Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy

Kinds of Radius

  • Waal radius
  • atomic radius
  • average radius
  • bohr radius
  • core radius
  • corneal radius
  • der Waal radius
  • distal radius
  • effective radius
  • hydrodynamic radius
  • initial radius
  • ionic radius
  • km radius
  • large radius
  • leave radius
  • mean radius
  • mean-square radius
  • molecular radius
  • orbital radius
  • particle radius
  • pore radius
  • proximal radius
  • right radius
  • small radius
  • spectral radius
  • van der Waal radius
  • various radius
  • virial radius

  • Terms modified by Radius

  • radius r
  • radius ratio

  • Selected Abstracts

    A scheme for authentication and dynamic key exchange in wireless networks

    Uri Blumenthal
    Despite significant shortcomings in the initial security architecture, 802.11 wireless LANs have experienced explosive growth in recent years. Ongoing work in IEEE standards bodies is currently attempting to fix these shortcomings. One specific topic that has received extensive attention is how to enable these networks to authenticate users and to dynamically establish per-user per-session cryptographic keys. The IEEE 802.1x Port-Based Access Control standard, which formalizes a new EAP-over-LAN (EAPOL) protocol, has emerged as the preferred way to achieve this. The EAPOL protocol employs the extensible authentication protocol (EAP), standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force, to allow the use of existing and new authentication methods and authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) infrastructure. In this paper we present a new EAP scheme,called shared key exchange (SKE),suitable for use in 802.11 private or public access wireless LANs. The scheme relies on secure pre-shared secret keys in wireless LAN mobile nodes devices and AAA servers. When instantiated with relatively minor changes to RADIUS and EAP,the resulting protocol is provably secure and offers a full set of security features. A second, simplified protocol results from minimal modifications to existing RADIUS and EAP standards, but it provides a lower level of security. Both protocols efficiently support roaming scenarios wherein an end user roams across different networks and requires frequent re-authentication with low latency. The protocols can easily be extended to support migration to new AAA protocols such as DIAMETER. © 2002 Lucent Technologies Inc. [source]

    Radii of Redox Components from Absolute Redox Potentials Compared with Covalent and Aqueous Ionic Radii

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 9 2010
    Raji Heyrovska
    Abstract Aqueous standard potentials, referred to that of the SHE as zero, were recently shown to vary linearly with gaseous ionization potentials, with the absolute potential of SHE as the intercept. This enabled arriving at the absolute redox potentials of elements. Here, the distances between the oxidized and reduced forms in aqueous solutions have been evaluated. From the linear dependence of these distances on the covalent radii of atoms, the radii of the redox components have been obtained. The latter also vary linearly with the aqueous ionic radii estimated earlier from ion-water distances, and indicate the presence of aqueous molecular anions. [source]

    Triple-Bond Covalent Radii

    Pekka Pyykkö Prof.
    Abstract A system of additive covalent radii is proposed for ,2,,4 triple bonds involving elements from Be to E,112 (eka-mercury). Borderline cases with weak multiple bonding are included. Only the elements in Group 1, the elements Zn,Hg in Group 12 and Ne in Group 18 are then totally excluded. Gaps are left at late actinides and some lanthanides. The standard deviation for the 324 included data points is 3.2 pm. Alkuaineille Be,(E,112) on määrätty ,2,,4 -kolmoissidoksille luonteenomaiset kovalenttiset säteet, rajatapaukset mukaan lukien. Vain ryhmän,1 alkuaineet, ryhmän,12 alkuaineet Zn,Hg, ryhmän,18 Ne sekä osa lantanoideista ja myöhemmät aktinoidit on tällöin kokonaan jätetty tarkastelun ulkopuolelle. Aineisto käsittää 324 pistettä ja tulosten standardipoikkeama on 3.2 pm.Abstract in German:Ein System additiver kovalenter Radien für ,2,,4Dreifachbindungen fast aller Elemente von Be bis E,112 (Eka-Quecksilber) wird vorgestellt. Grenzfälle mit schwachen Mehrfachbindungen wurden mit einbezogen. Die Elemente in Gruppe,1, Zn,Hg in Gruppe,12, Ne, die meisten Lantanide und einige Actinide wurden wegen mangelnder Daten nicht berücksichtigt. Die Standardabweichung für die 324 verwendeten Datenpunkte beträgt 3.2 pm. [source]

    Botulinum Toxin Type B (MYOBLOC) Versus Botulinum Toxin Type A (BOTOX) Frontalis Study: Rate of Onset and Radius of Diffusion

    Timothy Corcoran Flynn MD
    Background. Botulinum toxin types A and B can improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Differences in the time until onset and the degree of diffusion have been observed anecdotally, but no direct comparative studies have been done. Objective. To compare the rate of onset and the radius of diffusion of botulinum toxin types A and B in the rhytides of the forehead. Methods. Adults with symmetrical moderate to severe forehead wrinkles at full contracture received botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX; 5 U) on one side of the forehead and type B (MYOBLOC; 500 U) on the other side. Photographs taken at rest and full frontalis contracture were analyzed by computer, and a time-lapse motion picture was created. Radius of diffusion and time until full effect were measured. Results. Botulinum toxin type B had a slightly faster onset of action than type A. All patients responded to type B quickly, whereas some had a delayed response to type A. A greater radius of diffusion was consistently observed with botulinum toxin type B, as measured by the greater area of wrinkle reduction at the doses used. Conclusions. In this comparative study of patients with symmetrical forehead wrinkles, botulinum toxin type B produced a greater area of diffusion and a more rapid onset of action than type A. [source]

    Disentangling effects of an experimentally imposed extreme temperature event and naturally associated desiccation on Arctic tundra

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Summary 1Climate projections suggest that extreme events will increase in frequency during this century. As tundra is recognized to be among the most vulnerable biomes, we exposed patches of arctic tundra vegetation to an experimental heatwave (by infrared irradiation), followed by a recovery period. The heating increased the surface temperature with an average of 7·6 °C during 13 days, which slightly exceeded the longest climatic episode with such a temperature deviation since 1961. 2The heatwave decreased stomatal conductance (gs) and PSII maximum efficiency (Fv/Fm), although there were differences in response among the four target species. Salix arctica Pall. (shrub) was affected during the heatwave and could not recover. In Carex bigelowii Tor. ex Schwein (sedge) and Pyrola grandiflora Radius (forb), on the other hand, the effects on gs and Fv/Fm became clear, particularly in the aftermath of the heatwave, whereas Polygonum viviparum L. (forb) was never stressed. 3Effects of the heat on gs were mainly indirect, through increased desiccation, whereas effects on Fv/Fm were more related to leaf temperature (although not in all species). The observed changes can therefore probably be ascribed to a combination of heat and drought causing dysfunctions that ultimately led to senescence. 4Two conclusions of this study, species-specific responses and increased leaf mortality, indicate that more frequent extreme temperature events accompanied by desiccation might alter/endanger tundra communities in a future climate. Predictions of global change effects on arctic ecosystems should therefore take into account the impact of extremes. [source]

    Effect of A-Site Ionic Radius on the Structure and Microwave Dielectric Characteristics of Sr1+xSm1,xAl1,xTixO4 Ceramics

    Min Min Mao
    SrSmAlO4 microwave dielectric ceramics were modified by Sr/Ti cosubstitution for Sm/Al. The effects of radius difference of A-site ions on the microwave dielectric characteristics were investigated together with the structure. Sr1+xSm1,xAl1,xTixO4 (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction approach. X-ray diffraction studies revealed a single-phase K2NiF4 -type solid solution with corresponding peaks shifting to lower 2, as x increased. Minor inhomogeneous grain morphology for x=0.05 and a trace amount of second phases for x=0.10, 0.15 were detected by backscattered-electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. With increasing Sr/Ti cosubstitution, the dielectric constant ,r increased from 18.4 to 20.4, and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ,f was adjusted from ,1.8 to 7.4 ppm/°C almost linearly. However, the Q×f value decreased from 74,500 GHz at x=0,53,000 GHz at x=0.15. The internal stresses caused by the decreased tolerance factor and the large ionic radii difference between Sr2+ and Sm3+ should be the predominant reasons for such a decrease in the Q×f value. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopic results revealed an increase in the lattice distortion with increasing Sr/Ti cosubstitution, and subsequently supported the above conclusion upon the increased internal stresses. [source]

    An In Vitro Study of the Ultrasonic Axial Transmission Technique at the Radius: 1-MHz Velocity Measurements Are Sensitive to Both Mineralization and Intracortical Porosity,

    Emmanuel Bossy
    Abstract The ultrasonic axial transmission technique allows for investigating skeletal sites such as the cortical layer of long bones (radius, tibia, phalanges). Using synchrotron radiation ,CT, we investigated, in vitro, the relationships between 1-MHz axial transmission SOS measurements at the radius and site-matched measurements of C.Th, POR, MIN, and vBMD. Introduction: The ultrasonic axial transmission technique allows for investigating skeletal sites such as the cortical layer of long bones (radius, tibia, phalanges). Materials and Methods:Using synchrotron radiation ,CT, we investigated, in vitro, the relationships between 1-MHz axial transmission speed of sound (SOS) measurements at the radius and site-matched measurements of cortical thickness (C.Th), intracortical porosity (POR), tissue mineralization (MIN), and volumetric BMD (vBMD). SOS measurements were based on bidirectional axial transmission and were performed with a 1-MHz proprietary probe on 39 excised human radii. Results: The highest correlations between SOS values and bone parameters (R2SOS/POR = 0.28, p < 10,3; R2SOS/MIN = 0.38, p < 10,4; R2SOS/vBMD = 0.57, p < 10,3) were found for bone parameters assessed in a 1-mm-thick periosteal region of the cortex rather than throughout the whole cortex. The observed moderate correlation between SOS and C.Th values (R2SOS/C.Th = 0.20, p < 10,2) disappeared when controlled for other variables. The two best multilinear predictive models, including either BMD alone or the pair of dependent variables MIN and POR (all assessed in the periosteal cortex), were equally accurate in predicting SOS values (R2SOS/(POR,MIN) = 0.59, p < 10,5; R2SOS/vBMD = 0.57, p < 10,5). Conclusion: For the first time, the respective adjusted contributions of POR (,24 m/s%,1) and tissue mineralization (+3.5 m/s/mg/cm,3) to SOS values were assessed. These results suggest potential sensitivity of axial transmission SOS values to changes in cortical bone status under different pathological conditions or treatments affecting POR and/or tissue mineralization. [source]

    Adrenarche and Bone Modeling and Remodeling at the Proximal Radius: Weak Androgens Make Stronger Cortical Bone in Healthy Children,

    Thomas Remer
    Abstract Adrenarche, the physiological increase in adrenal androgen secretion, may contribute to better bone status. Proximal radial bone and 24-h urinary steroid hormones were analyzed cross-sectionally in 205 healthy children and adolescents. Positive adrenarchal effects on radial diaphyseal bone were observed. Obviously, adrenarche is one determinant of bone mineral status in children. Introduction: Increased bone mass has been reported in several conditions with supraphysiological adrenal androgen secretion during growth. However, no data are available for normal children. Therefore, our aim was to examine whether adrenal androgens within their physiological ranges may be involved in the strengthening of diaphyseal bone during growth. Methods: Periosteal circumference (PC), cortical density, cortical area, bone mineral content, bone strength strain index (SSI), and forearm cross-sectional muscle area were determined with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the proximal radial diaphysis in healthy children and adolescents. All subjects, aged 6,18 years, who collected a 24-h urine sample around the time of their pQCT analysis (100 boys, 105 girls), were included in the present study, and major urinary glucocorticoid (C21) and androgen (C19) metabolites were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results and Conclusions: We found a significant influence of muscularity, but not of hormones, on periosteal modeling (PC) before the appearance of pubic hair (prepubarche). Similarly, no influence of total cortisol secretion (C21) was seen on the other bone variables. However, positive effects of C19 on cortical density (p < 0.01), cortical area (p < 0.001), bone mineral content (p < 0.001), and SSI (p < 0.001),reflecting, at least in part, reduction in intracortical remodeling,were observed in prepubarchal children after muscularity or age had been adjusted for. This early adrenarchal contribution to proximal radial diaphyseal bone strength was further confirmed for all cortical variables (except PC) when, instead of C19 and C21, specific dehydroepiandrosterone metabolites were included as independent variables in the multiple regression model. During development of pubic hair (pubarche), muscularity and pubertal stage rather than adrenarchal hormones seemed to influence bone variables. Our study shows that especially the prepubarchal increase in adrenal androgen secretion plays an independent role in the accretion of proximal radial diaphyseal bone strength in healthy children. [source]

    Introducing Radius of Torsure and Cylindroid of Torsure

    David B. Dooner
    Robotic path planning can involve the specification of the position and orientation of an end-effector to achieve a desired task (e.g., deburring, welding, or surface metrology). Under such scenarios the end-effector is instantaneously rotating and translating about a unique axis; the ISA. Alternately, the performance of direct contact mechanisms (viz., cam systems and gear pairs) are dependent on the surface geometry between two surfaces in direct contact. Determination of this geometry can entail the parametrization of a family of geodesics curves embedded within each surface. This parametrization is tantamount to an end-effector rotating and translating about an ISA. In both scenarios there is a unique ISA for each geodesic embedded in a surface. Here, curvature and torsion of a spatial curve are coupled together to define an alternative definition for the radius-of-curvature of a spatial curve. This new definition is identified as radius of torsure to distinguish it from the classical definition for radius-of-curvature. Further, it is shown that the family of twists that corresponds to the pencil of geodesics coincident with a point on a surface defines a cylindroid: the cylindroid of torsure. An illustrative example is provided to demonstrate this difference. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Mean-Square Radius of Gyration and Degree of Branching of Highly Branched Copolymers Resulting from the Copolymerization of AB2 With AB Monomers

    Zhiping Zhou
    Abstract Summary: The evolution of the various structural units incorporated into hyperbranched polymers formed from the copolymerization of AB2 and AB monomers has been derived by the kinetic scheme. The degree of branching was calculated with a new definition given in this work. The degree of branching monotonously increased with increasing A group conversion (x) and the maximum value could reach 2r/(1,+,r)2, where r is the initial fraction of AB2 monomers in the total. Like the average degree of polymerization, the mean-square radius of gyration of the hyperbranched polymers increased moderately with A group conversion in the range x,<,0.9 and displayed an abrupt rise when the copolymerization neared completion. The characteristic ratio of the mean-square radius of gyration remained constant for the linear polymers. However, the hyperbranched polymers did not possess this character. In comparison with the linear polymerization, the weight average and z -average degree of polymerization increased due to the addition of the branched monomer units AB2 and the mean-square radius of gyration decreased quickly for the products of copolymerization. [source]

    Radius of gyration of plasmid DNA isoforms from static light scattering

    David R. Latulippe
    Abstract Despite the extensive interest in applications of plasmid DNA, there have been few direct measurements of the root mean square radius of gyration, RG, of different plasmid isoforms over a broad range of plasmid size. Static light scattering data were obtained using supercoiled, open-circular, and linear isoforms of 5.76, 9.80, and 16.8,kbp plasmids. The results from this study extend the range of RG values available in the literature to plasmid sizes typically used for gene therapy and DNA vaccines. The experimental data were compared with available theoretical expressions based on the worm-like chain model, with the best-fit value of the apparent persistence length for both the linear and open-circular isoforms being statistically identical at 46,nm. A new expression was developed for the radius of gyration of the supercoiled plasmid based on a model for linear DNA using an effective contour length that is equal to a fraction of the total contour length. These results should facilitate the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices for DNA manipulation and size-based separation processes for plasmid DNA purification. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 134,142. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Ab initio and AIM Theoretical Analysis of Hydrogen-Bond Radius of HD (D: F, Cl, Br, CN, HO, HS and CCH) Donors and Some Acceptors.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 7 2007
    B. Raghavendra
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Study on the Radius of an Electrical Spherical Micelle: Functional Theoretical Approach

    Zheng-Wu Wang
    Abstract For the purpose of eliminating restriction, the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, which represents the potential of the electrical double layer of spherical micelles, can be solved analytically only under the lower potential condition, a kind of iterative method in functional analysis theory has been used. The radius of the spherical particle can be obtained from the diagram of the second iterative solution of the potential versus the distance from the center of the particle. The influences of the concentration of the ions, the charge number of ions, the aggregation number of the particle, the dielectric constant of solvent and the temperature of system on the radius also have been studied. [source]

    Recovering Structure from r -Sampled Objects

    O. Aichholzer
    For a surface in 3-space that is represented by a set S of sample points, we construct a coarse approximating polytope P that uses a subset of S as its vertices and preserves the topology of . In contrast to surface reconstruction we do not use all the sample points, but we try to use as few points as possible. Such a polytope P is useful as a ,seed polytope' for starting an incremental refinement procedure to generate better and better approximations of based on interpolating subdivision surfaces or e.g. Bézier patches. Our algorithm starts from an r -sample S of . Based on S, a set of surface covering balls with maximal radii is calculated such that the topology is retained. From the weighted ,-shape of a proper subset of these highly overlapping surface balls we get the desired polytope. As there is a rather large range for the possible radii for the surface balls, the method can be used to construct triangular surfaces from point clouds in a scalable manner. We also briefly sketch how to combine parts of our algorithm with existing medial axis algorithms for balls, in order to compute stable medial axis approximations with scalable level of detail. [source]

    Concurrent Viewing of Multiple Attribute-Specific Subspaces

    Robert Sisneros
    Abstract In this work we present a point classification algorithm for multi-variate data. Our method is based on the concept of attribute subspaces, which are derived from a set of user specified attribute target values. Our classification approach enables users to visually distinguish regions of saliency through concurrent viewing of these subspaces in single images. We also allow a user to threshold the data according to a specified distance from attribute target values. Based on the degree of thresholding, the remaining data points are assigned radii of influence that are used for the final coloring. This limits the view to only those points that are most relevant, while maintaining a similar visual context. [source]

    Horizontal Roadway Curvature Computation Algorithm Using Vision Technology

    Yichang (James) Tsai
    However, collecting such data is time-consuming, costly, and dangerous using traditional, manual surveying methods. It is especially difficult to perform such manual measurement when roadways have high traffic volumes. Thus, it would be valuable for transportation agencies if roadway curvature data could be computed from photographic images taken using low-cost digital cameras. This is the first article that develops an algorithm using emerging vision technology to acquire horizontal roadway curvature data from roadway images to perform roadway safety assessment. The proposed algorithm consists of four steps: (1) curve edges image processing, (2) mapping edge positions from an image domain to the real-world domain, (3) calibrating camera parameters, and (4) calculating the curve radius and center from curve points. The proposed algorithm was tested on roadways having various levels of curves and using different image sources to demonstrate its capability. The ground truth curvatures for two cases were also collected to evaluate the error of the proposed algorithm. The test results are very promising, and the computed curvatures are especially accurate for curves of small radii (less than 66 m/200 ft) with less than 1.0% relative errors with respect to the ground truth data. The proposed algorithm can be used as an alternative method that complements the traditional measurement methods used by state DOTs to collect roadway curvature data. [source]

    Countryside Biogeography of Moths in a Fragmented Landscape: Biodiversity in Native and Agricultural Habitats

    Taylor H. Ricketts
    We sampled moth species richness within a 227-ha forest fragment and in four surrounding agricultural habitats (coffee, shade coffee, pasture, and mixed farms) in southern Costa Rica. We found no significant difference in moth species richness or abundance among agricultural habitats, but agricultural sites within 1 km of the forest fragment had significantly higher richness and abundance than sites farther than 3.5 km from the fragment. In addition, species composition differed significantly between distance classes ( but not among agricultural habitats), with near sites more similar to forest than far sites. These results suggest that (1) different agricultural production regimes in this region may offer similar habitat elements and thus may not differ substantially in their capacities to support native moth populations and (2) that the majority of moths may utilize both native and agricultural habitats and move frequently between them, forming "halos" of relatively high species richness and abundance around forest fragments. Correlations between species richness and the amount of nearby forest cover, measured over circles of various radii around the sites, suggest that halos extend approximately 1.0,1.4 km from the forest edge. The extent of these halos likely differs among taxa and may influence their ability to survive in fragmented landscapes. Resumen: Los estudios de paisajes fragmentados, especialmente en los trópicos, tradicionalmente se han enfocado en los fragmentos nativos per se, ignorando las distribuciones de especies en áreas agrícolas circundantes o en otras áreas dominadas por humanos. Muestreamos la riqueza de polillas dentro de un fragmento de bosque de 227 hectáreas y en cuatro hábitats agrícolas (café, café con sombra, pastizal y campos mixtos) en el Sur de Costa Rica. Encontramos que no hubo diferencias significativas en la riqueza de especies o en la abundancia de polillas entre los hábitats agrícolas, sin embargo, los sitios agrícolas cercanos (<1 km) al fragmento de bosque tuvieron una riqueza de especies y abundancia significativamente mayor que las de los sitios lejanos (>3.5 km) al fragmento. Además, la composición de especies fue significativamente diferente entre las clases de distancia ( pero no entre los hábitats agrícolas), siendo los sitios cercanos más similares al bosque que los sitios retirados. Estos resultados sugieren que (1) los diferentes regímenes de producción agrícola en esta región pueden ofrecer elementos de hábitat similares y por lo tanto pueden no diferir substancialmente en lo que se refiere a su capacidad para sostener poblaciones de polillas nativas y (2) que la mayoría de las polillas pueden utilizar tanto hábitatsnativos como agrícolas y mover frecuentemente entre ellos, formando "halos" con una riqueza de especies y una abundancia relativamente altas alrededor de los fragmentos del bosque. Las correlaciones entre la riqueza de especies y la cantidad de cobertura forestal circundante, medida en círculos de diferente radio alrededor de los sitios de estudio, sugiere que los halos se extienden aproximadamente 1.0,1.4 km del borde del bosque. La extension de estos halos posiblemente difiere entre taxones y puede influenciar sus habilidades para sobrevivir en paisajes fragmentados. [source]

    Pressure Ionization and Transitions in Dense Hydrogen

    W. Ebeling
    Abstract Shock experiments with fluid hydrogen have shown that a transition from insulating behavior to metal-like conductivity occurs at pressures beyond 100 GPa. This requires the development of new methods to describe the transition region of dense plasmas. The traditional approach due to Saha is based on the assumption of chemical equilibrium between charged and neutral components. This is equivalent to minimizing the free energy with respect to the composition. Here we improve an expression for the free energy developed recently to determine Hugoniot curves and isentropes in dense hydrogen and deuterium plasma in the regions of partial dissociation and partial ionization. We show that at high pressures the influence of the excluded volume occupied by neutral species is crucial for the transition to full ionization. We present curves for several thermodynamic functions for the region 5000 K < T < 20000 K and 0.6 g/cm3 < , < 1 g/cm3. The influence of the effective radii of the neutral species is crucial in the transition region. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Numerical modeling of frequency influence on the electromagnetic stirring of semiconductor melts

    C. Stelian
    Abstract Alternating magnetic fields can be used in order to increase the level of convection and to mix the doped semiconductor alloys. A numerical analysis of the electromagnetic induced convection in GaInSb semiconductor melts is performed by using the software package CrysVUn. The magnetic field parameters are varied in order to obtain a maximum efficiency of the induced convection with a minimum quantity of the heat released in the melt. The influence of the electrical current frequency on the convection intensity is analyzed for samples with various radii (R = 0.5 , 3cm). Numerical procedure is validated by comparing the numerical results obtained in mercury samples with the experimental data given from the literature, which show a maximum stirring for a magnetic skin depth , = 0.2R , in the case of a mercury sample with the radius R = 10 cm. This maximum corresponds to a shielding parameter R, = 40. Our numerical results show that the value of the shielding parameter for which the convection intensity reaches the maximum depends on the sample radius and increases when the sample radius increases. The results of this analysis are important in the case of samples with small radius, when a good mixing of the melt can be obtained for frequencies much lower than those corresponding to a shielding parameter R, = 40. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Radii of Redox Components from Absolute Redox Potentials Compared with Covalent and Aqueous Ionic Radii

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 9 2010
    Raji Heyrovska
    Abstract Aqueous standard potentials, referred to that of the SHE as zero, were recently shown to vary linearly with gaseous ionization potentials, with the absolute potential of SHE as the intercept. This enabled arriving at the absolute redox potentials of elements. Here, the distances between the oxidized and reduced forms in aqueous solutions have been evaluated. From the linear dependence of these distances on the covalent radii of atoms, the radii of the redox components have been obtained. The latter also vary linearly with the aqueous ionic radii estimated earlier from ion-water distances, and indicate the presence of aqueous molecular anions. [source]

    Regular Arrays of Microdisk Electrodes: Numerical Simulation as an Optimizing Tool to Maximize the Current Response and Minimize the Electrode Area Used

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 23 2006
    Abstract Microdisk electrode arrays constitute an interesting tool for electroanalysis and electrocatalysis due to their increased sensitivity and excellent limits of detection. We first demonstrate that a 2-dimensional simulation based on the diffusion domain approximation can be used to simulate the response of such electrochemical systems and therefore improve their design and fabrication process. Second, we report data showing the peak current response for arrays at three typically employed voltage scan rate as a function of the number of disks per unit area and their radii. [source]

    Disposable Gold Electrodes with Reproducible Area Using Recordable CDs and Toner Masks

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 1 2006
    Denise Lowinsohn
    Abstract The fabrication and characterization of very cheap disposable gold disk electrodes with reproducible area is reported. The innovation of the proposed procedure is the use of toner masks to define reproducible areas on uniform gold surfaces obtained from recordable compact disks (CD-R). Toner masks are drawn in a laser printer and heat transferred to gold surfaces, defining exactly the electrodes area. The electrochemical behavior of these disposable electrodes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in Fe(CN)64, solutions. The relative standard deviation for signals obtained from 10 different gold electrodes was below 1 %. The size of the disk electrodes can be easily controlled, as attested by voltammetric responses recorded by using electrodes with radii varying from 0.5 to 3.0,mm. The advantages of using this kind of electrode for analytical measurements of substances that strongly adsorb on the electrode surface such as cysteine are also addressed. [source]

    The Electrochemical Oxidation of N,N -Diethyl- p -Phenylenediamine in DMF and Analytical Applications.

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2003
    Part I: Mechanistic Study
    Abstract The electrochemical oxidation of N,N -diethyl- p -phenylenediamine in dimethylformamide has been studied at platinum and gold microdisk electrodes of various radii between 6.7 and 66,,m. The voltammetric responses revealed two electrochemically reversible waves the second of which becomes larger at higher concentrations and bigger electrode radii. The voltammetric signals have been modelled and the electrochemical oxidation reaction is not inconsistent with an ECrevECE reaction. Kinetic parameters are reported. [source]

    Enantioselectivity of alcohol-modified polymeric surfactants in micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2003
    Jepkoech Tarus
    Abstract A novel method of modifying sodium undecanoyl- L -leucinate (SUL) micelles employed in chiral separation of analytes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) to enhance selectivity toward specific analytes is discussed. The current study aimed at modifying the SUL micelles by introducing different alcohols into the mono-SUL micelles. The micellar solutions were then polymerized in the presence of alcohols followed by postpolymerization extraction of the alcohols to yield alcohol-free polymeric surfactants (poly- L -SUL). The effects of hexanol (C6OH) and undecylenyl alcohol (C11OH) on micellar properties of this surfactant were investigated by use of surface tensiometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient-nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR), and MEKC. The surface tension and PFG-NMR studies indicated an increase in the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and micellar size upon increasing the alcohol concentration. Fluorescence measurements suggested that alcohols induce closely packed micellar structures. Coumarinic and benzoin derivatives, as well as (±)-1, 1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dihydrogen phosphate (BNP) were used as test analytes for MEKC experiments. Examination of MEKC data showed remarkable resolutions and capacity factors of coumarinic derivatives obtained with modified poly- L -SUL as compared to the unmodified poly- L -SUL. Evaluation of fluorescence, PFG-NMR, and MEKC data suggest a strong correlation between the polarity and hydrodynamic radii of alcohol-modified micelles and the resolution of the test analytes. [source]

    Capillary electrophoretic study of the binding of zinc(II) ion to bacitracin A1 in water-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2003
    Massimo Castagnola
    Abstract Binding of Zn2+ to bacitracin A1 was studied by capillary electrophoresis in water/2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (70/30 v/v) at different apparent pH values in order to estimate the association constant of metal, the acidic dissociation constants and the Stokes radii of both free and bounded peptide in apolar environment. The Stokes radii of the free peptide species were compared with those in aqueous solution, as obtained in a recent study performed by our group, indicating that apolar environment stabilizes bacitracin A1 in a conformational structure with the lateral chain of apolar amino acids exposed on the external surface. This conformation of the macrocyclic dodecapeptide is ready to interact with Zn2+ ion, as pointed out by the strong increase of the association constant measured in water/2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with respect to the value obtained in aqueous solution. In addition, whereas Zn2+ ion binding in aqueous solution provides a sensible reduction of peptide Stokes radius, no sensible variations following to ion binding were observed in hydro-organic solution. The present results suggest that the apolar environment, rather than the metal ion binding, could be responsible for the conformational transition that brings bacitracin A1 towards its biologically active structure.* [source]

    Isostructural Potassium and Thallium Salts of Sterically Crowded Thio- and Selenophenols: A Structural and Computational Study

    Denis Bubrin
    Abstract Because of their similar cationic radii, potassium and thallium(I) compounds are usually regarded as closely related. Homologous molecular species containing either K+ or Tl+ are very rare, however. We have synthesized potassium and thallium salts MEAr* [M, E = K, S (2a); K, Se (2b); Tl, S (3a); Tl, Se (3b); Ar* = 2,6-Trip2C6H3, Trip = 2,4,6- iPr3C6H2] derived from terphenyl-substituted thio- and selenophenols. In the solid-state structures of dimeric 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b additional metal-,n,,-arene interactions to the flanking arms of the terphenyl substituents of different hapticity n are observed. Remarkably, the homologous potassium and thallium complexes 2b and 3b crystallize in isomorphous cells. For 2a, 3a, and model complexes of the composition METph (Tph = C6H4 -2-Trip) the nature of the M,E and M···C(arene) bonding was studied by density functional theory calculations.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Dynamic light scattering study of an amelogenin gel-like matrix in vitro

    Vassiliki Petta
    Amelogenin self-assembly is critical for the structural organization of apatite crystals during enamel mineralization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of temperature and protein concentration on the aggregation of amelogenin nanospheres at high protein concentrations (> 4.4 mg ml,1) in order to obtain an insight into the mechanism of amelogenin self-assembly to form higher-order structures. Amelogenins were extracted from enamel scrapings of unerupted mandibular pig molars. The dynamics of protein solutions were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of temperature and at acidic pH. At pH 4,5.5, three kinds of particles were observed, ranging in size from 3 to 80 nm. At pH 6, heating the solution above ,,30°C resulted in a drastic change in the solution transparency, from clear to opaque. Low pH showed no aggregation effect, whilst solutions at a slightly acidic pH exhibited diffusion dynamics associated with the onset of aggregation. In addition, at the same temperature range, the hydrodynamic radii of the aggregates increased drastically, by almost one order of magnitude. These observations support the view that hydrophobic interactions are the primary driving force for the pH- and temperature-sensitive self-assembly of amelogenin particles in a ,gel-like' matrix. The trend of self-assembly in a ,gel-like matrix' is similar to that in solution. [source]

    X-ray Crystal Structure Study of Sterically Congested Diphenyldiazomethanes

    Takashi Iikubo
    Abstract X-ray crystallographic structures were determined for five diphenyldiazomethanes (DDMs) with various ortho substituents, namely, bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)diazomethane, bis(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)diazomethane, bis(4- tert -butyl-2,6-dibromophenyl)diazomethane, (4- tert -butyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)diazomethane, and [4- tert -butyl-2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl](4- tert -butyl-2,6-dibromophenyl)diazomethane, and for bis(4-bromophenyl)diazomethane, a DDM with no ortho substituents. The correlation between the structural parameters, the ESR zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the lifetimes of the triplet diphenylcarbenes (DPCs) generated from these diazo compounds was examined. It is noted that as ortho substituents are introduced onto the phenyl rings of the DDMs, the interplanar angle between the two phenyl rings increases, while the angle of the diazo carbon changes very little. DDM 6 -N2, from which the longest-lived triplet carbene is generated, is shown to have the largest interplanar angle of the DDMs examined. The bond distances between the aromatic carbons and the ortho substituents as well as the van der Waals radii of the substituents were also examined. These studies do not provide a quantitative correlation between the structural parameters of the precursor DDMs and the ZFS parameters and lifetimes of their photoproducts, triplet DPCs, but show how steric shielding of the ortho substituents affects the structures and stabilities of triplet DPCs. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]

    Effects of moisture content, impulse polarity and earth electrode's dimension on dry and wet sand under high voltage conditions

    N. Mohamad Nor
    Abstract The study on the physics of discharges in soil and performance of earthing networks subjected to lightning currents are important in order to improve the reliability of electrical systems and to obtain better electrical models of earthing systems. The soil characteristics of various moisture contents under high-impulse currents have been well studied in previous studies. In this present study, fast impulse generator is used to investigate the dry soil characteristics in two cylindrical test cells of different outer radii; 15 and 20,cm under high magnitude fast impulse conditions of both impulse polarities. This allows to study the characteristics of dry soil under high-impulse current conditions, and allows a comparison between the dry and wet soil characteristics under high-impulse conditions such as before and after breakdown of the test cell. In this study, the effects of impulse polarities, moisture content in soil and the outer dimensions of test cell on the soil characteristics under high-impulse currents were investigated. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fatigue-relevant stress field parameters of welded lap joints: pointed slit tip compared with keyhole notch

    ABSTRACT The notch stress intensity factor (NSIF) based analytical frame is applied to the slit tips (or weld roots) of welded joints with inclusion of the T-stress component. This T-stress can be determined from FE models evaluating the ligament stresses close to the pointed slit tip. An alternative analytical frame is presented for the corresponding keyhole notches based on analytical solutions from the literature, which are applied to the ligament stresses. In the slit tip models, the mean local strain energy density (SED) with inclusion of the T-stress effect is determined analytically and numerically in comparison, using two different fatigue-relevant control radii,,R0= 0.28 mm and,R0= 0.15 mm, the former value well proven for thick-sheet welded joints made of structural steel. The latter smaller value is tentatively proposed for thin-sheet welded joints, in the direction suggested in the recent literature where a reduction of the microstructural support length for laser beam welds and resistance spot welds is recommended. The FEM-based and analytical stress concentration factors (SCF) for the lap joint keyhole model and also the SED values for the corresponding pointed slit tips are found to be in good agreement. The,J -integral consisting of the first and second component (the latter containing the T-stress) is compared with the corresponding SED values. [source]