Radio Sources (radio + source)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Radio Sources

  • compact radio source
  • extragalactic radio source
  • first radio source
  • powerful radio source
  • spectrum radio source
  • young radio source

  • Selected Abstracts

    The extraordinary radio galaxy MRC B1221,423: probing deeper at radio and optical wavelengths

    Helen M. Johnston
    ABSTRACT We present optical spectra and high-resolution multiwavelength radio observations of the compact steep-spectrum radio source MRC B1221,423 (z= 0.1706). MRC B1221,423 is a very young (,105 yr), powerful radio source which is undergoing a tidal interaction with a companion galaxy. We find strong evidence of interaction between the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and its environment. The radio morphology is highly distorted, showing a dramatic interaction between the radio jet and the host galaxy, with the jet being turned almost back on itself. H i observations show strong absorption against the nucleus at an infall velocity of ,250 km s,1 compared to the stellar velocity, as well as a second, broader component which may represent gas falling into the nucleus. Optical spectra show that star formation is taking place across the whole system. Broad optical emission lines in the nucleus show evidence of outflow. Our observations confirm that MRC B1221,423 is a young radio source in a gas-rich nuclear environment, and that there was a time delay of a few times 100 Myr between the onset of star formation and the triggering of the AGN. [source]

    The disc-dominated host galaxy of FR-I radio source B2 0722+30

    B. H. C. Emonts
    ABSTRACT We present new observational results that conclude that the nearby radio galaxy B2 0722+30 is one of the very few known disc galaxies in the low-redshift Universe that host a classical double-lobed radio source. In this paper, we use H i observations, deep optical imaging, stellar population synthesis modelling and emission-line diagnostics to study the host galaxy, classify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and investigate environmental properties under which a radio-loud AGN can occur in this system. Typical for spiral galaxies, B2 0722+30 has a regularly rotating gaseous disc throughout which star formation occurs. Dust heating by the ongoing star formation is likely responsible for the high infrared luminosity of the system. The optical emission-line properties of the central region identify a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (LINER)-type nucleus with a relatively low [O iii] luminosity, in particular when compared with the total power of the Fanaroff & Riley type-I radio source that is present in this system. This classifies B2 0722+30 as a classical radio galaxy rather than a typical Seyfert galaxy. The environment of B2 0722+30 is extremely H i -rich, with several nearby interacting galaxies. We argue that a gas-rich interaction involving B2 0722+30 is a likely cause for the triggering of the radio AGN and/or the fact that the radio source managed to escape the optical boundaries of the host galaxy. [source]

    Shock heating in the group atmosphere of the radio galaxy B2 0838+32A

    Nazirah N. Jetha
    ABSTRACT We present Chandra and radio observations, and analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, of the radio galaxy B2 0838+32A (4C 32.26) and its environment. The radio galaxy is at the centre of a nearby group that has often been identified with the cluster Abell 695, but we argue that the original Abell cluster is likely to be an unrelated and considerably more distant system. The radio source is a restarting radio galaxy and, using our Chandra data, we argue that the currently active lobes are expanding supersonically, driving a shock with Mach number 2.4+1.0,0.5 into the interstellar medium. This would be only the third strong shock round a young radio source to be discovered, after Centaurus A and NGC 3801. However, in contrast to both these systems, the host galaxy of B2 0838+32A shows no evidence for a recent merger, while the active galactic nuclei (AGN) spectrum shows no evidence for the dusty torus that would imply a large reservoir of cold gas close to the central black hole. On the contrary, the AGN spectrum is of a type that has been associated with the presence of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow that could be controlled by an AGN heating and subsequent cooling of the hot, X-ray emitting gas. If correct, this means that B2 0838+32A is the first source in which we can directly see entropy-increasing processes (shocks) driven by accretion from the hot phase of the interstellar medium. [source]

    Structures of the magnetoionic media around the Fanaroff,Riley Class I radio galaxies 3C 31 and Hydra A

    R. A. Laing
    ABSTRACT We use high-quality Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Fanaroff,Riley Class I radio galaxy 3C 31 at six frequencies in the range 1365,8440 MHz to explore the spatial scale and origin of the rotation measure (RM) fluctuations on the line of sight to the radio source. We analyse the distribution of the degree of polarization to show that the large depolarization asymmetry between the north and south sides of the source seen in earlier work largely disappears as the resolution is increased. We show that the depolarization seen at low resolution results primarily from unresolved gradients in a Faraday screen in front of the synchrotron-emitting plasma. We establish that the residual degree of polarization in the short-wavelength limit should follow a Burn law and we fit such a law to our data to estimate the residual depolarization at high resolution. We discuss how to interpret the structure function of RM fluctuations in the presence of a finite observing beam and how to address the effects of incomplete sampling of RM distribution using a Monte Carlo approach. We infer that the observed RM variations over selected areas of 3C 31, and the small residual depolarization found at high resolution, are consistent with a power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in front of 3C 31 whose power-law slope changes significantly on the scales sampled by our data. The power spectrum P(f) can only have the form expected for Kolmogorov turbulence [P(f) ,f,11/3] on scales ,5 kpc. On larger scales, we find . We briefly discuss the physical interpretation of these results. We also compare the global variations of RM across 3C 31 with the results of three-dimensional simulations of the magnetic-field fluctuations in the surrounding magnetoionic medium. We infer that the RM variation across 3C 31 is qualitatively as expected from relativistic-jet models of the brightness asymmetry wherein the apparently brighter jet is on the near side of the nucleus and is seen through less magnetoionic material than the fainter jet. We show that our data are inconsistent with observing 3C 31 through a spherically symmetric magnetoionic medium, but that they are consistent with a field distribution that favours the plane perpendicular to the jet axis , probably because the radio source has evacuated a large cavity in the surrounding medium. We also apply our analysis techniques to the case of Hydra A, where the shape and the size of the cavities produced by the source in the surrounding medium are known from X-ray data. We emphasize that it is essential to account for the potential exclusion of magnetoionic material from a large volume containing the radio source when using the RM variations to derive statistical properties of the fluctuations in the foreground magnetic field. [source]

    Deep spectroscopy of 9C J1503+4528: a very young compact steep spectrum radio source at z= 0.521

    K. J. Inskip
    ABSTRACT 9C J1503+4528 is a very young compact steep spectrum radio galaxy, with an age of the order of 104 yr. This source is therefore an ideal laboratory for the study of the intrinsic host galaxy/intergalactic medium properties, interactions between the radio source and surrounding interstellar medium, links between star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and the radio source triggering mechanism. Here we present the results of a spectroscopic analysis of this source, considering each of these aspects of radio source physics. We find that shock ionization by the young radio source is important in the central regions of the galaxy on scales similar to that of the radio source itself, whilst evidence for an AGN ionization cone is observed at greater distances. Line and continuum features require the presence of a young stellar population (YSP), the best-fitting model for which implies an age of 5 106 yr, significantly older than the radio source. Most interestingly, the relative sizes of radio source and extended emission-line region suggest that both AGN and radio source are triggered at approximately the same time. If both the triggering of the radio source activity and the formation of the YSP had the same underlying cause, this source provides a sequence for the events surrounding the triggering process. We propose that the AGN activity in 9C J1503+4528 was caused by a relatively minor interaction, and that a supermassive black hole powering the radio jets must have been in place before the AGN was triggered. [source]

    A Chandra observation of the disturbed cluster core of Abell 2204

    J. S. Sanders
    ABSTRACT We present results from an observation of the luminous cluster of galaxies Abell 2204 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We show the core of the cluster has a complex morphological structure, made up of a high-density core (ne, 0.2 cm,3) with flat surface brightness, a surrounding central plateau, a tail-like feature, wrapping around to the east, and an unusual radio source. A temperature map and deprojected profile shows that the temperature rises steeply outside these regions, until around ,100 kpc where it drops, then rises again. Abundance maps and profiles show that there is a corresponding increase in abundance at the same radius as where the temperature drops. In addition, there are two cold fronts at radii of ,28 and 54.5 kpc. The disturbed morphology indicates that the cluster core may have undergone a merger. However, despite this disruption, the mean radiative cooling time in the centre is short (,230 Myr) and the morphology is regular on large scales. [source]

    Particle energies and filling fractions of radio bubbles in cluster cores

    R. J. H. Dunn
    ABSTRACT Using Chandra images of cluster cores with clear radio bubbles, we have determined k, which is the ratio of the total particle energy to that of the electrons radiating between 10 MHz and 10 GHz. Radiative and dynamical constraints on the bubbles indicate that the ratio of the energy factor, k, to the volume filling factor, f, lies within the range 1 ,k/f, 1000. Assuming pressure equilibrium between the radio-emitting plasma and the surrounding X-ray gas, none of the lobes has equipartition between relativistic particles and magnetic field. There is no evidence for any dependence of the upper limit of the k/f ratio on any physical parameter of the cluster or the radio source. The distribution of the upper limit on k/f appears to be bimodal, the value being ,3 for some clusters and ,300 for the others. We show that this may be due to the composition of the jet which forms the bubbles, the variation in the volume filling fraction or variation in the amount of reacceleration occurring in the bubble. [source]

    Radio detections of the neutron star X-ray binaries 4U 1820 , 30 and Ser X-1 in soft X-ray states

    S. Migliari
    ABSTRACT We present the analysis of simultaneous X-ray (RXTE) and radio (VLA) observations of two atoll-type neutron star X-ray binaries: 4U 1820 , 30 and Ser X-1. Both sources were steadily in the soft (,banana') X-ray state during the observations. We have detected the radio counterpart of 4U 1820 , 30 at 4.86 and 8.46 GHz at a flux density of ,0.1 mJy. This radio source is positionally coincident with the radio pulsar PSR 1820 , 30A. However, the radio emission of the pulsar falls rapidly with frequency (,,,3), and we argue that the radio emission of the X-ray binary is dominant above ,2 GHz. Supporting this interpretation, comparison with previous observations reveals variability at the higher radio frequencies that is likely to be due to the X-ray binary. We have detected for the first time the radio counterpart of Ser X-1 at 8.46 GHz, also at a flux density of ,0.1 mJy. The position of the radio counterpart has allowed us to identify its optical counterpart unambiguously. We briefly discuss similarities and differences between the disc,jet coupling in neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries. In particular, we draw attention to the fact that, contrary to other states, neutron star X-ray binaries seem to be more radio-loud than persistent black hole candidates when the emission is ,quenched' in the soft state. [source]

    J06587,5558: a very unusual polarized radio source

    H. Liang
    We have found a peculiar radio source, J06587,5558, in the field of one of the hottest known clusters of galaxies, 1E 0657,56. It is slightly extended and highly polarized (54 per cent at 8.8 GHz), and has a very steep spectrum, with at 1.3 GHz, steepening to , at 8.8 GHz . No extragalactic sources are known with such high integrated polarization, and sources with spectra as steep as this are rare. In this Letter, we report the unusual properties of the source J06587,5558 and speculate on its origin and optical identification. [source]

    Emission-line outflows in PKS1549,79: the effects of the early stages of radio-source evolution?

    C. Tadhunter
    We present new spectroscopic observations of the southern radio galaxy . Despite the flat-spectrum character of the radio emission from this source, our optical spectra show no sign of the broad permitted lines and non-stellar continuum characteristic of quasar nuclei and broad-line radio galaxies. However, the high-ionization forbidden lines, including [O iii],,5007, 4959, are unusually broad for a narrow-line radio galaxy , and are blueshifted by 600 km s,1 relative to the low-ionization lines such as [O ii],,3726,3729. The [O ii] lines are also considerably narrower than the [O iii] lines, and have a redshift consistent with that of the recently detected H i 21-cm absorption-line system. Whereas the kinematics of the [O iii] emission lines are consistent with outflow in an inner narrow-line region, the properties of the [O ii] emission lines suggest that they are emitted by a more extended and quiescent gaseous component. We argue that, given the radio properties of the source, our line of sight is likely to be lying close to the direction of bulk outflow of the radio jets. In this case it is probable that the quasar nucleus is entirely obscured at optical wavelengths by the material responsible for the H i absorption-line system. The unusually broad [O iii] emission lines suggest that the radio source is intrinsically compact. Overall, our data are consistent the idea that is a radio source in an early stage of evolution. [source]

    On the evolution of young radio-loud AGN

    I. A. G. Snellen
    This paper describes an investigation of the early evolution of extragalactic radio sources using samples of faint and bright gigahertz peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies. Correlations found between their peak frequency, peak flux density and angular size provide strong evidence that synchrotron self-absorption is the cause of the spectral turnovers, and indicate that young radio sources evolve in a self-similar way. In addition, the data seem to suggest that the sources are in equipartition while they evolve. If GPS sources evolve to large size radio sources, their redshift dependent birth-functions should be the same. Therefore, since the lifetimes of radio sources are thought to be short compared to the Hubble time, the observed difference in redshift distribution between GPS and large size sources must be due to a difference in slope of their luminosity functions. We argue that this slope is strongly affected by the luminosity evolution of the individual sources. A scenario for the luminosity evolution is proposed in which GPS sources increase in luminosity and large-scale radio sources decrease in luminosity with time. This evolution scenario is expected for a ram-pressure confined radio source in a surrounding medium with a King profile density. In the inner parts of the King profile, the density of the medium is constant and the radio source builds up its luminosity, but after it grows large enough the density of the surrounding medium declines and the luminosity of the radio source decreases. A comparison of the local luminosity function (LLF) of GPS galaxies with that of extended sources is a good test for this evolution scenario. Unfortunately, only a handful of GPS sources are known at low redshift, and an LLF can only be derived, assuming that their cosmological number density evolution is similar to that of steep spectrum sources. The LLF derived in this way is shown to be in good agreement with the proposed evolution scenario. However, the uncertainties are large, and larger, homogeneously selected samples of GPS sources are needed. [source]

    Ionization, shocks and evolution of the emission-line gas of distant 3CR radio galaxies

    P. N. Best
    An analysis of the kinematics and ionization state of the emission-line gas of a sample of 14 3CR radio galaxies with redshifts z,1 is carried out. The data used for these studies, deep long-slit spectroscopic exposures from the William Herschel Telescope, are presented in an accompanying paper. It is found that radio sources with small linear sizes (,150 kpc) have lower ionization states, higher emission-line fluxes and broader line widths than larger radio sources. An analysis of the low-redshift sample of Baum et al. demonstrates that radio galaxies at low redshift show similar evolution in their velocity structures and emission-line ratios from small to large radio sources. The emission-line ratios of small radio sources are in agreement with theoretical shock ionization predictions, and their velocity profiles are distorted. Together with the other emission-line properties, this indicates that shocks associated with the radio source dominate the kinematics and ionization of the emission-line gas during the period that the radio source is expanding through the interstellar medium. Gas clouds are accelerated by the shocks, giving rise to the irregular velocity structures observed, whilst shock compression of emission-line gas clouds and the presence of the ionizing photons associated with the shocks combine to lower the ionization state of the emission-line gas. By contrast, in larger sources the shock fronts have passed well beyond the emission-line regions; the emission-line gas of these larger radio sources has much more settled kinematical properties, indicative of rotation, and emission-line ratios consistent with the dominant source of ionizing photons being the active galactic nucleus. This strong evolution with radio size of the emission-line gas properties of powerful radio galaxies mirrors the radio size evolution seen in the nature of the optical,ultraviolet continuum emission of these sources, implying that the continuum alignment effect is likely to be related to the same radio source shocks. [source]

    Discovery of an unusual new radio source in the star-forming galaxy M82: faint supernova, supermassive black hole or an extragalactic microquasar?

    T. W. B. Muxlow
    ABSTRACT A faint new radio source has been detected in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy M82 using Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network radio observations designed to monitor the flux density evolution of the recent bright supernova SN 2008iz. This new source was initially identified in observations made between 2009 May 1 and 5 but had not been present in observations made 1 week earlier, or in any previous observations of M82. In this Letter, we report the discovery of this new source and monitoring of its evolution over its first 9 months of existence. The true nature of this new source remains unclear, and we discuss whether this source is an unusual and faint supernova, a supermassive black hole associated with the nucleus of M82 or intriguingly the first detection of radio emission from an extragalactic microquasar. [source]

    Relationship between the [O III] , 5007 line and 5 GHz radio emission

    3Article first published online: 13 FEB 200, A. Labiano
    Abstract I have compiled observations of [O III] , 5007 line and 5 GHz radio emission for a large sample of GPS, CSS and FR sources. Several properties were studied and compared. The most relevant findings are that the FWHM and the luminosity of the [O III] , 5007 line are correlated with the size of the radio source. I present the data and discuss the correlations, with special focus on jet-host interaction, triggering and enhancing of [O III] , 5007 emission ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    A multi-wavelength view of the archetypical CSS radio galaxy 3C303.1: Evidence for shocks and induced star formation

    C.P. O'Dea
    Abstract I discuss multi-wavelength data on the archetypal CSS radio galaxy 3C303.1. The radio source is sub-galactic in scale where it can directly affect the ISM of the host galaxy. The emission line kinematics and ionization diagnostics are consistent with energy input from shocks driven by the radio source. The Spitzer IRS spectrum indicates that star formation is occurring in the host galaxy. The HST/ACS/HRC UV image shows UV light which is aligned with the radio source axis. I suggest that the UV light is from young stars which have been triggered by the radio lobes. XMM observations detect the ISM of the host galaxy with a temperature of 0.8 keV plus an additional component whose properties are not well defined. I suggest the second component is a hot shocked gas (T = 45 keV) consistent with a Mach number of 13 for the expanding bow shock. Thus, the multi-wavelength data give a consistent picture in which the radio source drives shocks into the ISM which ionize dense clouds, trigger star formation, and shock heat the hot component of the ISM to very high temperature. These observations demonstrate that radio sources can provide significant feedback to their host galaxy ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    X-ray emission from GPS and CSS sources

    A. Siemiginowska
    Abstract Many X-ray observations of GigaHertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum sources have been made with Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton Observatory over the last few years. The X-ray spectra contribute the important information to the total energy distribution of the compact radio sources. In addition the spatial resolution of Chandra allows for studies of the X-ray morphology of these sources on arcsec scales and provide a direct view of their environments. This paper gives a review of the current status of the X-ray observations and their contribution to our understanding of the nature of these compact radio sources. It also describes primary physical processes that lead to the observed X-ray emission and summarize X-ray emission properties expected from interactions between an expanding radio source and the intergalactic environment ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Fate of baby radio galaxies: Dead or alive?

    N. Kawakatu
    Abstract In order to reveal the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we examine the dynamical evolution of variously-sized radio galaxies [i.e., compact symmetric objects (CSOs), medium-size symmetric objects (MSOs), Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies (FRIIs)]. By comparing the observed relation between the hot spot size and the linear size of radio source with a coevolution model of hot spot and cocoon, we find that the advance speed of hot spots and lobes inevitably show the deceleration phase (CSO-MSO phase) and the acceleration phase (MSO-FRII phase). The deceleration is caused by the growth of the cross-sectional area of the cocoon head. Moreover, by comparing the hot spot speed with the sound speed of the ambient medium, we predict that only CSOs whose initial advance speed is higher than 0.3,0.5 c can evolve into FRIIs ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Linear polarization in small radio sources

    A. Rossetti
    Abstract Polarimetric observations at 5 and 8.4 GHz have been performed for 3 CSS quasars. These observations are part of a programme aimed at studying the polarization characteristics of the core regions, jets, and lobes in such objects and at possibly finding of jet-cloud interactions in CSSs. The behaviour of the fractional polarization and of the observed polarization angle as a function of ,2 provides information on the density distribution of the ISM embedding the radio source, on its clumpiness and on the ordered and random components of the interstellar magnetic field. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    The ionization of the emission-line gas in young radio galaxies

    J. Holt
    ABSTRACT This paper is the second in a series in which we present intermediate-resolution, wide-wavelength coverage spectra for a complete sample of 14 compact radio sources, taken with the aim of investigating the impact of the nuclear activity on the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM) in the early stages of radio source evolution. In the first paper (Holt, Tadhunter & Morganti), we presented the kinematic results from the nuclear emission-line modelling and reported fast outflows in the circumnuclear gas. In this paper, we use the line fluxes to investigate the physical conditions and dominant ionization mechanisms of the emission-line gas. We find evidence for large electron densities and high reddening in the nuclear regions, particularly in the broader, blueshifted components. These results are consistent with the idea that the young, recently triggered radio sources still reside in dense and dusty cocoons deposited by the recent activity triggering event (merger/interaction). In addition, we find that the quiescent nuclear and extended narrow components are consistent with active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization, split between simple-slab AGN photoionization and mixed-medium photoionization models. For the nuclear broader and shifted components, the results are less clear. Whilst there are suggestions that the broader components may be closer to shock plus precursor models on the diagnostic diagrams, and that the electron temperatures and densities are high, we are unable to unambiguously distinguish the dominant ionization mechanism using the optical emission-line ratios. This is surprising given the strong evidence for jet,cloud interactions (broad emission lines, large outflow velocities and strong radio-optical alignments), which favours the idea that the warm gas has been accelerated in shocks driven by the radio lobes expanding through a dense cocoon of gas deposited during the triggering event. [source]

    Radio imaging of the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field , II.

    The 37 brightest radio sources
    ABSTRACT We study the 37 brightest radio sources in the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 24 of 37 objects and photometric redshifts for the remainder, yielding a median redshift zmed for the whole sample of zmed, 1.1 and a median radio luminosity close to the ,Fanaroff,Riley type I/type II (FR I/FR II)' luminosity divide. Using mid-infrared (mid-IR) (Spitzer MIPS 24 ,m) data we expect to trace nuclear accretion activity, even if it is obscured at optical wavelengths, unless the obscuring column is extreme. Our results suggest that above the FR I/FR II radio luminosity break most of the radio sources are associated with objects that have excess mid-IR emission, only some of which are broad-line objects, although there is one clear low-accretion-rate object with an FR I radio structure. For extended steep-spectrum radio sources, the fraction of objects with mid-IR excess drops dramatically below the FR I/FR II luminosity break, although there exists at least one high-accretion-rate ,radio-quiet' QSO. We have therefore shown that the strong link between radio luminosity (or radio structure) and accretion properties, well known at z, 0.1, persists to z, 1. Investigation of mid-IR and blue excesses shows that they are correlated as predicted by a model in which, when significant accretion exists, a torus of dust absorbs ,30 per cent of the light, and the dust above and below the torus scatters ,1 per cent of the light. [source]

    Anomalous SZ contribution to three-year WMAP data

    R. M. Bielby
    ABSTRACT We first show that the new Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3-yr data confirm the detection by Myers et al. of an extended SZ signal centred on 606 Abell (ACO) clusters with richness class, R, 2. Our results also show SZ decrements around APM and 2MASS groups at increased significance than previously detected. We then follow the approach of Lieu, Mittaz & Zhang and compare the stacked WMAP results for the decrement in 31 clusters with ROSAT X-ray profiles where Lieu et al. found on average less SZ decrement in the WMAP 1-yr data than predicted. We confirm that in the 3-yr data these same clusters again show less SZ decrement than the X-ray data predict. We then analysed the WMAP results for the 38 X-ray clusters with OVRO/BIMA measured SZ decrements as presented by Bonamente et al.. We again find that the average decrement is measured to be significantly less (5.5,) than predicted by the Chandra X-ray data. Thus while we confirm the original detection of an extended SZ effect by Myers et al., these X-ray comparisons may now suggest that the central SZ amplitudes detected by WMAP may actually be lower than expected. One possible explanation is that there is contamination of the WMAP SZ signal by radio sources in the clusters but we argue that this appears implausible. We then consider the possibility that the SZ decrement has been lensed away by foreground galaxy groups. Such a model predicts that the SZ decrement should depend on cluster redshift. A reduction in the SZ decrement with redshift is suggested from the ACO cluster sample and also from comparing the samples of Lieu et al. and Bonamente et al.. However, the mass power spectrum would require a far higher amplitude than currently expected if lensing was to explain the SZ deficit in high-redshift clusters. [source]

    A sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz in the Lynx and Hercules fields , I. Radio imaging, multicolour photometry and spectroscopy

    E. E. Rigby
    ABSTRACT With the goal of identifying high-redshift radio galaxies with Fanaroff,Riley class I (FR I) classification, here are presented high-resolution, wide-field radio observations, near-infrared and optical imaging and multi-object spectroscopy of two fields of the Leiden,Berkeley Deep Survey. These fields, Hercules.1 and Lynx.2, contain a complete sample of 81 radio sources with S1.4 GHz > 0.5 mJy within 0.6 deg2. This sample will form the basis for a study of the population and cosmic evolution of high-redshift, low-power, FR I radio sources which will be presented in Paper II. Currently, the host galaxy identification fraction is 86 per cent with 11 sources remaining unidentified at a level of r,, 25.2 mag (Hercules; four sources) or r,, 24.4 mag (Lynx; seven sources) or K, 20 mag. Spectroscopic redshifts have been determined for 49 per cent of the sample and photometric redshift estimates are presented for the remainder of the sample. [source]

    Imaging and spectroscopy of ultrasteep spectrum radio sources,

    Carlos G. Bornancini
    ABSTRACT We present a sample of 40 ultrasteep spectrum (USS; ,,, 1.3, S,,,,) radio sources selected from the Westerbork in the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) catalogue. The USS sources have been imaged in K band at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal. We also present VLT, Keck and William Herschel Telescope (WHT) optical spectroscopy of 14 targets selection from four different USS samples. For 12 sources, we have been able to determine the redshifts, including four new radio galaxies at z > 3. We find that most of our USS sources have predominantly small (<6 arcsec) radio sizes and faint magnitudes (K, 18). The mean K -band counterpart magnitude is . The expected redshift distribution estimated using the Hubble K,z diagram has a mean of , which is higher than the predicted redshift obtained for the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey,NRAO VLA Sky Survey (SUMSS,NVSS) sample and the expected redshift obtained in the 6C** survey. The compact USS sample analysed here may contain a higher fraction of galaxies which are high redshift and/or are heavily obscured by dust. Using the 74, 352 and 1400 MHz flux densities of a subsample, we construct a radio colour,colour diagram. We find that all but one of our USS sources have a strong tendency to flatten below 352 MHz. We also find that the highest redshift source from this paper (at z= 3.84) does not show evidence for spectral flattening down to 151 MHz. This suggests that very low frequency selected USS samples will likely be more efficient to find high redshift galaxies. [source]

    Hot and cold gas accretion and feedback in radio-loud active galaxies

    M. J. Hardcastle
    ABSTRACT We have recently shown that X-ray observations of the population of ,low-excitation' radio galaxies, which includes most low-power, Fanaroff,Riley class I sources as well as some more powerful Fanaroff,Riley class II objects, are consistent with a model in which the active nuclei of these objects are not radiatively efficient at any waveband. In another recent paper, Allen et al. have shown that Bondi accretion of the hot, X-ray emitting phase of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is sufficient to power the jets of several nearby, low-power radio galaxies at the centres of clusters. In this paper, we combine these ideas and suggest that accretion of the hot phase of the IGM is sufficient to power all low-excitation radio sources, while high-excitation sources are powered by accretion of cold gas that is in general unrelated to the hot IGM. This model explains a number of properties of the radio-loud active galaxy population, and has important implications for the energy input of radio-loud active galactic nuclei into the hot phase of the IGM: the energy supply of powerful high-excitation sources does not have a direct connection to the hot phase. [source]

    Chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium by FR II radio sources

    D. Heath
    ABSTRACT We present 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations investigating the long-term effect of Fanaroff,Riley type II radio galaxies on the metal distribution of the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM). A light jet is injected into a cooling flow atmosphere for 10,30 Myr. We then follow the subsequent evolution for 3 Gyr on a spherical grid spanning 3 Mpc in radius. A series of passive tracer particles were placed in an annulus about the cluster core to simulate metal carrying clouds in order to calculate the metallicity (Z) as a function of time and radial distance from the cluster centre. The jet has a significant effect on the ICM over the entire 3-Gyr period. By the end of the simulations, the jets produced metallicities of ,10 per cent of the initial metallicity of the cluster core throughout much of the cluster. The jets transport the metals not only in mixing regions, but also through upwelling ICM behind the jet, enriching the cluster over both long and short distances. [source]

    Long-term monitoring of the intra-day variable quasar PKS 0405,385

    L. Kedziora-Chudczer
    ABSTRACT The quasar PKS 0405,385 is one of three radio sources (the other two are PKS 1257,326 and J1819+385) which exhibit unusually strong and rapid interstellar scintillations at GHz frequencies. Such a behaviour suggests a nearby (<30 pc away) scattering screen along the line of sight to these radio sources. While quasars PKS 1257,326 and J1819+385 scintillate continuously over several years of monitoring, PKS 0405,385 shows episodes of strong scintillations which last only a few months. Here, I present the results of flux-density monitoring of PKS 0405,385 over 6 yr at four Stokes parameters and four frequencies. Two explanations of the episodic behaviour of interstellar scintillation in this source are discussed; morphological evolution of the source and changes in the properties of the interstellar medium along the line of sight. [source]

    Limits on the detectability of the CMB B-mode polarization imposed by foregrounds

    M. Tucci
    ABSTRACT We investigate which practical constraints are imposed by foregrounds on the detection of the B-mode polarization generated by gravitational waves, in the case of experiments of the type currently being planned. As the B-mode signal is probably dominated by foregrounds at all frequencies, the detection of the cosmological component depends drastically on our ability to remove foregrounds. We provide an analytical expression with which to estimate the level of the residual polarization for Galactic foregrounds, according to the method employed for their subtraction. We interpret this result in terms of the lower limit of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that allows us to disentangle the cosmological B-mode polarization from the foreground contribution. Polarized emission from extragalactic radio sources and gravitational lensing is also taken into account. As a first approach, we consider the ideal limit of an instrumental noise-free experiment: for full-sky coverage and a resolution of 1, we obtain a limit of r, 10,4. This value can be improved by high-resolution experiments and, in principle, there is no clear fundamental limit on the detectability of the polarization of gravitational waves. Our analysis is also applied to planned or hypothetical future polarization experiments, taking into account expected noise levels. [source]

    Spin temperatures and covering factors for H i 21-cm absorption in damped Lyman , systems

    S. J. Curran
    ABSTRACT We investigate the practice of assigning high spin temperatures to damped Lyman , absorption systems (DLAs) not detected in H i 21-cm absorption. In particular, Kanekar & Chengalur have attributed the mix of 21-cm detections and non-detections in low-redshift (zabs, 2.04) DLAs to a mix of spin temperatures, while the non-detections at high redshift were attributed to high spin temperatures. Below zabs= 0.9, where some of the DLA host galaxy morphologies are known, we find that 21-cm absorption is normally detected towards large radio sources when the absorber is known to be associated with a large intermediate (spiral) galaxy. Furthermore, at these redshifts, only one of the six 21-cm non-detections has an optical identification and these DLAs tend to lie along the sight-lines to the largest background radio continuum sources. For these and many of the high-redshift DLAs occulting large radio continua, we therefore expect covering factors of less than the assumed/estimated value of unity. This would have the effect of introducing a range of spin temperatures considerably narrower than the current range of ,Ts, 9000 K, while still supporting the hypothesis that the high-redshift DLA sample comprises a larger proportion of compact galaxies than the low-redshift sample. [source]

    A binary system of tailed radio galaxies

    I. Klamer
    ABSTRACT We present a detailed study of a binary system of tailed radio galaxies which, along with 3C 75, is the only such binary known to exist. The binary is located in a region of low galaxy density at the periphery of a poor cluster Abell S345, but lies close to the massive Horologium,Reticulum supercluster. The radio sources have bent-tail morphologies and show considerable meandering and wiggling along the jets, which are collimated throughout their lengths. This work presents observations of the large-scale-structure environment of the binary tailed radio sources with a view to examining the influence of large-scale flows on the morphology and dynamics of the associated radio tails. We argue that the orbital motions of the host galaxies together with tidal accelerations toward the supercluster have resulted in the complex structure seen in these radio tails. [source]

    Spectral dating of high-redshift stellar populations

    Ignacio Ferreras
    ABSTRACT Age derivation techniques for unresolved stellar populations at high redshifts are explored using the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectrum of LBDS 53W091 (z= 1.55) and LBDS 53W069 (z= 1.43). The photometry and morphology of these galaxies , which are weak radio sources , suggest they are early-type systems, a feature that makes them ideal testbeds for the analysis of their ages and metallicities with the use of population-synthesis models. In the analysis that is based on simple stellar population models, we find a significant degeneracy between the derived ages and metallicities both in optical+near-infrared (NIR) photometric and NUV spectroscopic analyses. This degeneracy is not so strong for LBDS 53W069. However, even in this case the stellar age cannot be constrained better than to a range roughly encompassing one-third of the age of the Universe at z= 1.43 (90 per cent confidence level). We have explored several independent population-synthesis models and consistently found similar results. Broad-band photometry straddling the rest-frame 4000- break is also subject to a strong age,metallicity degeneracy. The use of realistic chemical enrichment assumptions significantly helps in disentangling the degeneracy. Based on this method, we derive the average stellar age for both galaxies around ,t,,, 3.6,3.8 Gyr with better constraints on the youngest possible ages (,3 Gyr at the 90 per cent confidence level). The comparison with simple stellar population models suggest subsolar metallicities (log Z/Z,=,0.2). A composite model using chemical enrichment gives slightly higher metallicities in both galaxies (log Z/Z,=, 0.1). Given that the stellar component in galaxies forms over times which are larger than a typical chemical enrichment time-scale, we conclude that composite stellar populations must be used in all photospectroscopic analyses of galaxies. From the observational point of view, the most efficient (and feasible) way to set limits on unresolved stellar populations comprises a combination of Balmer absorption lines along with either low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) rest-frame NUV spectroscopy or accurate optical and NIR photometry. [source]