallidula and similar species. However, Helms proposed to the authors that two important conclusions of the study were questionable because of potential problems with the analyses. Here we provide new data and a reanalysis that strengthens the conclusion that colony sex ratio is associated with breeding system (i.e., polygyny or monogyny). However, the proposal that colonies shift from monogyny to polygyny when they become larger and more productive is weakened because there is substantial overlap in productivity between monogynous and polygynous colonies. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Willem Stolte
    Genetic variation of pigment composition was studied in 16 different strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay et Mohler in batch culture. Distinct strain-dependent differences were found in the ratios of fucoxanthin, 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, and 19,-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, hampering the use of these individual pigments as a taxonomic marker at the species level. The molar ratio of total carotenoids to chl a, however, was constant for all strains tested. In addition, the pigment composition of one axenic strain (L) of E. huxleyi at different growth rates in light-, nitrate-, and phosphate-limited continuous cultures was analyzed quantitatively. The pigments fucoxanthin and 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin correlated closely under all conditions. From steady-state rate calculations, it is hypothesized that 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin is synthesized from fucoxanthin, with light as a modulating factor. The net rate of synthesis of diatoxanthin depended both on the concentration of diadinoxanthin (its partner in the xanthophyll cycle) and on light, illustrating its photoprotective function in the xanthophyll cycle. In axenic strain L, the ratio of total fucoxanthins to chl a correlated strongly with photon flux density and can potentially be used to assess the physiological status with respect to irradiance in field populations. In multispecific bloom situations, the ratio of diadinoxanthin plus diatoxanthin to total fucoxanthins could be used as an alternative indicator for the light-dependent physiological state of E. huxleyi, provided that no other chromophytes are present. Application of these correlations to mesocosm data from the literature has so far provided no evidence that E. huxleyi blooms form only at inhibiting light levels, as previously suggested. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    This paper presents a pilot study of strontium (Sr) isotope ratios from Iron Age horse tooth enamel samples. It compares 87Sr/86Sr ratios from horse teeth to estimates for local ranges of biologically available strontium, to investigate whether horses were being bred at the sites where their remains were discovered. A horse from Middle Iron Age Rooksdown, Hampshire, was not bred at the site but, rather, came from as far away as Wales, Scotland or continental Europe. Horse teeth from Middle Iron Age Bury Hill, Hampshire, returned 87Sr/86Sr values typical of local chalkland. [source]


    Martin P. Shanahan
    Australia; factor price; inequality; nineteenth century; globalisation Previous research on nineteenth century globalisation argues that during the second half of that century wage,rental ratios in labour scarce, land-abundant new world economies decreased. This suggests inequality rose in the new world. Australia has been cited as a conspicuous example of this trend. The paper re-examines this argument using disaggregated land and wage data for four Australian colonies. We reveal large regional differences in both factor,price levels and trends , something that has been overlooked when discussing Australian colonial inequality and we suggest that regional disparities in other nineteenth century economies are also likely to be important. [source]

    Safety of sertindole versus risperidone in schizophrenia: principal results of the sertindole cohort prospective study (SCoP)

    S. H. L. Thomas
    Thomas SHL, Drici MD, Hall GC, Crocq MA, Everitt B, Lader MH, Le Jeunne C, Naber D, Priori S, Sturkenboom M, Thibaut F, Peuskens J, Mittoux A, Tanghj P, Toumi M, Moore ND, Mann RD. Safety of sertindole versus risperidone in schizophrenia: principal results of the sertindole cohort prospective study (SCoP) Objective:, To explore whether sertindole increases all-cause mortality or cardiac events requiring hospitalization, compared with risperidone. Method:, Multinational randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, with blinded classification of outcomes, in 9858 patients with schizophrenia. Results:, After 14147 person-years, there was no effect of treatment on overall mortality (sertindole 64, risperidone 61 deaths, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.12 (90% CI: 0.83, 1.50)) or cardiac events requiring hospitalization [sertindole 10, risperidone 6, HR = 1.73 (95% CI: 0.63, 4.78)]: Of these, four were considered arrhythmia-related (three sertindole, one risperidone). Cardiac mortality was higher with sertindole (Independent Safety Committee (ISC): 31 vs. 12, HR=2.84 (95% CI: 1.45, 5.55), P = 0.0022; Investigators 17 vs. 8, HR=2.13 (95% CI: 0.91, 4.98), P = 0.081). There was no significant difference in completed suicide, but fewer sertindole recipients attempted suicide (ISC: 68 vs. 78, HR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.29), P = 0.65; Investigators: 43 vs. 65, HR=0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99), P = 0.044). Conclusion:, Sertindole did not increase all-cause mortality, but cardiac mortality was higher and suicide attempts may be lower with sertindole. [source]

    Long-acting insulin analogues vs.

    NPH human insulin in type 1 diabetes.
    Aim:, Basal insulin in type 1 diabetes can be provided using either NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) human insulin or long-acting insulin analogues, which are supposed to warrant a better metabolic control with reduced hypoglycaemic risk. Aim of this meta-analysis is the assessment of differences with respect to HbA1c (Glycated hemoglobin), incidence of hypoglycaemia, and weight gain, between NPH human insulin and each long-acting analogue. Methods:, Of 285 randomized controlled trials with a duration > 12 weeks comparing long-acting insulin analogues (detemir or glargine) with NPH insulin in type 1 diabetic patients identified through Medline search and searches on www.clinicaltrials.gov, 20 met eligibility criteria (enrolling 3693 and 2485 in the long-acting analogues and NPH group respectively). Data on HbA1c and body mass index at endpoint, and incidence of any, nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia, were extracted and meta-analysed. Results:, Long-acting analogues had a small, but significant effect on HbA1c [-0.07 (,0.13; ,0.01)%; p = 0.026], in comparison with NPH human insulin. When analysing the effect of long-acting analogues on body weight, detemir was associated with a significantly smaller weight gain than human insulin [by 0.26 (0.06;0.47) kg/m2; p = 0.012]. Long-acting analogues were associated with a reduced risk for nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia [OR (Odd Ratio, 95% Confidence Intervals) 0.69 (0.55; 0.86), and OR 0.73 (0.60; 0.89) respectively; all p < 0.01]. Conclusions:, The switch from NPH to long-acting analogues as basal insulin replacement in type 1 diabetic patients had a small effect on HbA1c, and also reduced the risk of nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia. [source]

    Inflammatory events as detected in cervical smears and squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Anne M. E. Roeters M.D.
    Abstract The Dutch cytological coding system, KOPAC, enables to code for eight inflammatory events, that is koilocytosis (related to human papillomavirus (HPV)), Trichomonas, dysbacteriosis [related to bacterial vaginosis (BV)], Candida, Gardnerella, Actinomyces, Chlamydia, and non-specific inflammation (leucocytosis). This study presents an analysis of 1,008,879 smears. Of each smear, the age of the woman and the reason for smear taking (screening or indication) was available. The cytoscores (per mille) for these codes were calculated. For the screening smears, the cytoscores were for koilocytosis (HPV) 2.6, for Trichomonas vaginalis 1.9, for dysbacteriosis 31.4, for Candida albicans 9.8, for Gardnerella vaginalis 0.7, for Actinomyces 6.9, for Chlamydia 0.8, and for non-specific inflammatory changes 66.4. For the calculation of the Odds Ratio (OR), normal smears were used as a reference. The cytoscores for Chlamydia and Gardnerella covaried with high grade SIL (HSIL), with an OR of 7 and 12, respectively. In addition, the OR for Trichomonas vaginalis, for dysbacteriosis, and for leucocytosis proved to be significantly high in the indication smears. This study provides an oversight of HSIL and the full range of cervical infections as detected by cytology, proving that this infectious byproduct of screening can be very valuable. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Obesity and lifestyle risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    P. J. Veugelers
    SUMMARY., The aim of this study was to examine the association of obesity with esophageal adenocarcinoma, and with the precursor lesions Barrett esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This case-control study included cases with GERD (n = 142), Barrett esophagus (n = 130), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 57). Controls comprised 102 asymptomatic individuals. Using logistic regression methods, we compared obesity rates between cases and controls adjusting for differences in age, gender, and lifestyle risk factors. Relative to normal weight, obese individuals were at increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma (Odds Ratio [OR] 4.67, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.27,17.9). Diets high in vitamin C were associated with a lower risk for GERD (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19,0.87), Barrett esophagus (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20,0.98), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06,0.77). For the more established risk factors, we confirmed that smoking was a significant risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and that increased liquor consumption was associated with GERD and Barrett esophagus. In light of the current obesity epidemic, esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence rates are expected to continue to increase. Successful promotion of healthy body weight and diets high in vitamin C may substantially reduce the incidence of this disease. [source]

    Validation of the Peak to Mean Pressure Decrease Ratio as a New Method of Assessing Aortic Stenosis Using the Gorlin Formula and the Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Based Hybrid Method

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Dariusch Haghi M.D.
    Background: We sought to validate the recently introduced peak to mean pressure decrease ratio (PMPDR), using the Gorlin formula and a hybrid method which combines cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived stroke volume with transaortic Doppler measurements to calculate aortic valve area (AVA). Methods: Data analysis in 32 patients with severe (AVA <= 0.75 cm2) or moderate aortic stenosis who had prospectively been entered into our aortic stenosis database. Results: Gorlin-derived AVA was 0.61 0.10 cm2 in severe and 0.92 0.14 cm2 in moderate aortic stenosis (P < 0.01). Corresponding values for PMPRD were 1.61 0.10 and 1.73 0.18, respectively (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for PMPDR <1.5 to predict severe aortic stenosis were 0.12, 0.92, 0.67, and 0.44 as assessed by the Gorlin formula. Conclusions: Using the Gorlin formula as the reference standard, our study confirms results of a previously reported study on the performance of PMPDR for assessment of aortic stenosis. [source]

    A Contactless Impedance Probe for Simple and Rapid Determination of the Ratio of Liquids with Different Permittivities in Binary Mixtures

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 1 2009
    Franti, ek Opekar
    Abstract Simple contactless cells with planar or tubular electrodes have been designed for measurement of the permittivity of solutions. The cells, connected to an integrated circuit of astable multivibrator, respond primarily to the capacitance component of the cell impedance, the multivibrator frequency depends in a defined manner on the solution permittivity and is readily used as the analytical signal in determinations of the ratios of components in binary liquid mixtures; water solution of methanol, ethanol and dioxane have been tested. The response of the cell with planar electrodes satisfies well the simple theoretical model and both the cells provide results with a sufficient sensitivity, a low LOD value (units of %vol) and a good precision (around 1%rel). The cell simplicity, small dimensions, long-term stability and the possibility of powering them from a battery make them suitable for hand-held meters. As an example of application in practice, the content of ethanol was determined in the car fuel petrol. [source]

    Monitoring pyrethroid resistance in field collected Blattella germanica Linn. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) in Indonesia

    Intan AHMAD
    Abstract The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a major and the most common pest in public areas in Indonesia. Although intensive control measures have been carried out to control the populations of this pest, results have been far from successful, which is believed to be because of its resistance to insecticides. A standard World Health Organization (WHO) glass jar test was carried out to determine the resistance level of this insect to pyrethroid insecticides, the most commonly used insecticides for cockroach control in Indonesia. A susceptible S1 strain collected from Tembagapura Papua was compared with four strains collected from Bandung, West Java: strain S2, from a local restaurant; strain S3, from the Bandung train station; and strains S4 and S5, from two different hotels. All strains showed low resistance to the pyrethroid, except the S5 strain, which had a Resistance Ratio (RR)50 of 95 for permethrin. The addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) suggests that the detoxifying enzyme mixed function oxidases (MFO) played an important role in the development of resistance to permethrin in the S5 strain, suggested by the high Synergist Ratio (SR) of 70.4. However, the low level of resistance to cypermethrin was not affected by PBO, suggesting that other mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance are involved. Our study is the first report of German cockroach resistance to permethrin in Indonesia, and the findings can be used in formulating potential strategies for cockroach resistance management. [source]

    Adaptive Offspring Sex Ratio Depends on Male Tail Length in the Guppy

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    Kenji Karino
    A biased sex ratio in a brood is considered to be an adaptive strategy under certain circumstances. For example, if the expected reproductive success of one sex is greater than that of the other, parents should produce more offspring of the former sex than the latter. A previous study has documented that in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, the female offspring of males possessing proportionally longer tails exhibit smaller body sizes and show decreased reproductive outputs than those of males having shorter tails. On the other hand, the total lengths of the male offspring of the long-tailed males are larger because of their longer tails; consequently, they exhibit greater sexual attractiveness to females. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that this asymmetry in the expected reproductive success between the male and female offspring of long-tailed males may result in a biased sex ratio that is dependent on the tail lengths of their fathers. This hypothesis was tested in the present study. The results showed that the females that mated with long-tailed males produced more male offspring than those that mated with short-tailed males. Logistic regression analysis showed that the ratio of tail length to the standard length of the fathers is a determinant factor of the sex of their offspring. These results suggest that the manipulation of the offspring sex ratios by parents enhances the overall fitness of the offspring. [source]

    Operational Sex Ratio and Alternative Reproductive Behaviours in Chinese Bushcricket, Gampsocleis gratiosa

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Yong Gao
    The effects of operational sex ratio (OSR) on male mating tactics in the Chinese bushcricket Gampsocleis gratiosa were investigated in male- and female-biased environments. We measured fresh and dry spermatophore contents and copulation duration, and counted sperm numbers of each copulation. The fresh weight of spermatophore and spermatophylax was positively correlated with male body weight. The males in a strongly male-biased environment produced significantly heavier fresh ampulla and more sperm per ejaculation, which were likely tactics for successful matings under the competition of rivals. The spermatophore might function as a structure to protect the fertilization potential of the ejaculate from rival males. [source]

    Arterial stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy in a new rat model of type 2 diabetes

    K.-C. Chang
    Abstract Background, We determined the effects of NIDDM on haemodynamic parameters describing arterial wall elasticity and cardiac hypertrophy in rats administered streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NA), using the aortic impedance analysis. Methods, Male Wistar rats at 2 months were administered intraperitoneally 180 mg kg,1 of NA, 30 min before an intravenous injection of 50 mg kg,1 STZ, to induce type 2 diabetes. The STZ-NA rats were divided into two groups, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after induction of diabetes, and compared with untreated age-matched controls. Pulsatile aortic pressure and flow signals were measured by a high-fidelity pressure sensor and electromagnetic flow probe, respectively, and were then subjected to Fourier transformation for the analysis of aortic input impedance. Results, In each diabetic group, the experimental syndrome was characterized by a moderate and stable hyperglycaemia and a relative deficiency of insulin secretion. However, the 8-week but not the 4-week STZ-NA diabetic rats showed a decrease in cardiac output in the absence of any significant changes in mean aortic pressure, having increased total peripheral resistance. The diabetic syndrome at 8 weeks also contributed to an increase in aortic characteristic impedance, from 149 033 (mean SD) to 195 028 mmHg s mL,1 (P < 005), suggesting a detriment to the aortic distensibility in NIDDM. Meanwhile, the STZ-NA diabetic animals after 8 weeks had an increased wave reflection factor (046 009 vs. 061 013, P < 005) and decreased wave transit time (258 38 vs. 206 28 ms, P < 005). Ratio of the left ventricular weight to body weight was also enhanced in the 8-week STZ-NA diabetic rats. Conclusion, The heavy intensity with early return of the pulse wave reflection may augment systolic load of the left ventricle coupled to the arterial system, leading to cardiac hypertrophy in the rats at 8 weeks after following STZ and NA administration. [source]