rRNA Gene (rrna + gene)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of rRNA Gene

  • bacterial 16s rrna gene
  • large subunit rrna gene
  • small subunit rrna gene
  • ssu rrna gene
  • subunit rrna gene

  • Terms modified by rRNA Gene

  • rrna gene analysis
  • rrna gene clone
  • rrna gene fragment
  • rrna gene libraries
  • rrna gene sequence
  • rrna gene sequence analysis
  • rrna gene sequencing

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Kirsten M. Mller
    A previous study of the North American biogeography of the red algal genus Hildenbrandia noted the presence of group I introns in the nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of the marine species H. rubra (Sommerf.) Menegh. Group IC1 introns have been previously reported at positions 516 and 1506 in the nuclear SSU RNA genes in the Bangiales and Hildenbrandiales. However, the presence of an unclassified intron at position 989 in a collection of H. rubra from British Columbia was noted. This intron is a member of the IE subclass and is the first report of this intron type in the red algae. Phylogenetic analyses of the intron sequences revealed a close relationship between this IE intron inserted at position 989 and similar fungal IE introns in positions 989 and 1199. The 989 IE introns formed a moderately to well-supported clade, whereas the 1199 IE introns are weakly supported. Unique structural helices in the P13 domain of the 989 and 1199 IE introns also point to a close relationship between these two clades and provide further evidence for the value of secondary structural characteristics in identifying homologous introns in evolutionarily divergent organisms. The absence of the 989 IE intron in all other red algal nuclear SSU rRNA genes suggests that it is unlikely that this intron was vertically inherited from the common ancestor of the red algal and fungal lineages but rather is the result of lateral transfer between fungal and red algal nuclear SSU rRNA genes. [source]

    Detection of bacterial DNA by PCR and reverse hybridization in the 16S rRNA gene with particular reference to neonatal septicemia

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    S Shang
    Aim: The clinical diagnosis of sepsis is difficult, particularly in neonates. It is necessary to develop a rapid and reliable method for detecting bacteria in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization of the 16S rRNA gene would permit fast and sensitive determination of the presence of bacteria and differentiate gram-positive bacteria from gram-negative ones in clinical specimens. Methods: We developed a pair of primers according to the gene encoding 16SrRNA found in all bacteria. DNA fragments from different bacterial species and from clinical samples were detected with PCR, and with reverse hybridization using a universal bacterial probe, a gram-positive probe and a gram-negative probe. Results: A 371 bp DNA fragment was amplified from 20 different bacterial species. No signal was observed when human DNA and viruses were used as templates. The sensitivity could be improved to 10T -12 g. All 26 culture-positive clinical samples (22 blood samples and 4 CSF samples) were positive with PCR. The gram-negative and gram-positive probes hybridized to clinical samples and to known bacterial controls, as predicted by Gram's stain characteristics. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the method of PCR and reverse hybridization is rapid, sensitive and specific in detecting bacterial infections. This finding may be significant in the clinical diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. [source]

    Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    Tatsuhiko Hoshino
    Summary A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene to target both DNA strands; the target DNA was cut by a restriction endonuclease close to the probe binding sites, which subsequently were made accessible by 5,-3, exonucleolysis. After hybridization, the padlock probe was circularized by ligation and served as template for in situ RCA, primed by the probe target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS -defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells. [source]

    The structure of bacterial communities in the western Arctic Ocean as revealed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes

    David L. Kirchman
    Summary Bacterial communities in the surface layer of the oceans consist of a few abundant phylotypes and many rare ones, most with unknown ecological functions and unclear roles in biogeochemical processes. To test hypotheses about relationships between abundant and rare phylotypes, we examined bacterial communities in the western Arctic Ocean using pyrosequence data of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Samples were collected from various locations in the Chukchi Sea, the Beaufort Sea and Franklin Bay in summer and winter. We found that bacterial communities differed between summer and winter at a few locations, but overall there was no significant difference between the two seasons in spite of large differences in biogeochemical properties. The sequence data suggested that abundant phylotypes remained abundant while rare phylotypes remained rare between the two seasons and among the Arctic regions examined here, arguing against the ,seed bank' hypothesis. Phylotype richness was calculated for various bacterial groups defined by sequence similarity or by phylogeny (phyla and proteobacterial classes). Abundant bacterial groups had higher within-group diversity than rare groups, suggesting that the ecological success of a bacterial lineage depends on diversity rather than on the dominance of a few phylotypes. In these Arctic waters, in spite of dramatic variation in several biogeochemical properties, bacterial community structure was remarkably stable over time and among regions, and any variation was due to the abundant phylotypes rather than rare ones. [source]

    Effect of environmental variables on eukaryotic microbial community structure of land-fast Arctic sea ice

    Brian Eddie
    Summary Sea ice microbial community structure affects carbon and nutrient cycling in polar seas, but its susceptibility to changing environmental conditions is not well understood. We studied the eukaryotic microbial community in sea ice cores recovered near Point Barrow, AK in May 2006 by documenting the composition of the community in relation to vertical depth within the cores, as well as light availability (mainly as variable snow cover) and nutrient concentrations. We applied a combination of epifluorescence microscopy, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone libraries of a section of the 18S rRNA gene in order to compare the community structure of the major eukaryotic microbial phylotypes in the ice. We find that the community composition of the sea ice is more affected by the depth horizon in the ice than by light availability, although there are significant differences in the abundance of some groups between light regimes. Epifluorescence microscopy shows a shift from predominantly heterotrophic life styles in the upper ice to autotrophy prevailing in the bottom ice. This is supported by the statistical analysis of the similarity between the samples based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding patterns, which shows a clear difference between upper and lower ice sections with respect to phylotypes and their proportional abundance. Clone libraries constructed using diatom-specific primers confirm the high diversity of diatoms in the sea ice, and support the microscopic counts. Evidence of protistan grazing upon diatoms was also found in lower sections of the core, with implications for carbon and nutrient recycling in the ice. [source]

    Characterization of marine isoprene-degrading communities

    Laura Acua Alvarez
    Summary Isoprene is a volatile and climate-altering hydrocarbon with an atmospheric concentration similar to that of methane. It is well established that marine algae produce isoprene; however, until now there was no specific information about marine isoprene sinks. Here we demonstrate isoprene consumption in samples from temperate and tropical marine and coastal environments, and furthermore show that the most rapid degradation of isoprene coincides with the highest rates of isoprene production in estuarine sediments. Isoprene-degrading enrichment cultures, analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and by culturing, were generally dominated by Actinobacteria, but included other groups such as Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, previously not known to degrade isoprene. In contrast to specialist methane-oxidizing bacteria, cultivated isoprene degraders were nutritionally versatile, and nearly all of them were able to use n -alkanes as a source of carbon and energy. We therefore tested and showed that the ubiquitous marine hydrocarbon-degrader, Alcanivorax borkumensis, could also degrade isoprene. A mixture of the isolates consumed isoprene emitted from algal cultures, confirming that isoprene can be metabolized at low, environmentally relevant concentrations, and suggesting that, in the absence of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons, algal production of isoprene could maintain viable populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes. This discovery of a missing marine sink for isoprene is the first step in obtaining more robust predictions of its flux, and suggests that algal-derived isoprene provides an additional source of carbon for diverse microbes in the oceans. [source]

    Distribution of Roseobacter RCA and SAR11 lineages and distinct bacterial communities from the subtropics to the Southern Ocean

    Helge-Ansgar Giebel
    Summary We assessed the composition of the bacterioplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in austral fall and winter and in New Zealand coastal waters in summer. The various water masses between the subtropics/Agulhas,Benguela boundary region and the Antarctic coastal current exhibited distinct bacterioplankton communities with the highest richness in the polar frontal region, as shown by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The SAR11 clade and the Roseobacter clade-affiliated (RCA) cluster were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. SAR11 was detected in all samples analysed from subtropical waters to the coastal current and to depths of > 1000 m. In fall and winter, this clade constituted < 3% to 48% and 4,28% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes respectively, with highest fractions in subtropical to polar frontal regions. The RCA cluster was only present in New Zealand coastal surface waters not exceeding 17C, in the Agulhas,Benguela boundary region (visited only during the winter cruise), in subantarctic waters and in the Southern Ocean. In fall, this cluster constituted up to 36% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes with highest fractions in the Antarctic coastal current and outnumbered the SAR11 clade at most stations in the polar frontal region and further south. In winter, the RCA cluster constituted lower proportions than the SAR11 clade and did not exceed 8% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In fall, the RCA cluster exhibited significant positive correlations with latitude and ammonium concentrations and negative correlations with concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and for near-surface samples also with chlorophyll a, biomass production of heterotrophic prokaryotes and glucose turnover rates. The findings show that the various water masses between the subtropics and the Antarctic coastal current harbour distinct bacterioplankton communities. They further indicate that the RCA cluster, despite the narrow sequence similarity of > 98% of its 16S rRNA gene, is an abundant component of the heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the Southern Ocean, in particular in its coldest regions. [source]

    Development and application of the human intestinal tract chip, a phylogenetic microarray: analysis of universally conserved phylotypes in the abundant microbiota of young and elderly adults

    -Stojanovi, Mirjana Rajili
    Summary In this paper we present the in silico assessment of the diversity of variable regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene based on an ecosystem-specific curated database, describe a probe design procedure based on two hypervariable regions with minimal redundancy and test the potential of such probe design strategy for the design of a flexible microarray platform. This resulted in the development and application of a phylogenetic microarray for studying the human gastrointestinal microbiota , referred as the human intestinal tract chip (HITChip). Over 4800 dedicated tiling oligonucleotide probes were designed based on two hypervariable regions of the SSU rRNA gene of 1140 unique microbial phylotypes (< 98% identity) following analysis of over 16 000 human intestinal SSU rRNA sequences. These HITChip probes were hybridized to a diverse set of human intestinal samples and SSU rRNA clones to validate its fingerprinting and quantification potential. Excellent reproducibility (median Pearson's correlation of 0.99) was obtained following hybridization with T7 polymerase transcripts generated in vitro from SSU rRNA gene amplicons. A linear dose,response was observed with artificial mixtures of 40 different representative amplicons with relative abundances as low as 0.1% of total microbiota. Analysis of three consecutively collected faecal samples from ten individuals (five young and five elderly adults) revealed temporal dynamics and confirmed that the adult intestinal microbiota is an individual-specific and relatively stable ecosystem. Further analysis of the stable part allowed for the identification of a universal microbiota core at the approximate genus level (90% sequence similarity). This core consists of members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Used as a phylogenetic fingerprinting tool with the possibility for relative quantification, the HITChip has the potential to bridge the gaps in our knowledge in the quantitative and qualitative description of the human gastrointestinal microbiota composition. [source]

    Effect of PCR amplicon size on assessments of clone library microbial diversity and community structure

    Julie A. Huber
    Summary PCR-based surveys of microbial communities commonly use regions of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene to determine taxonomic membership and estimate total diversity. Here we show that the length of the target amplicon has a significant effect on assessments of microbial richness and community membership. Using operational taxonomic unit (OTU)- and taxonomy-based tools, we compared the V6 hypervariable region of the bacterial SSU rRNA gene of three amplicon libraries of c. 100, 400 and 1000 base pairs (bp) from each of two hydrothermal vent fluid samples. We found that the smallest amplicon libraries contained more unique sequences, higher diversity estimates and a different community structure than the other two libraries from each sample. We hypothesize that a combination of polymerase dissociation, cloning bias and mispriming due to secondary structure accounts for the differences. While this relationship is not linear, it is clear that the smallest amplicon libraries contained more different types of sequences, and accordingly, more diverse members of the community. Because divergent and lower abundant taxa can be more readily detected with smaller amplicons, they may provide better assessments of total community diversity and taxonomic membership than longer amplicons in molecular studies of microbial communities. [source]

    Linking microbial oxidation of arsenic with detection and phylogenetic analysis of arsenite oxidase genes in diverse geothermal environments

    N. Hamamura
    Summary The identification and characterization of genes involved in the microbial oxidation of arsenite will contribute to our understanding of factors controlling As cycling in natural systems. Towards this goal, we recently characterized the widespread occurrence of aerobic arsenite oxidase genes (aroA -like) from pure-culture bacterial isolates, soils, sediments and geothermal mats, but were unable to detect these genes in all geothermal systems where we have observed microbial arsenite oxidation. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to measure arsenite-oxidation rates in geochemically diverse thermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) ranging in pH from 2.6 to 8, and to identify corresponding 16S rRNA and aroA genotypes associated with these arsenite-oxidizing environments. Geochemical analyses, including measurement of arsenite-oxidation rates within geothermal outflow channels, were combined with 16S rRNA gene and aroA functional gene analysis using newly designed primers to capture previously undescribed aroA -like arsenite oxidase gene diversity. The majority of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences found in acidic (pH 2.6,3.6) Fe-oxyhydroxide microbial mats were closely related to Hydrogenobaculum spp. (members of the bacterial order Aquificales), while the predominant sequences from near-neutral (pH 6.2,8) springs were affiliated with other Aquificales including Sulfurihydrogenibium spp., Thermocrinis spp. and Hydrogenobacter spp., as well as members of the Deinococci, Thermodesulfobacteria and ,- Proteobacteria. Modified primers designed around previously characterized and newly identified aroA -like genes successfully amplified new lineages of aroA- like genes associated with members of the Aquificales across all geothermal systems examined. The expression of Aquificales aroA- like genes was also confirmed in situ, and the resultant cDNA sequences were consistent with aroA genotypes identified in the same environments. The aroA sequences identified in the current study expand the phylogenetic distribution of known Mo-pterin arsenite oxidase genes, and suggest the importance of three prominent genera of the order Aquificales in arsenite oxidation across geochemically distinct geothermal habitats ranging in pH from 2.6 to 8. [source]

    Niche separation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria across a tidal freshwater marsh

    Hendrikus J. Laanbroek
    Summary Like many functional groups or guilds of microorganisms, the group of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) consists of a number of physiologically different species or lineages. These physiological differences suggest niche differentiation among these bacteria depending on the environmental conditions. Species of AOB might be adapted to different zones in the flooding gradient of a tidal marsh. This issue has been studied by sampling sediments from different sites and depths within a tidal freshwater marsh along the river Scheldt near the village of Appels in Belgium. Samples were taken in February, April, July and October 1998. Communities of AOB in the sediment were analysed on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene by application of polymerase chain reaction in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In addition, moisture content and concentrations of ammonium and nitrate were determined as well as the potential ammonia-oxidizing activities. Six different DGGE bands belonging to the ,-subclass of the Proteobacteria were observed across the marsh. The community composition of AOB was determined by the elevation in the flooding gradient as well as by the sampling depth. The presence of plants was less important for the community composition of AOB. DGGE bands affiliated with the Nitrosospira lineage were mostly found in the upper part of the marsh and in the deeper layers of the sediment. Two of the three DGGE bands related to the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage were more broadly distributed over the marsh, but were predominantly found in the upper layers of the sediment. Members of the environmental Nitrosomonas lineage 5 were predominantly detected in the deeper layers in the lower parts of the marsh. Potential driving factors for niche differentiation are discussed. [source]

    Pseudomonas community structure and antagonistic potential in the rhizosphere: insights gained by combining phylogenetic and functional gene-based analyses

    Rodrigo Costa
    Summary The Pseudomonas community structure and antagonistic potential in the rhizospheres of strawberry and oilseed rape (host plants of the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae) were assessed. The use of a new PCR-DGGE system, designed to target Pseudomonas -specific gacA gene fragments in environmental DNA, circumvented common biases of 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analyses and proved to be a reliable tool to unravel the diversity of uncultured Pseudomonas in bulk and rhizosphere soils. Pseudomonas -specific gacA fingerprints of total-community (TC) rhizosphere DNA were surprisingly diverse, plant-specific and differed markedly from those of the corresponding bulk soils. By combining multiple culture-dependent and independent surveys, a group of Pseudomonas isolates antagonistic towards V. dahliae was shown to be genotypically conserved, to carry the phlD biosynthetic locus (involved in the biosynthesis of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol , 2,4-DAPG), and to correspond to a dominant and highly frequent Pseudomonas population in the rhizosphere of field-grown strawberries planted at three sites in Germany which have different land use histories. This population belongs to the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage and showed closest relatedness to P. fluorescens strain F113 (97% gacA gene sequence identity in 492-bp sequences), a biocontrol agent and 2,4-DAPG producer. Partial gacA gene sequences derived from isolates, clones of the strawberry rhizosphere and DGGE bands retrieved in this study represent previously undescribed Pseudomonas gacA gene clusters as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. [source]

    An experimental test of the symbiosis specificity between the ciliate Paramecium bursaria and strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella

    Monika Summerer
    Summary The ciliate Paramecium bursaria living in mutualistic relationship with the unicellular green alga Chlorella is known to be easily infected by various potential symbionts/parasites such as bacteria, yeasts and other algae. Permanent symbiosis, however, seems to be restricted to Chlorella taxa. To test the specificity of this association, we designed infection experiments with two aposymbiotic P. bursaria strains and Chlorella symbionts isolated from four Paramecium strains, seven other ciliate hosts and two Hydra strains, as well as three free-living Chlorella species. Paramecium bursaria established stable symbioses with all tested Chlorella symbionts of ciliates, but never with symbiotic Chlorella of Hydra viridissima or with free-living Chlorella. Furthermore, we tested the infection specificity of P. bursaria with a 1:1:1 mixture of three compatible Chlorella strains, including the native symbiont, and then identified the strain of the newly established symbiosis by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region 1 of the 18S rRNA gene. The results indicated that P. bursaria established symbiosis with its native symbiont. We conclude that despite clear preferences for their native Chlorella, the host,symbiont relationship in P. bursaria is flexible. [source]

    Molecular and morphological characterization of the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from the Bahamas

    Niculina Musat
    Summary Marine nematode worms without a mouth or functional gut are found worldwide in intertidal sandflats, deep-sea muds and methane-rich pock marks, and morphological studies show that they are associated with endosymbiotic bacteria. While it has been hypothesized that the symbionts are chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers, to date nothing is known about the phylogeny or function of endosymbionts from marine nematodes. In this study, we characterized the association between bacterial endosymbionts and the marine nematode Astomonema sp. from coral reef sediments in the Bahamas. Phylogenetic analysis of the host based on its 18S rRNA gene showed that Astomonema sp. is most closely related to non-symbiotic nematodes of the families Linhomoeidae and Axonolaimidae and is not closely related to marine stilbonematinid nematodes with ectosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of the symbionts of Astomonema sp. using comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that these are closely related to the stilbonematinid ectosymbionts (95,96% sequence similarity) as well as to the sulfur-oxidizing endosymbionts from gutless marine oligochaetes. The closest free-living relatives of these gammaproteobacterial symbionts are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the family Chromatiaceae. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the bacterial symbionts completely fill the gut lumen of Astomonema sp., suggesting that these are their main source of nutrition. The close phylogenetic relationship of the Astomonema sp. symbionts to known sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as well as the presence of the aprA gene, typically found in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, indicates that the Astomonema sp. symbionts use reduced sulfur compounds as an energy source to provide their hosts with nutrition. [source]

    Detection of bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms from coastal and microcosm environments using electronic microarrays

    Edward A. Barlaan
    Summary With the global expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs), several measures, including molecular approaches, have been undertaken to monitor its occurrence. Many reports have indicated the significant roles of bacteria in controlling algal bloom dynamics. Attempts have been made to utilize the bacteria/harmful algae relationship in HAB monitoring. In this study, bacterial assemblages monitored during coastal HABs and bacterial communities in induced microcosm blooms were investigated. Samples were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene. DGGE bands with peculiar patterns before, during, and after algal blooms were isolated and identified. Probes for six ribotypes representing organisms associated with Chatonella spp., Heterocapsa circularisquama, or Heterosigma akashiwo were used for analysis on NanoChip electronic microarray. In addition, a new approach using cultured bacteria species was developed to detect longer (533 bp) polymerase chain reaction-amplified products on the electronic microarray. The use of fluorescently labelled primers allowed the detection of individual species in single or mixed DNA conditions. The developed approach enabled the detection of the presence or absence and relative abundance of the HAB-related ribotypes in coastal and microcosm blooms. This study indicates the ability of electronic microarray platform to detect or monitor bacteria in natural and induced environments. [source]

    Quantification of microbial communities in near-surface and deeply buried marine sediments on the Peru continental margin using real-time PCR

    Axel Schippers
    Summary Deeply buried marine sediments harbour a large fraction of all prokaryotes on Earth but it is still unknown which phylogenetic and physiological microbial groups dominate the deep biosphere. In this study real-time PCR allowed a comparative quantitative microbial community analysis in near-surface and deeply buried marine sediments from the Peru continental margin. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of prokaryotes and Bacteria were almost identical with a maximum of 108,1010 copies cm,3 in the near-surface sediments. Archaea exhibited one to three orders of magnitude lower 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. The 18S rRNA gene of Eukarya was always at least three orders of magnitude less abundant than the 16S rRNA gene of prokaryotes. The 16S rRNA gene of the Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterial family Geobacteraceae and the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes were abundant with 106,108 copies cm,3 in near-surface sediments but showed lower numbers and an irregular distribution in the deep sediments. The copy numbers of all genes decreased with sediment depth exponentially. The depth gradients were steeper for the gene copy numbers than for numbers of total prokaryotes (acridine orange direct counts), which reflects the ongoing degradation of the high-molecular-weight DNA with sediment age and depth. The occurrence of eukaryotic DNA also suggests DNA preservation in the deeply buried sediments. [source]

    Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated thermophilic crenarchaeotes from a subsurface gold mine as revealed by analysis of genome fragments

    Takuro Nunoura
    Summary Within a phylum Crenarchaeota, only some members of the hyperthermophilic class Thermoprotei, have been cultivated and characterized. In this study, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a microbial mat formation in a subsurface hot water stream of the Hishikari gold mine, Japan, and sequenced genome fragments of two different phylogroups of uncultivated thermophilic Crenarchaeota: (i) hot water crenarchaeotic group (HWCG) I (41.2 kb), and (ii) HWCG III (49.3 kb). The genome fragment of HWCG I contained a 16S rRNA gene, two tRNA genes and 35 genes encoding proteins but no 23S rRNA gene. Among the genes encoding proteins, several genes for putative aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase represented a potential clue with regard to the yet unknown metabolism of HWCG I Archaea. The genome fragment of HWCG III contained a 16S/23S rRNA operon and 44 genes encoding proteins. In the 23S rRNA gene, we detected a homing-endonuclease encoding a group I intron similar to those detected in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and Bacteria, as well as eukaryotic organelles. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based on the 23S rRNA gene sequence reinforced the intermediate phylogenetic affiliation of HWCG III bridging the hyperthermophilic and non-thermophilic uncultivated Crenarchaeota. [source]

    Distribution, phylogenetic diversity and physiological characteristics of epsilon- Proteobacteria in a deep-sea hydrothermal field

    Satoshi Nakagawa
    Summary Epsilon- Proteobacteria is increasingly recognized as an ecologically significant group of bacteria, particularly in deep-sea hydrothermal environments. In this study, we studied the spatial distribution, diversity and physiological characteristics of the epsilon- Proteobacteria in various microbial habitats in the vicinity of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent occurring in the Iheya North field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, by using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. The habitats studied were inside and outside hydrothermal plume, and annelid polychaete tubes. In addition, we deployed colonization devices near the vent emission. The polychaete tubes harboured physiologically and phylogenetically diverse microbial community. The in situ samplers were predominantly colonized by epsilon -Proteobacteria. Energy metabolism of epsilon- Proteobacteria isolates was highly versatile. Tree topology generated from the metabolic traits was significantly different (P = 0.000) from that of 16S rRNA tree, indicating current 16S rRNA gene-based analyses do not provide sufficient information to infer the physiological characteristics of epsilon- Proteobacteria. Nevertheless, culturability of epsilon- Proteobacteria in various microbial habitats differed among the phylogenetic subgroups. Members of Sulfurimonas were characterized by the robust culturability, and the other phylogenetic subgroups appeared to lose culturability in seawater, probably because of the sensitivity to oxygen. These results provide new insight into the ecophysiological characteristics of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent epsilon- Proteobacteria, which has never been assessed by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. [source]

    Selection and identification of bacterial strains with methyl- tert -butyl ether, ethyl- tert -butyl ether, and tert -amyl methyl ether degrading capacities

    Jessica Purswani
    Abstract Nine bacterial strains isolated from two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were selected because of their capacity for growth in culture media amended with 200 mg/L of one of the following gasoline oxygenates: Methyl- tert -butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl- tert -butyl ether (ETBE), and tert -amyl methyl ether (TAME). These strains were identified by amplification of their 16S rRNA gene, using fD1 and rD1 primers, and were tested for their capacity to grow and biotransform these oxygenates in both mineral and cometabolic media. The isolates were classified as Bacillus simplex, Bacillus drentensis, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter sp., Gordonia amicalis (two strains), Nocardioides sp., and Rhodococcus ruber. Arthrobacter sp. (strain MG) and A. calcoaceticus (strain M10) consumed 100 (cometabolic medium) and 82 mg/L (mineral medium) of oxygenate TAME in 21 d, respectively, under aerobic conditions. Rhodococcus ruber (strain E10) was observed to use MTBE and ETBE as the sole carbon and energy source, whereas G. amicalis (strain T3) used TAME as the sole carbon and energy source for growth. All the bacterial strains transformed oxygenates better in the presence of an alternative carbon source (ethanol) with the exception of A. calcoaceticus (strain M10). The capacity of the selected strains to remove MTBE, ETBE, and TAME looks promising for application in bioremediation technologies. [source]

    First laboratory confirmation of Xylophilus ampelinus in Slovenia,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 1 2005
    T. Dreo
    Bacterial blight of grapevine is caused by a slow-growing bacterium Xylophilus ampelinus. It has been suspected to occur in Slovenia on the basis of visual observation of characteristic symptoms in the 1960s. In the present study, symptoms were recorded in an infected vineyard during three consecutive years (2002/2004). Samples from this vineyard were tested by nested-PCR and isolation of bacteria on media was attempted. In the first year, angular lesions on leaves were highly expressed and an isolate morphologically similar to X. ampelinus was obtained from one sample. It was purified and identified as X. ampelinus using biochemical and nutritional tests, fatty acid analysis, immuno-fluorescence, nested PCR and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The 16S rDNA sequence showed 99,100% homology to known sequences of X. ampelinus strains, including the type strain. Pathogenicity of the isolate was confirmed in tissue-cultured and potted grapevine plants. In the following two years, symptoms of bacterial blight were only faintly expressed. Using isolation on media and nested-PCR, 23 and 17 extracts prepared from 10 and 8 grapevines, respectively, were analysed. In 2003, no positive sample was found, but X. ampelinus was again isolated and identified by colony morphology and nested-PCR in 2004. [source]

    Transmission of Ehrlichia risticii, the agent of Potomac horse fever, using naturally infected aquatic insects and helminth vectors: preliminary report

    J. E. Madigan
    Summary Ehrlichia risticii, the agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), has been recently detected in trematode stages found in snail secretions and in aquatic insects. Based on these findings, horses could conceivably be exposed to E. risticii by skin penetration with infected cercariae, by ingestion of infected cercariae in water or via metacercariae in a second intermediate host, such as an aquatic insect. In order to test this hypothesis, horses were challenged with infectious snail secretions and aquatic insects collected from a PHFendemic region in northern California. Two horses stood with their front feet in waterharbouring E. risticii -infected cercariae, 2 horses drank water harbouring E. risticii -infected cercariae, and 6 horses were fed pools of different aquatic insects harbouring E. risticii -infected metacercariae. In this preliminary study, only the one horse infected orally with mature caddisflies (Dicosmoecus gilvipes) developed the clinical and haematological disease syndrome of PHF. The agent was isolated from the blood of the infected horse in a continuous cell line and identified as E. risticii by characterisation of the 16S rRNA gene. Therefore, E. risticii is maintained in nature in a complex aquatic ecosystem and transmission to horses can occur through accidental ingestion of insects such as caddisflies containing infected metacercariae. At present, the small number of horses used in this study does not exclude other insects and free trematode stages as potential sources of infection. [source]

    Identification and characterization of the n -6 fatty acid-producing Mucor rouxii native isolate CFR-G15

    Shivaramu S. Mamatha
    Abstract In zygomycetes fungi, many Mucor spp. have been known to produce ,-linolenic acid (GLA) in their biomass. Among 250 soil samples screened, 20 Mucor isolates showed GLA in their mycelial mass under normal cultivation conditions. Sudan Black,B was used for screening their qualitative oleaginesity. Among the representative isolates, Mucor sp. CFR-G15, when grown in a fat-producing medium, showed a maximum lipid content of 30,,1.32% in its mycelia and 14.42,,0.74% GLA. By using gene-specific primers, the 18S rRNA gene and the ,6,DES gene were amplified by PCR technique. The nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and ,6,DES genes exhibited >98% homology with M.,rouxii ATCC 24905 (accession nos. AF117923 and AF296076, respectively), suggesting taxonomic identity. The native isolate M.,rouxii CFR-G15 reported in this study was found to be promising for the development of an economical process in the industrial production of GLA. [source]

    Bacterial community structure of glacier forefields on siliceous and calcareous bedrock

    A. Lazzaro
    Summary Forefields of retreating glaciers represent unique opportunities to investigate the initial phases of soil formation and microbial interactions with mineral surfaces. An open question concerns the physical and chemical driving-factors affecting the establishment of microbial communities in these young ecosystems. In this study we compared the bacterial community structure of six glacier forefield soils belonging to two contrasting bedrock categories (calcareous and siliceous) through T-RFLP profiling of the 16S rRNA gene. The community profiles were correlated with an array of physical (soil texture, water holding capacity, hours of sunshine, temperature, rainfall and exposure) and chemical (TC, TN, DOC, extractable nutrients and pH) factors using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). A first comparison of the T-RFLP profiles suggested that the degree of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity of these soils was similar, and that community structure was dominated by ubiquitous taxa. CCA showed that both physical (e.g. hours of sunshine or rainfall) and chemical factors (e.g. SO2,4 or PO3,4) played an equal role in shaping the soil bacterial communities. OTUs unique to specific sites appeared to be strongly influenced by the climatic regime and by texture. Overall, the community structure of the six glacial forefields showed no clear dependence on the bedrock categories. [source]

    Identification of Helicobacter pylori and the cagA genotype in gastric biopsies using highly sensitive real-time PCR as a new diagnostic tool

    Shiho Yamazaki
    Abstract The CagA protein is one of the virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori, and two major subtypes of CagA have been observed, the Western and East Asian type. CagA is injected from the bacteria into gastric epithelial cells, undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation, and binds to Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. The East Asian type CagA binds to SHP-2 more strongly than the Western type CagA. Here, we tried to distinguish the CagA type by highly sensitive real-time PCR with the objective of establishing a system to detect H. pylori and CagA subtypes from gastric biopsies. We designed primers and probe sets for Western or East Asian- cagA at Western-specific or East Asian-specific sequence regions, respectively, and H. pylori 16S rRNA. We could detect the H. pylori 16S rRNA gene, Western and East Asian- cagA gene from DNA of gastric biopsies. The sensitivity and specificity for H. pylori infection was 100% in this system. In Thai patients, 87.8% (36/41) were cagA -positive; 26.8% (11/41) were Western- cagA positive and 53.7% (22/41) were East Asian- cagA positive, while 7.3% (3/41) reacted with both types of cagA. These results suggest that this real-time PCR system provides a highly sensitive assessment of CagA type as a new diagnostic tool for the pathogenicity of H. pylori infection. [source]

    Growth of Frankia strains in leaf litter-amended soil and the rhizosphere of a nonactinorhizal plant

    Babur S. Mirza
    Abstract The ability of Frankia strains to grow in the rhizosphere of a nonactinorhizal plant, Betula pendula, in surrounding bulk soil and in soil amended with leaf litter was analyzed 6 weeks after inoculation of pure cultures by in situ hybridization. Growth responses were related to taxonomic position as determined by comparative sequence analysis of nifH gene fragments and of an actinomycetes-specific insertion in Domain III of the 23S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the basic classification of Frankia strains by host infection groups, and allowed a further differentiation of Frankia clusters within the Alnus host infection group. Except for Casuarina -infective Frankia strains, all other strains of the Alnus and the Elaeagnus host infection groups displayed growth in the rhizosphere of B. pendula, and none of them grew in the surrounding bulk soil that was characterized by a very low organic matter content. Only a small number of strains that all belonged to a distinct phylogenetic cluster within the Alnus host infection group grew in soil amended with ground leaf litter from B. pendula. These results demonstrate that saprotrophic growth of frankiae is a common trait for most members of the genus, and the supporting factors for growth (i.e. carbon utilization capabilities) varied with the host infection group and the phylogenetic affiliation of the strains. [source]

    Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus strains isolated from the East China Sea and the East Sea

    Dong Han Choi
    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among 33 Synechococcus strains isolated from the East China Sea (ECS) and the East Sea (ES) were studied based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and 16S,23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Pigment patterns of the culture strains were also examined. Based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequence phylogenies, the Synechococcus isolates were clustered into 10 clades, among which eight were previously identified and two were novel. Half of the culture strains belonged to clade V or VI. All strains that clustered into novel clades exhibited both phycoerythrobilin and phycourobilin. Interestingly, the pigment compositions of isolates belonging to clades V and VI differed from those reported for other oceanic regions. None of the isolates in clade V showed phycourobilin, whereas strains in clade VI exhibited both phycourobilin and phycoerythrobilin, which is in contrast to previous studies. The presence of novel lineages and the different pigment patterns in the ECS and the ES suggests the possibility that some Synechococcus lineages are distributed only in geographically restricted areas and have evolved in these regions. Therefore, further elucidation of the physiological, ecological, and genetic characteristics of the diverse Synechococcus strains is required to understand their spatial and geographical distribution. [source]

    Short-term dynamics of bacterial communities in a tidally affected coastal ecosystem

    Beate Rink
    Abstract Tidal effects on the composition of free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities were studied in a tidal flat ecosystem in the southern North Sea. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S rRNA of Bacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria and the Roseobacter clade was applied. Despite strong tidal variations in the quantity and, depending on the season, also the quality of suspended matter as well as variations in bacterial activity, the bacterial community composition remained rather stable. FISH showed some variations of the community composition, but these were not related to typical tidal situations. Variations were higher during tidal cycles in May and July compared with November. Bacteroidetes, Alpha - and Gammaproteobacteria constituted the majority of the bacterial communities but relative proportions of the different groups varied considerably. On particles, Betaproteobacteria were also detected to substantial proportions. The Roseobacter clade constituted up to 90% of FL but only 30% of PA Alphaproteobacteria. Banding patterns of the Bacteroidetes -specific amplicons, and in particular those targeting the 16S rRNA, revealed tidally induced effects, as several bands appeared or disappeared at distinct events such as slack water or resuspension. Sequencing of prominent bands revealed predominantly phylotypes reported previously from this ecosystem. [source]

    Changes in microbial diversity in industrial wastewater evaporation ponds following artificial salination

    Eitan Ben-Dov
    Abstract The salinity of industrial wastewater evaporation ponds was artificially increased from 3,7% to 12,16% (w/v), in an attempt to reduce the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequent emission of H2S. To investigate the changes in bacterial diversity in general, and SRB in particular, following this salination, two sets of universal primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the functional apsA [adenosine-5,-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase ,-subunit] gene of SRB were used. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum both before and after salination (with 52% and 68%, respectively), whereas Firmicutes was the second most dominant phylum before (39%) and after (19%) salination. Sequences belonging to Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria were also found. Several groups of SRB from Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were also found to inhabit this saline environment. Comparison of bacterial diversity before and after salination of the ponds revealed both a shift in community composition and an increase in microbial diversity following salination. The share of SRB in the 16S rRNA gene was reduced following salination, consistent with the reduction of H2S emissions. However, the community composition, as shown by apsA gene analysis, was not markedly affected. [source]

    Microdiversity of Burkholderiales associated with mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula

    Pierre Offre
    Abstract The genetic diversity of bacterial communities associated with mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula was characterized by two approaches. Firstly, phylogenetic analysis was performed on 164 partial 16S rRNA gene,intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences from operational taxonomic units previously shown to be preferentially associated with mycorrhizal roots. These sequences were distributed into three branches corresponding to Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae and Rubrivivax subgroups. Most sequences were obtained from mycorrhizal roots, indicating the preferential association of the corresponding families with mycorrhizal roots. A second phylogenetic analysis was performed on the partial 16S rRNA gene,IGS sequences of 173 isolates among a large collection of isolates, from mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots, belonging to Comamonadaceae and Oxalobacteraceae on the basis of their positive hybridization with a partial 16S rRNA gene,IGS probe obtained in this study. Sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of 166 isolates to Comamonadaceae and seven to Oxalobacteraceae. Oxalobacteraceae isolates were more abundant in mycorrhizal (five) than in nonmycorrhizal (two) roots, whereas Comamonadaceae isolates were more abundant in nonmycorrhizal (109) than mycorrhizal roots (57). Further analysis of Comamonadaceae isolates by BOX-PCR showed that the genetic structure of culturable populations belonging to this family differed significantly in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots, as indicated by distributions in different BOX types, differences being significantly explained by BOX types only including isolates from mycorrhizal roots. These data are discussed in an ecological context. [source]

    Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria from an extreme hypersaline sediment, Great Salt Lake (Utah)

    Kasper Urup Kjeldsen
    Abstract The diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhabiting the extreme hypersaline sediment (270 g L,1 NaCl) of the northern arm of Great Salt Lake was studied by integrating cultivation and genotypic identification approaches involving PCR-based retrieval of 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes, the latter encoding major subunits of dissimilatory (bi) sulfite reductase. The majority (85%) of dsrAB sequences retrieved directly from the sediment formed a lineage of high (micro) diversity affiliated with the genus Desulfohalobium, while others represented novel lineages within the families Desulfohalobiaceae and Desulfobacteraceae or among Gram-positive SRB. Using the same sediment, SRB enrichment cultures were established in parallel at 100 and at 190 g L,1 NaCl using different electron donors. After 5,6 transfers, dsrAB and 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of these enrichment cultures recovered a SRB community composition congruent with the cultivation-independent profiling of the sediment. Pure culture representatives of the predominant Desulfohalobium -related lineage and of one of the Desulfobacteraceae -affilated lineages were successfully obtained. The growth performance of these isolates and of the enrichment cultures suggests that the sediment SRB community of the northern arm of Great Salt Lake consists of moderate halophiles, which are salt-stressed at the in situ salinity of 27%. [source]