Radical Prostatectomy (radical + prostatectomy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Radical Prostatectomy

  • laparoscopic radical prostatectomy
  • open radical prostatectomy
  • perineal radical prostatectomy
  • retropubic radical prostatectomy

  • Terms modified by Radical Prostatectomy

  • radical prostatectomy specimen

  • Selected Abstracts


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2010
    Christopher Eden
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,MEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH: Orgasmic Dysfunction After Open Radical Prostatectomy: Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Factors

    Yvette Dubbelman MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Erectile function after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) is extensively discussed in literature. However, less is known about orgasm after RRP. Aim., To analyze sexual function, in particularly orgasmic function, in men before and after RRP. Methods., Between 1977 and 2007 a RRP was performed in 1,021 men. All men were interviewed by their follow-up physician using a standardized interview about sexual function before and after RRP at regular intervals during a 2-year follow-up. The questions were related to sexual interest, sexual activity, spontaneous erections, and orgasmic function. Main Outcome Measures., Sexual function, in particularly orgasmic function, before and after RRP. Factors potentially influencing orgasmic function, such as patients age, type of operation, pathological stage and continence status were analyzed for their predictive value. Results., Information about preoperative and postoperative sexual activity and spontaneous erection was available in 596 and 698 men, respectively. Additional questions were asked on sexual interest (N = 425) and orgasmic function (N = 458). Pre-operatively, sexual interest, sexual activity, spontaneous erections and orgasmic function were normal in 99%, 82.1%, 90.0% and 90% of men, respectively. After operation these values decreased to 97.2%, 67.3%, 29.4% and 66.8%, respectively. Orgasmic function was preserved in 141 of 192 men (73.4%) after a bilateral nerve sparing procedure, in 90 out of 127 men (70.9%) after a unilateral nerve-sparing procedure and in 75 of 139 men (54.0%) after non-nerve sparing technique. Postoperatively, orgasm was present in 123 (77.4%) men below the age of 60 years and in 183 (61.2%) men of 60 years and older (P < 0.0001). Orgasmic function was significantly affected by age ,60 years, non-nerve sparing procedure and severe incontinence (more than two pads/day). Conclusions., After RRP, orgasmic function is still present in the majority of men. A non-nerve sparing operation, age, and severe urinary incontinence are risk factors for orgasmic dysfunction after RRP. Dubbelman Y, Wildhagen M, Schröder F, Bangma C, and Dohle G. Orgasmic dysfunction after open radical prostatectomy: Clinical correlates and prognostic factors. J Sex Med 2010;7:1216,1223. [source]

    Postoperative Orgasmic Function Increases over Time in Patients Undergoing Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy

    Andrew Salonia MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Postprostatectomy orgasmic function (OF) remains poorly defined. Aims., To assess OF over time in patients who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (BNSRRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). Methods., Baseline data were obtained from 334 consecutive preoperatively sexually active PCa patients at hospital admission; data included a medical and sexual history, IIEF domain scores, and ICIQ-SF. Questionnaire were then completed every 12 months postoperatively, and patients participated in a semistructured interview at the 12-month (191/334 [57.2%] patients), 24-month (95/334 [28.4%] patients), 36-month (42/334 [12.6%] patients), and 48-month (19/334 [5.7%] patients) follow-up (FU). Main Outcome Measures., IIEF-OF domain values throughout the FU. Multivariate linear regression analysis (MVA) of the association between predictors (patient's age, IIEF-erectile function [EF], ICIQ-SF, and the use of postoperative proerectile pharmacological treatments) and the IIEF-OF at 12-month, 24-month, and 36-month FU. Results., Preoperative mean (median) IIEF-OF was 7.6 (10). The anova analysis showed an increase of the IIEF-OF values (P = 0.008; F = 4.009) throughout the FU (namely, IIEF-OF 12-month: 6.1 [6]; 24-month: 7.2 [8]; 36-month: 7.3 [8]; and 48-month: 7.7 [9.50]). The 12-month MVA showed that while proerectile oral therapy did not affect postoperative OF (P = 0.150; Beta 0.081), IIEF-OF linearly increased with IIEF-EF (P < 0.001; Beta 0.425). Conversely, IIEF-OF linearly decreased with patient's age (P < 0.001; Beta ,0.135) and with ICQ-SF scores (P < 0.001; Beta ,0.438). The 24-month and 36-month analyses showed that IIEF-OF still linearly increased with IIEF-EF (P < 0.001; Beta 0.540, and P < 0.001; Beta 0.536 respectively at the 24- and 36-month FU), whereas pharmacological therapy, rate of urinary continence, and patient's age did not significantly affect postoperative OF. Conclusions., Postoperative OF significantly ameliorates over time in patients undergoing BNSRRP. The higher the postoperative EF score, the higher the OF throughout the FU time frame. Salonia A, Gallina A, Briganti A, Colombo R, Bertini R, Da Pozzo LF, Zanni G, Sacca A, Rocchini L, Guazzoni G, Rigatti P, and Montorsi F. Postoperative Orgasmic Function Increases over Time in Patients Undergoing Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy. J Sex Med 2010;7:149,155. [source]

    Erectile Function Recovery Rate after Radical Prostatectomy: A Meta-Analysis

    Raanan Tal MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Erectile function recovery (EFR) rates after radical prostatectomy (RP) vary greatly based on a number of factors, such as erectile dysfunction (ED) definition, data acquisition means, time-point postsurgery, and population studied. Aim., To conduct a meta-analysis of carefully selected reports from the available literature to define the EFR rate post-RP. Main Outcome Measures., EFR rate after RP. Methods., An EMBASE and MEDLINE search was conducted for the time range 1985,2007. Articles were assessed blindly by strict inclusion criteria: report of EFR data post-RP, study population ,50 patients, ,1 year follow-up, nerve-sparing status declared, no presurgery ED, and no other prostate cancer therapy. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the EFR rate and relative risks (RR) for dichotomous subgroups. Results., A total of 212 relevant studies were identified; only 22 (10%) met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed (9,965 RPs, EFR data: 4,983 subjects). Mean study population size: 226.5, standard deviation = 384.1 (range: 17,1,834). Overall EFR rate was 58%. Single center series publications (k = 19) reported a higher EFR rate compared with multicenter series publications (k = 3): 60% vs. 33%, RR = 1.82, P = 0.001. Studies reporting ,18-month follow-up (k = 10) reported higher EFR rate vs. studies with <18-month follow-up (k = 12), 60% vs. 56%, RR = 1.07, P = 0.02. Open RP (k = 16) and laparoscopic RP (k = 4) had similar EFR (57% vs. 58%), while robot-assisted RP resulted in a higher EFR rate (k = 2), 73% compared with these other approaches, P = 0.001. Patients <60 years old had a higher EFR rate vs. patients ,60 years, 77% vs. 61%, RR = 1.26, P = 0.001. Conclusions., These data indicate that most of the published literature does not meet strict criteria for reporting post-RP EFR. Single and multiple surgeon series have comparable EFR rates, but single center studies have a higher EFR. Younger men have higher EFR and no significant difference in EFR between ORP and LRP is evident. Tal R, Alphs HH, Krebs P, Nelson CJ, and Mulhall JP. Erectile function recovery rate after radical prostatectomy: A meta-analysis. J Sex Med 2009;6:2538,2546. [source]

    The Effect of Comorbidity and Socioeconomic Status on Sexual and Urinary Function and on General Health-Related Quality of Life in Men Treated with Radical Prostatectomy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Pierre I. Karakiewicz MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Different treatments for localized prostate cancer (PCa) may be associated with similar overall survival but may demonstrate important differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Therefore, valid interpretation of cancer control outcomes requires adjustment for HRQOL. Aim., To assess the effect of comorbidity and socioeconomic status (SES) on sexual and urinary function as well as general HRQOL in men treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) for PCa. Methods., We sent a self-addressed mail survey, composed of the research and development short form 36-item health survey, the PCa-specific University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Prostate Cancer Index (PCI), as well as a battery of items addressing SES and lifetime prevalence of comorbidity, to 4,546 men treated with RP in Quebec between 1988 and 1996. Main Outcome Measures., The association between comorbidity, SES, and HRQOL was tested and quantified using univariable and multivariable linear regression models. Results., Survey responses from 2,415 participants demonstrated that comorbidity and SES are strongly related to sexual, urinary, and general HRQOL in univariable and multivariable analyses. In multivariable models, the presence of comorbid conditions was associated with significantly worse HRQOL, as evidenced by lower scale scores by as much as 17/100 points in general domains, and by as much as 10/100 points in PCa-specific domains. Favorable SES characteristics were related to higher general (up to 9/100 points) and higher PCa-specific (up to 8/100 points) HRQOL scale scores. Conclusions., Comorbidity and SES are strongly associated with sexual, urinary and general HRQOL. Karakiewicz PI, Bhojani N, Neugut A, Shariat SF, Jeldres C, Graefen M, Perrotte P, Peloquin F, and Kattan MW. The effect of comorbidity and socioeconomic status on sexual and urinary function and on general health-related quality of life in men treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. J Sex Med 2008;5:919,927. [source]

    Penile Rehabilitation after Radical Prostatectomy: Where Do We Stand and Where Are We Going?

    FACS, Run Wang MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a serious quality-of-life issue. Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism of postprostatectomy ED have stimulated great attention toward penile rehabilitation. Aim., This review presents and analyzes a contemporary series of the recent medical literature pertaining to penile rehabilitation therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP). Main Outcome Measures., The laboratory and clinical studies related to penile rehabilitation are analyzed. The validity of the methodology and the conclusion of the findings from each study are determined. Methods., The published and presented reports dealing with penile rehabilitation following RP in human and cavernous nerve injury in animal models are reviewed. Results., Exciting scientific discoveries have improved our understanding of postprostatectomy ED at the molecular level. The rationale for postprostatectomy penile rehabilitation appears to be logical according to animal studies. However, clinical studies have not consistently replicated the beneficial effects found in the laboratory studies. Currently available clinical studies are flawed due to short-term follow-up, small number of patients in the studies, studies with retrospective nature, or prospective studies without control. Rehabilitation programs are also facing a challenge with the compliance, which is critical for success for any rehabilitation program. At the present time, we do not have concrete evidence to recommend what, when, how long, and how often a particular penile rehabilitative therapy can be used effectively. Conclusions., Large prospective, multicentered, placebo-controlled trials with adequate follow-up are necessary to determine the cost-effective and therapeutic benefits of particular penile rehabilitative therapy or therapies in patients following the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Until such evidence is available, it is difficult to recommend any particular penile rehabilitation program as a standard of practice. Wang R. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: Where do we stand and where are we going? J Sex Med 2007;4:1085,1097. [source]

    Radical Prostatectomy: from open to robotic

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 5 2008
    Paul Sweeney
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    87 French multicentric prospective study for treatment of postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence (SUI) using adjustable continence therapy (PROACTÔ)

    Introduction:, This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of ProACTÔ for treatment of postprostatectomy incontinence. Material and methods:, Using fluoroscopic control two percutaneous balloons are placed at the vesico-urethral anastomosis (Prostatectomy; Ablatherm) or the apex (TURP) and filled with isotonic solution. Postoperatively, 1 ml can be titrated monthly until optimum continence is achieved. Results:, Fifty-eight patients were implanted, 52 postcancer treatment (51 Radical Prostatectomy with 11/51 postradiotherapy and 1/52 Ablatherm) and six following benign surgery (four TURP and two other prostatectomies). Mean age was 70.8 years old (56.6,87.2) with time since initial surgery 5.3 years (6 months,20.6 years). Prior surgical incontinence treatments included artificial urinary sphincters (eight), bulking agent injections (three) and male sling (one). Mean urethral closure pressure (n = 36) was 49 cm of H2O at baseline. Average pads/day was 2.9 (1 to 10). Mean quality of life (I-QoL) was 45 (2,85). At median follow-up (14 months), 11 patients (19%) were dry, 21 (36%) improved, 17 (29 %) unchanged; 2 (3.4%) worse and seven (12%) had undergone explanation. Quality of Life increased to 61 (17,100). Of the 24 postradical prostatectomy patients without radiotherapy, 92 % are improved, 38 % being completely dry. However six (55%) of postradiotherapy patients failed. Sixteen patients required explanation due to infection (two); urinary retention (one); urethral erosion (one); pain (one), defective balloons (two); other (one) non-response (eight). Four patients were successfully re-implanted. Conclusion:, ProACT is an effective treatment option as an alternative to the artificial urinary sphincter. [source]

    Radical prostatectomy in obese patients: Improved surgical outcomes in recent years

    Uri Lindner
    Objectives: Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for reduced disease-specific survival, increased positive surgical margin (PSM) and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between obesity and surgical outcomes in patients undergoing RP. Methods: Medical records of 491 patients who underwent RP from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved from our institutional database. Patients were divided into three groups based on their body mass index (BMI): <25, 25,30 (overweight) and >30 kg/m (obese). Outcomes after RP were compared between the groups in terms of length of stay, perioperative complications, BCR, PSM and Gleason scores. Results: Age, stage and preoperative prostate-specific antigen were similar between BMI categories. Operating time was prolonged in obese patients (146 vs 135 min, P = 0.01) and blood loss was greater (mean estimated blood loss 640 vs 504 mL, P = 0.02), but did not translate into higher transfusion rates. Early complication rates, PSM rates and Gleason scores were not statistically different between the groups. Significant differences in late outcomes, such as the need for adjunct procedures or BCR (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.18,1.09), were not shown. Conclusion: As surgical experience with high BMI patients has developed, RP appears to be a well tolerated procedure in contemporary series, irrespective of BMI. In particular, early outcome parameters, such as PSM and BCR rates, are similar. [source]

    Phyllodes tumor of the prostate: Recurrent obstructive symptom and stromal proliferative activity

    Abstract We report the case of a 59-year-old man with a metachronous development of phyllodes tumor and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. He complained of urinary obstruction and transurethral resections of the prostate (TUR-P) had been performed six times in 10 years. Microscopic examination showed cystically dilated glands consisting of bizarre cells with pleomorphic, hyperchromatic nuclei in the stroma at the sixth TUR-P. Radical prostatectomy was performed against recurrences and adenocarcinoma was incidentally detected. Apparent up-regulation of proliferative nuclear antigens (PCNA), but not p53, was observed in the prostatectomy specimen by Western blotting. Active proliferation of stromal cells is considered to have caused the recurrent obstructive symptom. [source]

    Radical prostatectomy: men's experiences and postoperative needs

    Jean Burt MN
    Aims and objectives., This study sought to explore men's experiences after radical prostatectomy and whether they perceived their preoperative teaching adequately prepared them for postoperative recovery. Tape-recorded telephone and face-to-face interviews were conducted at days 2, 7 and 21, and 3 and 12 months postdischarge. Background., Although verbal and written instruction about postoperative expectations and care are provided routinely before radical prostatectomy, patients express concern about a lack of preparation in managing urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Design., This qualitative descriptive study explored in-depth men's experiences during the year following their surgery. Methods., Multiple, tape-recorded, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 17 participants and a single, in-depth, face-to-face interview was conducted 12 months postoperatively with a subset of five men selected for their reflective and descriptive abilities. Results., Although participants received comprehensive written and verbal information preoperatively, it was not sufficient to foster their management of all postoperative sequelae. Telephone follow-up, used as a data collection strategy, was helpful in fostering adjustment after surgery and relieved anxiety caused by side effects of surgery and unanswered questions. Conclusions., Pre- and postoperative teaching needs to make allowances for the impact of stress on the recall and processing of information. Written information in itself is not adequate to answer necessary questions and provide reassurance. Follow-up telephone support is recommended as a way of fostering adjustment after surgery. Relevance to clinical practice., This study shows that: (i) Written information in itself is not adequate to answer necessary questions and provide reassurance, (ii) Nurses need to be prepared, both educationally and psychologically, to observe non-verbal cues and to address questions and concerns that are rarely voiced in ways that indicate their significance to the person and (iii) Men may not speak about sexuality issues in ways that accurately reflect the extent of their worry and/or distress about erectile dysfunction. [source]

    Loss of BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression in prostate cancer progression,

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 3 2004
    Lisa G. Horvath
    Abstract BACKGROUND The role of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway in prostate cancer (PC) is unclear. This study aimed to characterize aspects of the BMP pathway in PC by assessing BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression in normal, hyperplastic, and malignant prostate tissue, and to correlate findings with progression to PC. METHODS Radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens from 74 patients with clinically localized PC (median follow-up 51 months, range 15,152), 44 benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) lesions, and 4 normal prostates (NPs) were assessed for BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Both BMP2 (P,<,0.001) and nuclear Smad4 (P,<,0.0001) expression were significantly decreased in PC compared to benign prostate tissue. Nuclear Smad8 was present in normal/benign prostate tissue but absent in PC and adjacent hyperplasia. Furthermore, loss of BMP2 (P,<,0.001) and decreased nuclear Smad4 (P,=,0.05) expression correlated with increasing Gleason score. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that decreased BMP2, nuclear smad8 and nuclear Smad4 expression are associated with the progression to PC, and in particular loss of BMP2 and Smad4 are related to progression to a more aggressive phenotype. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Radical prostatectomy: a systematic review of the impact of hospital and surgeon volume on patient outcome

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1-2 2010
    Ailsa Wilson
    Abstract Background:, To assess the impact of hospital and surgeon volume on mortality, morbidity, length of hospital stay and costs of radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods:, This systematic review identified relevant studies published between 1997 and June 2007. Inclusion of papers was established through application of a predetermined protocol, independent assessment by two reviewers, and a final consensus decision. Results:, Compared with low volume hospitals, the included studies showed high volume hospitals demonstrated lower rates of mortality, postoperative complications and readmissions, and lower overall hospital costs. High volume surgeons similarly showed lower rates of postoperative complications and shorter length of stay compared with low volume surgeons, but no difference in mortality. Conclusions:, From the literature obtained, patients undergoing RP performed by high volume providers may have better outcomes compared to low volume providers; however, any move to centralize RP must be further evaluated. [source]

    A whole of population-based series of radical prostatectomy in Victoria, 1995 to 2000

    Damien Bolton
    Abstract Objective: Radical prostatectomy (RP) as a first line treatment of prostate cancer was rare prior to the advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, yet little is known of its use and outcomes in a population setting. We described baseline characteristics of cases in the Victorian Radical Prostatectomy Register (VRPR), investigated possible associations between demographic characteristics and characteristics at diagnosis and at surgery and trends over time. Methods: The VRPR is a population-based series of all RPs performed in Victoria from July 1995 to December 2000 (n=2,154). Results: On average, socio-economic status for cases was higher than for the general Victorian population (34% vs 20% in the highest quintile respectively, p<0.0001). The proportion of PSA-detected cases increased from 53% in 1995 to 79% in 2000 (p for linear trend=0.0004). Age at surgery and PSA levels at diagnosis decreased over time (p=0.006 and p=0.04 respectively). The proportion of cases with Gleason score ,5 from RP decreased from 35% in 1995 to 14% in 2000, while cases with Gleason score 6-7 increased from 60% to 79%. Similar trends were observed for Gleason score from biopsy. We found little evidence of significant trends over time in other pathological characteristics relevant to prognosis. Conclusion and Implications: The VRPR provides a unique whole of population based description of radical prostatectomy in Victoria, confirms findings previously reported in single institution clinical series overseas such as migration to younger age at surgery and to Gleason scores 6 to 7, and provides a resource for evaluating RP outcomes in the future. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2007
    Background: The aim of this study was to review the discrepancies in Gleason scores (GS) of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens and the effects of multiple-needle biopsies on scoring accuracy. Methods: One hundred patients who had undergone consecutive radical prostatectomies (RP) between January 2004 and May 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient information including age, prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen levels, biopsy GS, RP GS and pathology details were recorded and compared. Results: The concordance rate of biopsy GS and RP GS was found to be at 43%, with 46% of biopsy specimens being undergraded. Eleven per cent of the specimens were overgraded. The accuracy was fairly similar when specimens were reported by the same or different pathologists, at 42 and 44%, respectively. The accuracy of biopsy GS improved with increasing number of biopsies taken. Conclusion: There are significant discrepancies in Gleason scoring of biopsy and RP specimens, with a concordance rate of 43% and undergrading rate of 46%. Increasing the number of biopsies helps improve scoring accuracy. Clinicians and patients need to be mindful when deciding cancer treatment options, in view of these discrepancies. [source]

    Robotic surgery in urology: fact or fantasy?

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 8 2004
    Jochen Binder
    Advanced robotic surgery was first introduced into urology in 2000. The first studies showed the feasibility and safety of the daVinci (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) telemanipulator assistance in radical prostatectomy, pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction, and radical cystectomy and neobladder formation. The miniature endowristed tools offer a potential advantage over standard laparoscopy in the accuracy of preparation and suturing. Other features are a three-dimensional vision system and unimpaired hand-eye coordination. Complex laparoscopic tasks are learned faster by using the robot, which may also explain the shorter training required for radical prostatectomy than for manual laparoscopy. This new and expensive technology has spread rapidly over the last 4 years. By 2004, ,,10% of radical prostatectomies in the USA will be robot-assisted. Data on the functional and oncological outcomes are accruing but not yet conclusive. There will be a further spread of robotic surgery, routine telesurgery, smaller and more affordable systems, the introduction of virtual reality, all developments which have the potential to urological surgeons to improve. [source]

    The technique of apical dissection of the prostate and urethrovesical anastomosis in robotic radical prostatectomy

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2004
    M. Menon
    Much of the current interest in robotic surgery in urology has been caused by the results of the work from the Vattikuti Urology Institute in Detroit, and these authors describe their extensive experience in the technique of radical prostatectomy; specifically their modified single running suture urethrovesical anastomosis. They ascribe their ability to remove the urethral catheter at 4 days, and to have an excellent continence rate, to this technique, and to their apical dissection. The European Randomised Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer will generate much interesting information over the nest few years and will in itself become one of the landmark urological studies. The authors from Amsterdam evaluated (-7-5)proPSA and hK2 in a subset of patients from this study for detecting and grading prostate cancer, and found that their impact in these areas remains limited. Screening for prostate cancer is a controversial but very interesting topic for those involved in urological oncology. Although many countries have not advocated a national screening programme, and indeed some have advised against screening of any kind for this condition, "backdoor" screening does in fact take place. The authors from Belfast have reviewed PSA testing in Northern Ireland from 1990 to 1999, finding that many men have an elevated PSA level, with a resulting requirement for further evaluation. OBJECTIVE To describe the technique of dissecting the apex of the prostate and a modified single running-suture urethrovesical anastomosis in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Over 550 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies have been undertaken using Vattikuti Institute Prostatectomy (VIP) technique in patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate. We present a critical analysis of the first 120 procedures by one surgeon (M.M.) at our institution using this newly developed technique of urethrovesical anastomosis preceded by dissecting the apex of the prostate. RESULTS The mean time for the urethrovesical anastomosis was 13 min. All but 24 patients had their catheter removed 4 days after surgery, as indicated by a cystogram. The catheter was removed successfully at 7 days in the remaining 24 patients who had a mild leak on cystography. Two patients had urinary retention within a week of removing the catheter and had to be re-catheterized. Continence was evaluated using standardized criteria before and after the procedure. The patients also replied to a mailed validated questionnaire survey; 96% were continent at 3 months and the remaining 4% used a thin pad for security. CONCLUSIONS We report a technique of dissecting the apex of the prostate and prostatovesical junction for dividing the bladder neck, and a modified single running-suture urethrovesical anastomosis, in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for organ-confined cancer of the prostate. The same principles can also be applied for the anastomosis during pure laparoscopic procedures and for urethro-neovesical anastomosis in patients undergoing robotic radical cystoprostatectomy for carcinoma of the bladder. [source]

    Trends in the curative treatment of localized prostate cancer after the introduction of prostate-specific antigen: data from the Rotterdam Cancer Registry

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2000
    S.J.J.C. Spapen
    Objective To investigate changes in the incidence and treatment of prostate cancer over the period in which new diagnostic tools were introduced and the attitude towards treatment was changing. Patients and methods Information on the extent of disease and treatment of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer within the Rotterdam region was retrieved from the Rotterdam Cancer Registry. Results In the period 1989,95, 4344 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer and the age-standardized incidence increased from 62 to 125 per 100 000 men. This increase mainly comprised tumours localized to the prostate, while the incidence of advanced cancers remained stable. The proportion of poorly differentiated tumours decreased from 33% in 1989 to 24% in 1995. In the same period the number of patients receiving radiotherapy increased from 80 to 258, while the annual number of radical prostatectomies rose from 17 to 159. Radiotherapy was the preferred type of treatment in patients over 70 years of age, whereas radical prostatectomy was used more frequently in younger patients with localized tumours. Conclusion While the value of screening for prostate cancer remains in debate, incidence and treatment patterns are changing rapidly. Information on patterns of care is needed to interpret future mortality data and to plan resources for adequate health care. [source]

    Prognostic factors in lymph node metastases of prostatic cancer patients: the size of the metastases but not extranodal extension independently predicts survival

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    A Fleischmann
    Aims:, To analyse tumour characteristics and the prognostic significance of prostatic cancers with extranodal extension of lymph node metastases (ENE) in 102 node-positive, hormone treatment-naive patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. Methods and results:, The median number of nodes examined per patient was 21 (range 9,68), and the median follow-up time was 92 months (range 12,191). ENE was observed in 71 patients (70%). They had significantly more, larger and less differentiated nodal metastases, paralleled by significantly larger primary tumours at more advanced stages and with higher Gleason scores than patients without ENE. ENE defined a subgroup with significantly decreased biochemical recurrence-free (P = 0.038) and overall survival (P = 0.037). In multivariate analyses the diameter of the largest metastasis and Gleason score of the primary tumour were independent predictors of survival. Conclusions:, ENE in prostatic cancer is an indicator lesion for advanced/aggressive tumours with poor outcome. However, the strong correlation with larger metastases suggests that ENE may result from their size, which was the only independent risk factor in the metastasizing component. Consequently, histopathological reports should specify the true indicator of poor survival in the lymphadenectomy specimens, which is the size of the largest metastasis in each patient. [source]

    Erectile dysfunction after surgical treatment,

    Vincenzo Mirone
    Summary Erectile dysfunction is a recognized complication of prostate and bladder radical surgery, although there is significant variation in the reported risk, much of this variability is related to the retrospective nature of most previous studies. Undoubtedly, the quality of life of bladder and prostate cancer patients would be much improved if both normal micturition and potency are preserved, which is the subject of this article. Quality of life studies can delineate sexual function after radical prostatectomy, including the use of sexual aids. Penile erection is a neurovascular event modulated by neurotransmitters and hormonal status. The penis is innervated by autonomic and somatic nerves. Both surgery and radiation therapy appear to affect such a mechanism. Radiation is thought to produce Erectile Dysfunction (ED) by accelerating microvascular angiopathy causing cavernosal fibrosis or stenosis of the pelvic arteries and by accelerating existing arteriosclerosis, leading to vascular impotence. Years may elapse before clinically significant ED occurs. Criteria that influence recovery of erections after surgery include younger patient age, stronger erections before operation, preservation of the neurovascular bundles, and attention to fine details in the surgical technique. Recovery of erections occurs in 68% of preoperatively potent men treated with bilateral nerve-sparing surgery and in 47% of those treated with unilateral nerve-sparing surgery. [source]

    Evaluation of molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen and human kallikrein 2 in predicting biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    Sven Wenske
    Abstract Most pretreatment risk-assessment models to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer rely on total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical stage, and biopsy Gleason grade. We investigated whether free PSA (fPSA) and human glandular kallikrein-2 (hK2) would enhance the predictive accuracy of this standard model. Preoperative serum samples and complete clinical data were available for 1,356 patients who underwent RP for localized prostate cancer from 1993 to 2005. A case-control design was used, and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between preoperative predictors and BCR after RP. We constructed multivariable models with fPSA and hK2 as additional preoperative predictors to the base model. Predictive accuracy was assessed with the area under the ROC curve (AUC). There were 146 BCR cases; the median follow up for patients without BCR was 3.2 years. Overall, 436 controls were matched to 146 BCR cases. The AUC of the base model was 0.786 in the entire cohort; adding fPSA and hK2 to this model enhanced the AUC to 0.798 (p = 0.053), an effect largely driven by fPSA. In the subgroup of men with total PSA ,10 ng/ml (48% of cases), adding fPSA and hK2 enhanced the AUC of the base model to a similar degree (from 0.720 to 0.726, p = 0.2). fPSA is routinely measured during prostate cancer detection. We suggest that the role of fPSA in aiding preoperative prediction should be investigated in further cohorts. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A survival benefit from radical prostatectomy for early prostate cancer

    Eleanor Ray
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Systematic pelvic floor training for lower urinary tract symptoms post-prostatectomy: a randomized clinical trial

    Joanne P. Robinson
    Abstract Because the majority of prostate cancers are diagnosed in the local or regional stages, radical prostatectomy is a treatment of choice for many patients, particularly men younger than 65 years of age. However, radical prostatectomy carries a significant risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and may also impair quality of life. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of systematic postoperative pelvic floor training (PFT) on LUTS intensity, LUTS distress and health-related quality of life (HRQL) at 3, 6 and 12 months following radical prostatectomy. This randomized clinical trial was guided by the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. All participants (n = 126) received brief instructions for exercising pelvic floor muscles before surgery and the offer of a biofeedback evaluation session 1 month following catheter removal. The intervention group (n = 62) received an additional 4 weeks of PFT immediately following catheter removal. Intervention and control groups both reported steady declines in the intensity and distress associated with LUTS, but no between-group differences were found. Similarly, no between-group differences were found in impact on HRQL; however, the pattern of HRQL impact differed by group (p < 0·01) in the direction of greater impairment over time for the control group. LUTS intensity, LUTS distress and negative effects on HRQL decline for many radical prostatectomy patients over the first postoperative year; however, improvement does not occur in all patients. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors that influence development, resolution and management of LUTS following radical prostatectomy. [source]

    Prostate cancer treatment options (observation versus prostatectomy) , the available evidence

    Josephine Hegarty
    Abstract Advanced screening programmes have led to an increased incidence of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate Cancer is currently the most common site of male cancers worldwide; accounting for 21% of all male cancers in Ireland. This article presents an in-depth review of the available evidence (January 1997 to April 2007), which directly compares outcomes (in terms of urinary function, bowel function, sexual function, quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes and survival statistics) post radical prostatectomy versus a conservative watch-and-wait approach for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. The aim of this paper is to equip health-care professionals with the best available research evidence. Best research evidence is a component of evidence-based practice, which is very much ,in vogue' in health care today. The authors recommend that practitioners utilize this, the available evidence in combination with their clinical expertise and their patients' opinions in order to assist these patients' to make wise and informed treatment decisions. As this paper will demonstrate, the treatment chosen can have important implications in terms of patient outcomes. Therefore, making an informed decision early on can prevent any regret at a later stage. Overall this review of the literature revealed significant disparity in terms of which treatment option is more favourable. Patients overall are faced with a difficult dilemma when making this treatment decision , to live longer at the expense of potential erectile dysfunction and possible urinary incontinence or to live for a potentially shorter time without these adverse consequences. [source]

    Feasibility of antegrade radical prostatectomy for clinically locally advanced prostate cancer: a comparative study with clinically localized disease

    Shinya Yamamoto
    Objectives: To investigate intraoperative and early postoperative complications of antegrade radical prostatectomy with intended wide resection (aRP) for clinically locally advanced prostate cancer (cLAD) and to compare with those of aRP for clinically localized prostate cancer (cLD). Methods: Between March 1994 and June 2007, 800 consecutive Japanese patients including 625 with cLD and 175 with cLAD underwent aRP and bilateral limited lymphadenectomy. Clinicopathological data including intraoperative and early postoperative complications (within 30 days after operation) were compared between cLD and cLAD groups. Results: No deaths occurred. Operative time and blood loss did not differ significantly between the groups. Intraoperative and early postoperative complications were observed in 11 (1.4%) and 123 (15.4%) of the entire cohort, respectively. Prevalent early postoperative complications were pelvic hematoma, wound infection, urinary retention and lymphocele or prolonged lymph drainage. There were no significant differences in the entire intraoperative and early postoperative complications between the groups. The majority of the early postoperative complications were minor. Conclusions: aRP for cLAD is technically feasible and a safe surgical procedure. If radical prostatectomy could be established as a standard treatment for cLAD in the future, aRP might be valuable as the first step of multimodal treatments. [source]

    Editorial Comment to Feasibility of antegrade radical prostatectomy for clinically locally advanced prostate cancer: A comparative study with clinically localized disease

    Shigeto Ishidoya md
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Radical prostatectomy in obese patients: Improved surgical outcomes in recent years

    Uri Lindner
    Objectives: Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for reduced disease-specific survival, increased positive surgical margin (PSM) and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between obesity and surgical outcomes in patients undergoing RP. Methods: Medical records of 491 patients who underwent RP from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved from our institutional database. Patients were divided into three groups based on their body mass index (BMI): <25, 25,30 (overweight) and >30 kg/m (obese). Outcomes after RP were compared between the groups in terms of length of stay, perioperative complications, BCR, PSM and Gleason scores. Results: Age, stage and preoperative prostate-specific antigen were similar between BMI categories. Operating time was prolonged in obese patients (146 vs 135 min, P = 0.01) and blood loss was greater (mean estimated blood loss 640 vs 504 mL, P = 0.02), but did not translate into higher transfusion rates. Early complication rates, PSM rates and Gleason scores were not statistically different between the groups. Significant differences in late outcomes, such as the need for adjunct procedures or BCR (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.18,1.09), were not shown. Conclusion: As surgical experience with high BMI patients has developed, RP appears to be a well tolerated procedure in contemporary series, irrespective of BMI. In particular, early outcome parameters, such as PSM and BCR rates, are similar. [source]

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Learning curve of first 100 cases

    Yen Chuan Ou
    Objective: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is gaining popularity for treating localized prostate cancer. We aimed to analyze the learning curve of a single surgeon using RALP in Taiwan. Methods: Medical records of 100 consecutive patients who underwent RALP were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative parameters between patients in the first 30 cases (Group I), the second 30 cases (Group II) and cases 61,100 (Group III) undergoing RALP were analyzed. Results: Console time was shorter and blood loss was reduced in Groups II and III compared with Group I. Significant differences were found in vesicourethral anastomosis time (46.38 min for Group I vs 31.0 min for Group II vs 27 min for Group III, P < 0.01). Postoperative stay became statistically significantly shorter, from 7.33 days for Group I to 3.93 days for Group II to 3.0 days for Group III. Positive surgical margin of pT2 was reduced (13.3% for Group I, 7.1% for Group II and 0% for Group III) but not of pT3 (86.7% for Group I, 75% for Group II and 62.9% for Group III). Continence rate at 3 months was higher in Groups II (95%) and III (96.6%) than in Group 1 (76.7%, P < 0.05). Conclusions: For every 30 cases of RALP, vesicourethral anastomosis time and postoperative stay were significantly shorter. However, the incidence of surgical margin in pT3 prostate cancer was not significantly reduced. A learning curve of more than 100 cases is required to decrease the positive surgical margin in pT3 tumors. [source]

    Nomogram to predict seminal vesicle invasion using the status of cancer at the base of the prostate on systematic biopsy

    Makoto Ohori
    Objective: The aim of this study was to predict seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by developing a new nomogram based on clinical features including the status of cancer at the base of the prostate on systematic biopsy. Methods: We studied the 466 patients with T1,3N0M0 prostate cancer who were treated with radical prostatectomy at three institutions. Preoperative clinical variables were correlated with the presence or absence of SVI with an area under the curve (AUC) of receiver,operator characteristics analysis. A nomogram was developed to predict SVI based on logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 81 patients (17%) had SVI. Cancer was present in a biopsy core from the base of the prostate in 209 patients, of whom 32.5% had SVI, compared with only 5% of the 257 patients without cancer at the base of the prostate (P < 0.005). On multivariate analysis, serum prostate-specific antigen, biopsy Gleason score, clinical T stage, and presence or absence of cancer in a biopsy core at the base of the prostate were significant predictors of SVI (P < 0.005 for all). The AUC of a standard model including clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen was 0.83, which was significantly enhanced by including the presence of cancer at the base of the prostate (none, unilateral or bilateral lobes) (AUC 0.87, P= 0.023). Based on the logistic analysis, we developed the nomogram to predict SVI. The calibration plots appeared to be excellent. Conclusion: The information of presence or absence of cancer at the base from prostate biopsy and the resulting nomogram allow an accurate prediction of SVI in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. [source]

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Transfer validity

    Tibet Erdogru
    Objectives: The impact of a formal fellowship training program on the independent practice of the trainees (i.e. transfer validity) has not been evaluated. We analyzed the transfer validity of a structured curriculum in an in-door as well as an out-door setting. Methods: After completing their training, two fourth generation laparoscopic surgeons who started at the same time compared operative parameters and oncological outcomes in their independent practice, prospectively analyzing the next 100 patients in each. One surgeon continued laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in the same center of excellence (Group-In), whereas the other implemented the procedure in a separate academic center (Group-Out). Results: The demographics for both groups (Group-In vs Group-Out) were similar regarding age, prostate volume and preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels. Mean operation times (214.8 vs 224.2 min; P = 0.494) and estimated blood loss (472.4 vs 402.6 mL; P = 0.109) did not differ significantly in both groups as well as complication rate (20 vs 24%), median catheter time (8 vs 8.5 days) and continence rates at 12 months (95 vs 95.5%). According to the pathological stages, the rates of positive surgical margins were similar for pT2 (3.2 vs 4.3%) and pT3 (42.8 vs 45.2%), respectively. Conclusions: With a well designed, long-term preclinical and clinical fellowship training program, LRP techniques can be efficiently transferred from the center of excellence to other centers with no significant impact on surgical, functional and oncological outcomes. [source]